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Quality assurance

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Contents

Preface
Part I. The Body
Part II. Health Care
Part III. Management & Policy
Part IV. Tools and Approaches
Biological Monitoring
Resources
Epidemiology and Statistics
Ergonomics
Occupational Hygiene
Personal Protection
Record Systems and Surveillance
Toxicology
Part V. Psychosocial and Organizational Factors
Part VI. General Hazards
Part VII. The Environment
Part VIII. Accidents and Safety Management
Part IX. Chemicals
Part X. Industries Based on Biological Resources
Part XI. Industries Based on Natural Resources
Part XII. Chemical Industries
Part XIII. Manufacturing Industries
Part XIV. Textile and Apparel Industries
Part XV. Transport Industries
Part XVI. Construction
Part XVII. Services and Trade
Part XVIII. Guides

Biological Monitoring Additional Resources

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Biological Monitoring References

Alcini, D, M Maroni, A Colombi, D Xaiz, and V Foà. 1988. Evaluation of a standardised European method for the determination of cholinesterase activity in plasma and erythrocytes. Med Lavoro 79(1):42-53.

Alessio, L, A Berlin, and V Foà. 1987. Influence factors other than exposure on the levels of biological indicators. In Occupational and Environmental Chemical Hazards, edited by V Foà, FA Emmett, M Maroni, and A Colombi. Chichester: Wiley.

Alessio, L, L Apostoli, L Minoia, and E Sabbioni. 1992. From macro- to micro-doses: Reference values for toxic metals. In Science of the Total Environment, edited by L Alessio, L Apostoli, L Minoia, and E Sabbioni. New York: Elsevier Science.

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). 1997. 1996-1997 Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices. Cincinnati, Ohio: ACGIH.

—. 1995. 1995-1996 Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices. Cincinnati, Ohio: ACGIH.

Augustinsson, KB. 1955. The normal variation of human blood cholinesterase activity. Acta Physiol Scand 35:40-52.

Barquet, A, C Morgade, and CD Pfaffenberger. 1981. Determination of organochlorine pesticides and metabolites in drinking water, human blood, serum and adipose tissue. J Toxicol Environ Health 7:469-479.

Berlin, A, RE Yodaiken, and BA Henman. 1984. Assessment of Toxic Agents at the Workplace. Roles of Ambient and Biological Monitoring. Proceedings of the International Seminar held in Luxembourg, December 8-12. 1980. Lancaster, UK: Martinus Nijhoff.

Bernard, A and R Lauwerys. 1987. General principles for biological monitoring of exposure to chemicals. In Biological Monitoring of Exposure to Chemicals: Organic Compounds, edited by MH Ho and KH Dillon. New York: Wiley.

Brugnone, F, L Perbellini, E Gaffuri, and P Apostoli. 1980. Biomonitoring of industrial solvent exposure of workers’ alveolar air. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 47:245-261.

Bullock, DG, NJ Smith, and TP Whitehead. 1986. External quality assessment of assays of lead in blood. Clin Chem 32:1884-1889.

Canossa, E, G Angiuli, G Garasto, A Buzzoni, and E De Rosa. 1993. Dose indicators in farm workers exposed to mancozeb. Med Lavoro 84(1):42-50.

Catenacci, G, F Barbieri, M Bersani, A Ferioli, D Cottica, and M Maroni. 1993. Biological monitoring of human exposure to atrazine. Toxicol Letters 69:217-222.

Chalermchaikit, T, LJ Felice, and MJ Murphy. 1993. Simultaneous determination of eight anticoagulant rodenticides in blood serum and liver. J Anal Toxicol 17:56-61.

Colosio, C, F Barbieri, M Bersani, H Schlitt, and M Maroni. 1993. Markers of occupational exposure to pentachlorophenol. B Environ Contam Tox 51:820-826.

Commission of the European Communities (CEC). 1983. Biological indicators for the assessment of human exposure to industrial chemicals. In EUR 8676 EN, edited by L Alessio, A Berlin, R Roi, and M Boni. Luxembourg: CEC.

—. 1984. Biological indicators for the assessment of human exposure to industrial chemicals. In EUR 8903 EN, edited by L Alessio, A Berlin, R Roi, and M Boni. Luxembourg: CEC.

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—. 1987. Biological indicators for the assessment of human exposure to industrial chemicals. In EUR 11135 EN, edited by L Alessio, A Berlin, R Roi, and M Boni. Luxembourg: CEC.

—. 1988a. Biological indicators for the assessment of human exposure to industrial chemicals. In EUR 11478 EN, edited by L Alessio, A Berlin, R Roi, and M Boni. Luxembourg: CEC.

—. 1988b. Indicators for Assessing Exposure and Biological Effects of Genotoxic Chemicals. EUR 11642 Luxembourg: CEC.

—. 1989. Biological indicators for the assessment of human exposure to industrial chemicals. In EUR 12174 EN, edited by L Alessio, A Berlin, R Roi, and M Boni. Luxembourg: CEC.

Cranmer, M. 1970. Determination of p-nitrophenol in human urine. B Environ Contam Tox 5:329-332.

Dale, WE, A Curley, and C Cueto. 1966. Hexane extractable chlorinated insecticides in human blood. Life Sci 5:47-54.

Dawson, JA, DF Heath, JA Rose, EM Thain, and JB Ward. 1964. The excretion by humans of the phenol derived in vivo from 2-isopropoxyphenyl-N-methylcarbamate. Bull WHO 30:127-134.

DeBernardis, MJ and WA Wargin. 1982. High performance liquid chromatographic determination of carbaryl and 1 naphtol in biological fluids. J Chromatogr 246:89-94.

Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG). 1996. Maximum Concentrations At the Workplace (MAK) and Biological Tolerance Values (CBAT) for Working Materials. Report No.28.VCH. Weinheim, Germany: Commission for the Investigation of Health Hazards of Chemical Compounds in the Work Area.

—. 1994. List of MAK and BAT Values 1994. Weinheim, Germany: VCH.

Dillon, HK and MH Ho. 1987. Biological monitoring of exposure to organophosphorus pesticides. In Biological Monitoring of Exposure to Chemicals: Organic Compounds, edited by HK Dillon and MH Ho. New York: Wiley.

Draper, WM. 1982. A multiresidue procedure for the determination and confirmation of acidic herbicide residues in human urine. J Agricul Food Chem 30:227-231.

Eadsforth, CV, PC Bragt, and NJ van Sittert. 1988. Human dose-excretion studies with pyrethroid insecticides cypermethrin and alphacypermethrin: Relevance for biological monitoring. Xenobiotica 18:603-614.

Ellman, GL, KD Courtney, V Andres, and RM Featherstone. 1961. A new and rapid colorimetric determination of acetylcholinesterase activity. Biochem Pharmacol 7:88-95.

Gage, JC. 1967. The significance of blood cholinesterase activity measurements. Residue Rev 18:159-167.

Health and Safety Executive (HSE). 1992. Biological Monitoring for Chemical Exposures in the Workplace. Guidance Note EH 56. London: HMSO.

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). 1986. IARC Monographs On the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans - An Updating of (Selected) IARC Monographs from Volumes 1 to 42. Supplement 6: Genetic and related effects; Supplement 7: Overall evaluation of carcinogenicity. Lyon: IARC.

—. 1987. Method for Detecting DNA Damaging Agents in Humans: Applications in Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention. IARC Scientific Publications, No.89, edited by H Bartsch, K Hemminki, and IK O’Neill. Lyon: IARC.

—. 1992. Mechanisms of Carcinogenesis in Risk Identification. IARC Scientific Publications, No.116, edited by H Vainio. Lyon: IARC.

—. 1993. DNA Adducts: Identification and Biological Significance. IARC Scientific Publications, No.125, edited by K Hemminki. Lyon: IARC.

Kolmodin-Hedman, B, A Swensson, and M Akerblom. 1982. Occupational exposure to some synthetic pyrethroids (permethrin and fenvalerate). Arch Toxicol 50:27-33.

Kurttio, P, T Vartiainen, and K Savolainen. 1990. Environmental and biological monitoring of exposure to ethylenebisdithiocarbamate fungicides and ethylenethiourea. Br J Ind Med 47:203-206.

Lauwerys, R and P Hoet. 1993. Industrial Chemical Exposure: Guidelines for Biological Monitoring. Boca Raton: Lewis.

Laws, ERJ. 1991. Diagnosis and treatment of poisoning. In Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology, edited by WJJ Hayes and ERJ Laws. New York: Academic Press.

Lucas, AD, AD Jones, MH Goodrow, and SG Saiz. 1993. Determination of atrazine metabolites in human urine: Development of a biomarker of exposure. Chem Res Toxicol 6:107-116.

Maroni, M, A Ferioli, A Fait, and F Barbieri. 1992. Messa a punto del rischio tossicologico per l’uomo connesso alla produzione ed uso di antiparassitari. Prev Oggi 4:72-133.

Reid, SJ and RR Watts. 1981. A method for the determination of diaklyl phosphate residues in urine. J Anal Toxicol 5.

Richter, E. 1993. Organophosphorus Pesticides: A Multinational Epidemiologic Study. Copenhagen: Occupational Health Programme and WHO Regional Office for Europe.

Shafik, MT, DE Bradway, HR Enos, and AR Yobs. 1973a. Human exposure to organophosphorous pesticides: A modified procedure for the gas-liquid chromatographic analysis of the alkyl phosphate metabolites in urine. J Agricul Food Chem 21:625-629.

Shafik, MT, HC Sullivan, and HR Enos. 1973b. Multiresidue procedure for halo- and nitrophenols: Measurements of exposure to biodegradable pesticides yielding these compounds as metabolites. J Agricul Food Chem 21:295-298.

Summers, LA. 1980. The Bipyridylium Herbicides. London: Academic Press.

Tordoir, WF, M Maroni, and F He. 1994. Health surveillance of pesticide workers: A manual for occupational health professionals. Toxicology 91.

US Office of Technology Assessment. 1990. Genetic Monitoring and Screening in the Workplace. OTA-BA-455. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.

van Sittert, NJ and EP Dumas. 1990. Field study on exposure and health effects of an organophosphate pesticide for maintaining registration in the Philippines. Med Lavoro 81:463-473.

van Sittert, NJ and WF Tordoir. 1987. Aldrin and dieldrin. In Biological Indicators for the Assessment of Human Exposure to Industrial Chemicals, edited by L Alessio, A Berlin, M Boni, and R Roi. Luxembourg: CEC.

Verberk, MM, DH Brouwer, EJ Brouer, and DP Bruyzeel. 1990. Health effects of pesticides in the flower-bulb culture in Holland. Med Lavoro 81(6):530-541.

Westgard, JO, PL Barry, MR Hunt, and T Groth. 1981. A multirule Shewhart chart for quality control in clinical chemistry. Clin Chem 27:493-501.

Whitehead, TP. 1977. Quality Control in Clinical Chemistry. New York: Wiley.

World Health Organization (WHO). 1981. External Quality Assessment of Health Laboratories. EURO Reports and Studies 36. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe.

—. 1982a. Field Survey of Exposure to Pesticides, Standard Protocol. Document. No. VBC/82.1 Geneva: WHO.

—. 1982b. Recommended Health-Based Limits in Occupational Exposure to Pesticides. Technical Report Series, No.677. Geneva: WHO.

—. 1994. Guidelines in Biological Monitoring of Chemical Exposure at the Workplace. Vol. 1. Geneva: WHO.