" DISCLAIMER: The ILO does not take responsibility for content presented on this web portal that is presented in any language other than English, which is the language used for the initial production and peer-review of original content. Certain statistics have not been updated since the production of the 4th edition of the Encyclopaedia (1998)."

Sunday, 16 January 2011 19:43

Appendix: Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans: IARC Monographs Volumes 1-69 (836)

Written by
Rate this item
(0 votes)

Group 1—Carcinogenic to Humans (74)

Agents and groups of agents

Aflatoxins [1402-68-2] (1993)

4-Aminobiphenyl [92-67-1]

Arsenic [7440-38-2] and arsenic compounds2

Asbestos [1332-21-4]

Azathioprine [446-86-6]

Benzene [71-43-2]

Benzidine [92-87-5]

Beryllium [7440-41-7] and beryllium compounds (1993)3

Bis(2-chloroethyl)-2-naphthylamine (Chlornaphazine)[494-03-1]

Bis(chloromethyl)ether [542-88-1] and chloromethyl methyl ether [107-30-2] (technical-grade)

1,4-Butanediol dimethanesulphonate (Myleran) [55-98-1]

Cadmium [7440-43-9] and cadmium compounds (1993)3

Chlorambucil [305-03-3]

1-(2-Chloroethyl)-3-(4-methylcyclohexyl)-1-nitrosourea (Methyl-CCNU; Semustine) [13909-09-6]

Chromium[VI] compounds (1990)3

Ciclosporin [79217-60-0] (1990)

Cyclophosphamide [50-18-0] [6055-19-2]

Diethylstilboestrol [56-53-1]

Erionite [66733-21-9]

Ethylene oxide4 [75-21-8] (1994)

Helicobacter pylori (infection with) (1994)

Hepatitis B virus (chronic infection with) (1993)

Hepatitis C virus (chronic infection with) (1993)

Human papillomavirus type 16 (1995)

Human papillomavirus type 18 (1995)

Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (1996)

Melphalan [148-82-3]

8-Methoxypsoralen (Methoxsalen) [298-81-7] plus ultraviolet A radiation

MOPP and other combined chemotherapy including alkylating agents

Mustard gas (Sulphur mustard) [505-60-2]

2-Naphthylamine [91-59-8]

Nickel compounds (1990)3

Oestrogen replacement therapy

Oestrogens, nonsteroidal2

Oestrogens, steroidal2

Opisthorchis viverrini (infection with) (1994)

Oral contraceptives, combined5

Oral contraceptives, sequential

Radon [10043-92-2] and its decay products (1988)

Schistosoma haematobium (infection with) (1994)

Silica [14808-60-7] crystalline (inhaled in the form of quartz or cristobalite from occupational sources)

Solar radiation (1992)

Talc containing asbestiform fibres

Tamoxifen [10540-29-1]6

Thiotepa [52-24-4] (1990)

Treosulphan [299-75-2]

Vinyl chloride [75-01-4]


Alcoholic beverages (1988)

Analgesic mixtures containing phenacetin

Betel quid with tobacco

Coal-tar pitches [65996-93-2]

Coal-tars [8007-45-2]

Mineral oils, untreated and mildly treated

Salted fish (Chinese-style) (1993)

Shale oils [68308-34-9]


Tobacco products, smokeless

Tobacco smoke

Wood dust

Exposure circumstances

Aluminium production

Auramine, manufacture of

Boot and shoe manufacture and repair

Coal gasification

Coke production

Furniture and cabinet making

Haematite mining (underground) with exposure to radon

Iron and steel founding

Isopropanol manufacture (strong-acid process)

Magenta, manufacture of (1993)

Painter (occupational exposure as a) (1989)

Rubber industry

Strong-inorganic-acid mists containing sulphuric acid (occupational exposure to) (1992)

Group 2A—Probably carcinogenic to humans (56)

Agents and groups of agents

Acrylamide [79-06-1] (1994)8

Acrylonitrile [107-13-1]

Adriamycin8 [23214-92-8]

Androgenic (anabolic) steroids

Azacitidine8 [320-67-2] (1990)

Benz[a]anthracene8 [56-55-3]

Benzidine-based dyes8

Benzo[a]pyrene8 [50-32-8]

Bischloroethyl nitrosourea (BCNU) [154-93-8]

1,3-Butadiene [106-99-0] (1992)

Captafol [2425-06-1] (1991)

Chloramphenicol [56-75-7] (1990)

1-(2-Chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea8 (CCNU)[13010-47-4]

p-Chloro-o-toluidine [95-69-2] and its strong acid salts (1990)3

Chlorozotocin8 [54749-90-5] (1990)

Cisplatin8 [15663-27-1]

Clonorchis sinensis (infection with)8 (1994)

Dibenz[a,h]anthracene8 [53-70-3]

Diethyl sulphate [64-67-5] (1992)

Dimethylcarbamoyl chloride8 [79-44-7]

Dimethyl sulphate8 [77-78-1]

Epichlorohydrin8 [106-89-8]

Ethylene dibromide8 [106-93-4]

N-Ethyl-N-nitrosourea8 [759-73-9]

Formaldehyde [50-00-0])

IQ8 (2-Amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline) [76180-96-6] (1993)

5-Methoxypsoralen8 [484-20-8]

4,4´-Methylene bis(2-chloroaniline) (MOCA)8 [101-14-4] (1993)

N-Methyl-N´-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine8 (MNNG) [70-25-7]

N-Methyl-N-nitrosourea8 [684-93-5]

Nitrogen mustard [51-75-2]

N-Nitrosodiethylamine8 [55-18-5]

N-Nitrosodimethylamine 8 [62-75-9]

Phenacetin [62-44-2]

Procarbazine hydrochloride8 [366-70-1]

Tetrachloroethylene [127-18-4]

Trichloroethylene [79-01-6]

Styrene-7,8-oxide8 [96-09-3] (1994)

Tris(2,3-dibromopropyl)phosphate8 [126-72-7]

Ultraviolet radiation A8 (1992)

Ultraviolet radiation B8 (1992)

Ultraviolet radiation C8 (1992)

Vinyl bromide6 [593-60-2]

Vinyl fluoride [75-02-5]


Creosotes [8001-58-9]

Diesel engine exhaust (1989)

Hot mate (1991)

Non-arsenical insecticides (occupational exposures in spraying and application of) (1991)

Polychlorinated biphenyls [1336-36-3]

Exposure circumstances

Art glass, glass containers and pressed ware (manufacture of) (1993)

Hairdresser or barber (occupational exposure as a) (1993)

Petroleum refining (occupational exposures in) (1989)

Sunlamps and sunbeds (use of) (1992)

Group 2B—Possibly carcinogenic to humans (225)

Agents and groups of agents

A–α–C (2-Amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole) [26148-68-5]

Acetaldehyde [75-07-0]

Acetamide [60-35-5]

AF-2 [2-(2-Furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl)acrylamide] [3688-53-7]

Aflatoxin M1 [6795-23-9] (1993)

p-Aminoazobenzene [60-09-3]

o-Aminoazotoluene [97-56-3]

2-Amino-5-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazole [712-68-5]

Amitrole [61-82-5]

o-Anisidine [90-04-0]

Antimony trioxide [1309-64-4] (1989)

Aramite [140-57-8]

Atrazine9 [1912-24-9] (1991)

Auramine [492-80-8] (technical-grade)

Azaserine [115-02-6]

Benzo[b]fluoranthene [205-99-2]

Benzo[j]fluoranthene [205-82-3]

Benzo[k]fluoranthene [207-08-9]

Benzyl violet 4B [1694-09-3]

Bleomycins [11056-06-7]

Bracken fern

Bromodichloromethane [75-27-4] (1991)

Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) [25013-16-5]

β-Butyrolactone [3068-88-0]

Caffeic acid [331-39-5] (1993)

Carbon-black extracts

Carbon tetrachloride [56-23-5]

Ceramic fibres

Chlordane [57-74-9] (1991)

Chlordecone (Kepone) [143-50-0]

Chlorendic acid [115-28-6] (1990)

α-Chlorinated toluenes (benzyl chloride, benzal chloride,benzotrichloride)

p-Chloroaniline [106-47-8] (1993)

Chloroform [67-66-3]

1-Chloro-2-methylpropene [513-37-1]


Chlorophenoxy herbicides

4-Chloro-o-phenylenediamine [95-83-0]

CI Acid Red 114 [6459-94-5] (1993)

CI Basic Red 9 [569-61-9] (1993)

CI Direct Blue 15 [2429-74-5] (1993)

Citrus Red No. 2 [6358-53-8]

Cobalt [7440-48-4] and cobalt compounds3 (1991)

p-Cresidine [120-71-8]

Cycasin [14901-08-7]

Dacarbazine [4342-03-4]

Dantron (Chrysazin; 1,8-Dihydroxyanthraquinone) [117-10-2] (1990)

Daunomycin [20830-81-3]

DDT´-DDT, 50-29-3] (1991)

N,N´-Diacetylbenzidine [613-35-4]

2,4-Diaminoanisole [615-05-4]

4,4´-Diaminodiphenyl ether [101-80-4]

2,4-Diaminotoluene [95-80-7]

Dibenz[a,h]acridine [226-36-8]

Dibenz[a,j]acridine [224-42-0]

7H-Dibenzo[c,g]carbazole [194-59-2]

Dibenzo[a,e]pyrene [192-65-4]

Dibenzo[a,h]pyrene [189-64-0]

Dibenzo[a,i]pyrene [189-55-9]

Dibenzo[a,l]pyrene [191-30-0]

1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane [96-12-8]

p-Dichlorobenzene [106-46-7]

3,3´-Dichlorobenzidine [91-94-1]

3,3´-Dichloro-4,4´-diaminodiphenyl ether [28434-86-8]

1,2-Dichloroethane [107-06-2]

Dichloromethane (methylene chloride) [75-09-2]

1,3-Dichloropropene [542-75-6] (technical grade)

Dichlorvos [62-73-7] (1991)

Diepoxybutane [1464-53-5]

Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate [117-81-7]

1,2-Diethylhydrazine [1615-80-1]

Diglycidyl resorcinol ether [101-90-6]

Dihydrosafrole [94-58-6]

Diisopropyl sulphate [2973-10-6] (1992)

3,3´-Dimethoxybenzidine (o-Dianisidine) [119-90-4]

p-Dimethylaminoazobenzene [60-11-7]

trans-2-[(Dimethylamino)methylimino]-5-[2-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-vinyl]-1,3,4-oxadiazole [25962-77-0]

2,6-Dimethylaniline (2,6-xylidine) [87-62-7] (1993)

3,3´-Dimethylbenzidine (o-tolidine) [119-93-7]

Dimethylformamide [68-12-2] (1989)

1,1-Dimethylhydrazine [57-14-7]

1,2-Dimethylhydrazine [540-73-8]

3,7-Dinitrofluoranthene [105735-71-5]

3,9-Dinitrofluoranthene [22506-53-2]

1,6-Dinitropyrene [42397-64-8] (1989)

1,8-Dinitropyrene [42397-65-9] (1989)

2,4-Dinitrotoluene [121-14-2]

2,6-Dinitrotoluene [606-20-2]

1,4-Dioxane [123-91-1]

Disperse Blue 1 [2475-45-8] (1990)

Ethyl acrylate [140-88-5]

Ethylene thiourea [96-45-7]

Ethyl methanesulphonate [62-50-0]

2-(2-Formylhydrazino)-4-(5-nitro-2-furyl)thiazole [3570-75-0]

Glass wool (1988)

Glu-P-1 (2-amino-6-methyldipyrido[1,2-a:3´,2´-d]imidazole)[67730-11-4]

Glu-P-2 (2-aminodipyrido[1,2-a:3´,2´-d]imidazole) [67730-10-3]

Glycidaldehyde [765-34-4]

Griseofulvin [126-07-8]

HC Blue No. 1 [2784-94-3] (1993)

Heptachlor [76-44-8] (1991)

Hexachlorobenzene [118-74-1]


Hexamethylphosphoramide [680-31-9]

Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (infection with) (1996)

Human papillomaviruses: some types other than 16, 18, 31 and 33 (1995)

Hydrazine [302-01-2]

Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene [193-39-5]

Iron-dextran complex [9004-66-4]

Isoprene [78-79-5] (1994)

Lasiocarpine [303-34-4]

Lead [7439-92-1] and lead compounds, inorganic3

Magenta [632-99-5] (containing CI Basic Red 9) (1993)

MeA-α-C (2-Amino-3-methyl-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole)[68006-83-7]

Medroxyprogesterone acetate [71-58-9]

MeIQ (2-Amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline)[77094-11-2] (1993)

MeIQx (2-Amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline) [77500-04-0] (1993)

Merphalan [531-76-0]

2-Methylaziridine (propyleneimine) [75-55-8]

Methylazoxymethanol acetate [592-62-1]

5-Methylchrysene [3697-24-3]

4,4´-Methylene bis(2-methylaniline) [838-88-0]

4,4´-Methylenedianiline [101-77-9]

Methylmercury compounds (1993)3

Methyl methanesulphonate [66-27-3]

2-Methyl-1-nitroanthraquinone [129-15-7] (uncertain purity)

N-Methyl-N-nitrosourethane [615-53-2]

Methylthiouracil [56-04-2]

Metronidazole [443-48-1]

Mirex [2385-85-5]

Mitomycin C [50-07-7]

Monocrotaline [315-22-0]

5-(Morpholinomethyl)-3-[(5-nitrofurfurylidene)amino]-2-oxazolidinone [3795-88-8]

Nafenopin [3771-19-5]

Nickel, metallic [7440-02-0] (1990)

Niridazole [61-57-4]

Nitrilotriacetic acid [139-13-9] and its salts (1990)3

5-Nitroacenaphthene [602-87-9]

2-Nitroanisole [91-23-6] (1996)

Nitrobenzene [98-95-3] (1996)

6-Nitrochrysene [7496-02-8] (1989)

Nitrofen [1836-75-5], technical-grade

2-Nitrofluorene [607-57-8] (1989)

1-[(5-Nitrofurfurylidene)amino]-2-imidazolidinone [555-84-0]

N-[4-(5-Nitro-2-furyl)-2-thiazolyl]acetamide [531-82-8]

Nitrogen mustard N-oxide [126-85-2]

2-Nitropropane [79-46-9]

1-Nitropyrene [5522-43-0] (1989)

4-Nitropyrene [57835-92-4] (1989)

N-Nitrosodi-n-butylamine [924-16-3]

N-Nitrosodiethanolamine [1116-54-7]

N-Nitrosodi-n-propylamine [621-64-7]

3-(N-Nitrosomethylamino)propionitrile [60153-49-3]

4-(N-Nitrosomethylamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) [64091-91-4]

N-Nitrosomethylethylamine [10595-95-6]

N-Nitrosomethylvinylamine [4549-40-0]

N-Nitrosomorpholine [59-89-2]

N‘-Nitrosonornicotine [16543-55-8]

N-Nitrosopiperidine [100-75-4]

N-Nitrosopyrrolidine [930-55-2]

N-Nitrososarcosine [13256-22-9]

Ochratoxin A [303-47-9] (1993)

Oil Orange SS [2646-17-5]

Oxazepam [604-75-1] (1996)

Palygorskite (attapulgite) [12174-11-7] (long fibres, >>5 micro-meters) (1997)

Panfuran S (containing dihydroxymethylfuratrizine [794-93-4])

Pentachlorophenol [87-86-5] (1991)

Phenazopyridine hydrochloride [136-40-3]

Phenobarbital [50-06-6]

Phenoxybenzamine hydrochloride [63-92-3]

Phenyl glycidyl ether [122-60-1] (1989)

Phenytoin [57-41-0]

PhIP (2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine) [105650-23-5] (1993)

Ponceau MX [3761-53-3]

Ponceau 3R [3564-09-8]

Potassium bromate [7758-01-2]


1,3-Propane sultone [1120-71-4]

β-Propiolactone [57-57-8]

Propylene oxide [75-56-9] (1994)

Propylthiouracil [51-52-5]

Rockwool (1988)

Saccharin [81-07-2]

Safrole [94-59-7]

Schistosoma japonicum (infection with) (1994)

Slagwool (1988)

Sodium o-phenylphenate [132-27-4]

Sterigmatocystin [10048-13-2]

Streptozotocin [18883-66-4]

Styrene [100-42-5] (1994)

Sulfallate [95-06-7]

Tetranitromethane [509-14-8] (1996)

Thioacetamide [62-55-5]

4,4´-Thiodianiline [139-65-1]

Thiourea [62-56-6]

Toluene diisocyanates [26471-62-5]

o-Toluidine [95-53-4]

Trichlormethine (Trimustine hydrochloride) [817-09-4] (1990)

Trp-P-1 (3-Amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole) [62450-06-0]

Trp-P-2 (3-Amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole) [62450-07-1]

Trypan blue [72-57-1]

Uracil mustard [66-75-1]

Urethane [51-79-6]

Vinyl acetate [108-05-4] (1995)

4-Vinylcyclohexene [100-40-3] (1994)

4-Vinylcyclohexene diepoxide [107-87-6] (1994)


Bitumens [8052-42-4], extracts of steam-refined and air-refined

Carrageenan [9000-07-1], degraded

Chlorinated paraffins of average carbon chain length C12 and average degree of chlorination approximately 60% (1990)

Coffee (urinary bladder)9 (1991)

Diesel fuel, marine (1989)

Engine exhaust, gasoline (1989)

Fuel oils, residual (heavy) (1989)

Gasoline (1989)

Pickled vegetables (traditional in Asia) (1993)

Polybrominated biphenyls [Firemaster BP-6, 59536-65-1]

Toxaphene (Polychlorinated camphenes) [8001-35-2]

Toxins derived from Fusarium moniliforme (1993)

Welding fumes (1990)

Exposure circumstances

Carpentry and joinery

Dry cleaning (occupational exposures in) (1995)

Printing processes (occupational exposures in) (1996)

Textile manufacturing industry (work in) (1990)

Group 3—Unclassifiable as to carcinogenicity to humans (480)

Agents and groups of agents

Acridine orange [494-38-2]

Acriflavinium chloride [8018-07-3]

Acrolein [107-02-8]

Acrylic acid [79-10-7]

Acrylic fibres

Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymers

Actinomycin D [50-76-0]

Aldicarb [116-06-3] (1991)

Aldrin [309-00-2]

Allyl chloride [107-05-1]

Allyl isothiocyanate [57-06-7]

Allyl isovalerate [2835-39-4]

Amaranth [915-67-3]

5-Aminoacenaphthene [4657-93-6]

2-Aminoanthraquinone [117-79-3]

p-Aminobenzoic acid [150-13-0]

1-Amino-2-methylanthraquinone [82-28-0]

2-Amino-4-nitrophenol [99-57-0] (1993)

2-Amino-5-nitrophenol [121-88-0] (1993)

4-Amino-2-nitrophenol [119-34-6]

2-Amino-5-nitrothiazole [121-66-4]

11-Aminoundecanoic acid [2432-99-7]

Ampicillin [69-53-4] (1990)

Anaesthetics, volatile

Angelicin [523-50-2] plus ultraviolet A radiation

Aniline [62-53-3]

p-Anisidine [104-94-9]

Anthanthrene [191-26-4]

Anthracene [120-12-7]

Anthranilic acid [118-92-3]

Antimony trisulphide [1345-04-6] (1989)

Apholate [52-46-0]

p-Aramid fibrils [24938-64-5] (1997)

Aurothioglucose [12192-57-3]

Aziridine [151-56-4]

2-(1-Aziridinyl)ethanol [1072-52-2]

Aziridyl benzoquinone [800-24-8]

Azobenzene [103-33-3]

Benz[a]acridine [225-11-6]

Benz[c]acridine [225-51-4]

Benzo[ghi]fluoranthene [203-12-3]

Benzo[a]fluorene [238-84-6]

Benzo[b]fluorene [243-17-4]

Benzo[c]fluorene [205-12-9]

Benzo[ghi]perylene [191-24-2]

Benzo[c]phenanthrene [195-19-7]

Benzo[e]pyrene [192-97-2]

p-Benzoquinone dioxime [105-11-3]

Benzoyl chloride [98-88-4]

Benzoyl peroxide [94-36-0]

Benzyl acetate [140-11-4]

Bis(1-aziridinyl)morpholinophosphine sulphide [2168-68-5]

Bis(2-chloroethyl)ether [111-44-4]

1,2-Bis(chloromethoxy)ethane [13483-18-6]

1,4-Bis(chloromethoxymethyl)benzene [56894-91-8]

Bis(2-chloro-1-methylethyl)ether [108-60-1]

Bis(2,3-epoxycyclopentyl)ether [2386-90-5] (1989)

Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether [1675-54-3] (1989)

Bisulphites (1992)

Blue VRS [129-17-9]

Brilliant Blue FCF, disodium salt [3844-45-9]

Bromochloroacetonitrile [83463-62-1] (1991)

Bromoethane [74-96-4] (1991)

Bromoform [75-25-2] (1991)

n-Butyl acrylate [141-32-2]

Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) [128-37-0]

Butyl benzyl phthalate [85-68-7]

γ-Butyrolactone [96-48-0]

Caffeine [58-08-2] (1991)

Cantharidin [56-25-7]

Captan [133-06-2]

Carbaryl [63-25-2]

Carbazole [86-74-8]

3-Carbethoxypsoralen [20073-24-9]

Carmoisine [3567-69-9]

Carrageenan [9000-07-1], native

Catechol [120-80-9]

Chloral [75-87-6] (1995)

Chloral hydrate [302-17-0] (1995)

Chlordimeform [6164-98-3]

Chlorinated dibenzodioxins (other than TCDD)

Chlorinated drinking-water (1991)

Chloroacetonitrile [107-14-2] (1991)

Chlorobenzilate [510-15-6]

Chlorodibromomethane [124-48-1] (1991)

Chlorodifluoromethane [75-45-6]

Chloroethane [75-00-3] (1991)

Chlorofluoromethane [593-70-4]

3-Chloro-2-methylpropene [563-47-3] (1995)

4-Chloro-m-phenylenediamine [5131-60-2]

Chloronitrobenzenes [88-73-3; 121-73-3; 100-00-5] (1996)

Chloroprene [126-99-8]

Chloropropham [101-21-3]

Chloroquine [54-05-7]

Chlorothalonil [1897-45-6]

2-Chloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane [75-88-7]

Cholesterol [57-88-5]

Chromium[III] compounds (1990)

Chromium [7440-47-3], metallic (1990)

Chrysene [218-01-9]

Chrysoidine [532-82-1]

CI Acid Orange 3 [6373-74-6] (1993)

Cimetidine [51481-61-9] (1990)

Cinnamyl anthranilate [87-29-6]

CI Pigment Red 3 [2425-85-6] (1993)

Citrinin [518-75-2]

Clofibrate [637-07-0]

Clomiphene citrate [50-41-9]

Coal dust (1997)

Copper 8-hydroxyquinoline [10380-28-6]

Coronene [191-07-1]

Coumarin [91-64-5]

m-Cresidine [102-50-1]

Crotonaldehyde [4170-30-3] (1995)

Cyclamates [sodium cyclamate, 139-05-9]

Cyclochlorotine [12663-46-6]

Cyclohexanone [108-94-1] (1989)

Cyclopenta[cd]pyrene [27208-37-3]

D & C Red No. 9 [5160-02-1] (1993)

Dapsone [80-08-0]

Decabromodiphenyl oxide [1163-19-5] (1990)

Deltamethrin [52918-63-5] (1991)

Diacetylaminoazotoluene [83-63-6]

Diallate [2303-16-4]

1,2-Diamino-4-nitrobenzene [99-56-9]

1,4-Diamino-2-nitrobenzene [5307-14-2] (1993)

2,5-Diaminotoluene [95-70-5]

Diazepam [439-14-5]

Diazomethane [334-88-3]

Dibenz[a,c]anthracene [215-58-7]

Dibenz[a,j]anthracene [224-41-9]

Dibenzo-p-dioxin (1997)

Dibenzo[a,e]fluoranthene [5385-75-1]

Dibenzo[h,rst]pentaphene [192-47-2]

Dibromoacetonitrile [3252-43-5] (1991)

Dichloroacetic acid [79-43-6] (1995)

Dichloroacetonitrile [3018-12-0] (1991)

Dichloroacetylene [7572-29-4]

o-Dichlorobenzene [95-50-1]

trans-1,4-Dichlorobutene [110-57-6]

2,6-Dichloro-para-phenylenediamine [609-20-1]

1,2-Dichloropropane [78-87-5]

Dicofol [115-32-2]

Dieldrin [60-57-1]

Di(2-ethylhexyl)adipate [103-23-1]

Dihydroxymethylfuratrizine [794-93-4]

Dimethoxane [828-00-2]

3,3´-Dimethoxybenzidine-4,4´-diisocyanate [91-93-0]

p-Dimethylaminoazobenzenediazo sodium sulphonate[140-56-7]

4,4´-Dimethylangelicin [22975-76-4] plus ultraviolet Aradiation

4,5´-Dimethylangelicin [4063-41-6] plus ultraviolet A

N,N-Dimethylaniline [121-69-7] (1993)

Dimethyl hydrogen phosphite [868-85-9] (1990)

1,4-Dimethylphenanthrene [22349-59-3]

1,3-Dinitropyrene [75321-20-9] (1989)

Dinitrosopentamethylenetetramine [101-25-7]

2,4´-Diphenyldiamine [492-17-1]

Disperse Yellow 3 [2832-40-8] (1990)

Disulfiram [97-77-8]

Dithranol [1143-38-0]

Doxefazepam [40762-15-0] (1996)

Droloxifene [82413-20-5] (1996)

Dulcin [150-69-6]

Endrin [72-20-8]

Eosin [15086-94-9]

1,2-Epoxybutane [106-88-7] (1989)

3,4-Epoxy-6-methylcyclohexylmethyl-3,4-epoxy-6-methylcyclohexane carboxylate [141-37-7]

cis-9,10-Epoxystearic acid [2443-39-2]

Estazolam [29975-16-4] (1996)

Ethionamide [536-33-4]

Ethylene [74-85-1] (1994)

Ethylene sulphide [420-12-2]

2-Ethylhexyl acrylate [103-11-7] (1994)

Ethyl selenac [5456-28-0]

Ethyl tellurac [20941-65-5]

Eugenol [97-53-0]

Evans blue [314-13-6]

Fast Green FCF [2353-45-9]

Fenvalerate [51630-58-1] (1991)

Ferbam [14484-64-1]

Ferric oxide [1309-37-1]

Fluometuron [2164-17-2]

Fluoranthene [206-44-0]

Fluorene [86-73-7]

Fluorescent lighting (1992)

Fluorides (inorganic, used in drinking-water)

5-Fluorouracil [51-21-8]

Furazolidone [67-45-8]

Furfural [98-01-1] (1995)

Furosemide (Frusemide) [54-31-9] (1990)

Gemfibrozil [25812-30-0] (1996)

Glass filaments (1988)

Glycidyl oleate [5431-33-4]

Glycidyl stearate [7460-84-6]

Guinea Green B [4680-78-8]

Gyromitrin [16568-02-8]

Haematite [1317-60-8]

HC Blue No. 2 [33229-34-4] (1993)

HC Red No. 3 [2871-01-4] (1993)

HC Yellow No. 4 [59820-43-8] (1993)

Hepatitis D virus (1993)

Hexachlorobutadiene [87-68-3]

Hexachloroethane [67-72-1]

Hexachlorophene [70-30-4]

Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type II (1996)

Hycanthone mesylate [23255-93-8]

Hydralazine [86-54-4]

Hydrochloric acid [7647-01-0] (1992)

Hydrochlorothiazide [58-93-5] (1990)

Hydrogen peroxide [7722-84-1]

Hydroquinone [123-31-9]

4-Hydroxyazobenzene [1689-82-3]

8-Hydroxyquinoline [148-24-3]

Hydroxysenkirkine [26782-43-4]

Hypochlorite salts (1991)

Iron-dextrin complex [9004-51-7]

Iron sorbitol-citric acid complex [1338-16-5]

Isatidine [15503-86-3]

Isonicotinic acid hydrazide (Isoniazid) [54-85-3]

Isophosphamide [3778-73-2]

Isopropanol [67-63-0]

Isopropyl oils

Isosafrole [120-58-1]

Jacobine [6870-67-3]

Kaempferol [520-18-3]

Lauroyl peroxide [105-74-8]

Lead, organo [75-74-1], [78-00-2]

Light Green SF [5141-20-8]

d-Limonene [5989-27-5] (1993)

Luteoskyrin [21884-44-6]

Malathion [121-75-5]

Maleic hydrazide [123-33-1]

Malonaldehyde [542-78-9]

Maneb [12427-38-2]

Mannomustine dihydrochloride [551-74-6]

Medphalan [13045-94-8]

Melamine [108-78-1]

6-Mercaptopurine [50-44-2]

Mercury [7439-97-6] and inorganic mercury compounds (1993)

Metabisulphites (1992)

Methotrexate [59-05-2]

Methoxychlor [72-43-5]

Methyl acrylate [96-33-3]

5-Methylangelicin [73459-03-7] plus ultraviolet A radiation

Methyl bromide [74-83-9]

Methyl carbamate [598-55-0]

Methyl chloride [74-87-3]

1-Methylchrysene [3351-28-8]

2-Methylchrysene [3351-32-4]

3-Methylchrysene [3351-31-3]

4-Methylchrysene [3351-30-2]

6-Methylchrysene [1705-85-7]

N-Methyl-N,4-dinitrosoaniline [99-80-9]

4,4´-Methylenebis(N,N-dimethyl)benzenamine [101-61-1]

4,4´-Methylenediphenyl diisocyanate [101-68-8]

2-Methylfluoranthene [33543-31-6]

3-Methylfluoranthene [1706-01-0]

Methylglyoxal [78-98-8] (1991)

Methyl iodide [74-88-4]

Methyl methacrylate [80-62-6] (1994)

N-Methylolacrylamide [90456-67-0] (1994)

Methyl parathion [298-00-0]

1-Methylphenanthrene [832-69-9]

7-Methylpyrido[3,4-c]psoralen [85878-62-2]

Methyl red [493-52-7]

Methyl selenac [144-34-3]

Modacrylic fibres

Monuron [150-68-5] (1991)

Morpholine [110-91-8] (1989)

Musk ambrette [83-66-9] (1996)

Musk xylene [81-15-2] (1996)

1,5-Naphthalenediamine [2243-62-1]

1,5-Naphthalene diisocyanate [3173-72-6]

1-Naphthylamine [134-32-7]

1-Naphthylthiourea (ANTU) [86-88-4]

Nithiazide [139-94-6]

5-Nitro-o-anisidine [99-59-2]

9-Nitroanthracene [602-60-8]

7-Nitrobenz[a]anthracene [20268-51-3] (1989

6-Nitrobenzo[a]pyrene [63041-90-7] (1989)

4-Nitrobiphenyl [92-93-3]

3-Nitrofluoranthene [892-21-7]

Nitrofural (Nitrofurazone) [59-87-0] (1990)

Nitrofurantoin [67-20-9] (1990)

1-Nitronaphthalene [86-57-7] (1989)

2-Nitronaphthalene [581-89-5] (1989)

3-Nitroperylene [20589-63-3] (1989)

2-Nitropyrene [789-07-1] (1989)

N´-Nitrosoanabasine [37620-20-5]

N-Nitrosoanatabine [71267-22-6]

N-Nitrosodiphenylamine [86-30-6]

p-Nitrosodiphenylamine [156-10-5]

N-Nitrosofolic acid [29291-35-8]

N-Nitrosoguvacine [55557-01-2]

N-Nitrosoguvacoline [55557-02-3]

N-Nitrosohydroxyproline [30310-80-6]

3-(N-Nitrosomethylamino)propionaldehyde [85502-23-4]

4-(N-Nitrosomethylamino)-4-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanal (NNA) [64091-90-3]

N-Nitrosoproline [7519-36-0]

5-Nitro-o-toluidine [99-55-8] (1990)

Nitrovin [804-36-4]

Nylon 6 [25038-54-4]

Oestradiol mustard [22966-79-6]

Oestrogen-progestin replacement therapy

Opisthorchis felineus (infection with) (1994)

Orange I [523-44-4]

Orange G [1936-15-8]

Oxyphenbutazone [129-20-4]

Palygorskite (attapulgite) [12174-11-7] (short fibres, <<5 micro-meters) (1997)

Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) [103-90-2] (1990)

Parasorbic acid [10048-32-5]

Parathion [56-38-2]

Patulin [149-29-1]

Penicillic acid [90-65-3]

Pentachloroethane [76-01-7]

Permethrin [52645-53-1] (1991)

Perylene [198-55-0]

Petasitenine [60102-37-6]

Phenanthrene [85-01-8]

Phenelzine sulphate [156-51-4]

Phenicarbazide [103-03-7]

Phenol [108-95-2] (1989)

Phenylbutazone [50-33-9]

m-Phenylenediamine [108-45-2]

p-Phenylenediamine [106-50-3]

N-Phenyl-2-naphthylamine [135-88-6]

o-Phenylphenol [90-43-7]

Picloram [1918-02-1] (1991)

Piperonyl butoxide [51-03-6]

Polyacrylic acid [9003-01-4]

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (other than 2,3,7,8-tetra-chlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) (1997)

Polychlorinated dibenzofurans (1997)

Polychloroprene [9010-98-4]

Polyethylene [9002-88-4]

Polymethylene polyphenyl isocyanate [9016-87-9]

Polymethyl methacrylate [9011-14-7]

Polypropylene [9003-07-0]

Polystyrene [9003-53-6]

Polytetrafluoroethylene [9002-84-0]

Polyurethane foams [9009-54-5]

Polyvinyl acetate [9003-20-7]

Polyvinyl alcohol [9002-89-5]

Polyvinyl chloride [9002-86-2]

Polyvinyl pyrrolidone [9003-39-8]

Ponceau SX [4548-53-2]

Potassium bis(2-hydroxyethyl)dithiocarbamate[23746-34-1]

Prazepam [2955-38-6] (1996)

Prednimustine [29069-24-7] (1990)

Prednisone [53-03-2]

Proflavine salts

Pronetalol hydrochloride [51-02-5]

Propham [122-42-9]

n-Propyl carbamate [627-12-3]

Propylene [115-07-1] (1994)

Ptaquiloside [87625-62-5]

Pyrene [129-00-0]

Pyrido[3,4-c]psoralen [85878-62-2]

Pyrimethamine [58-14-0]

Quercetin [117-39-5]

p-Quinone [106-51-4]

Quintozene (Pentachloronitrobenzene) [82-68-8]

Reserpine [50-55-5]

Resorcinol [108-46-3]

Retrorsine [480-54-6]

Rhodamine B [81-88-9]

Rhodamine 6G [989-38-8]

Riddelliine [23246-96-0]

Rifampicin [13292-46-1]

Ripazepam [26308-28-1] (1996)

Rugulosin [23537-16-8]

Saccharated iron oxide [8047-67-4]

Scarlet Red [85-83-6]

Schistosoma mansoni (infection with) (1994)

Selenium [7782-49-2] and selenium compounds

Semicarbazide hydrochloride [563-41-7]

Seneciphylline [480-81-9]

Senkirkine [2318-18-5]

Sepiolite [15501-74-3]

Shikimic acid [138-59-0]

Silica [7631-86-9], amorphous

Simazine [122-34-9] (1991)

Sodium chlorite [7758-19-2] (1991)

Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate [148-18-5]

Spironolactone [52-01-7]

Styrene-acrylonitrile copolymers [9003-54-7]

Styrene-butadiene copolymers [9003-55-8]

Succinic anhydride [108-30-5]

Sudan I [842-07-9]

Sudan II [3118-97-6]

Sudan III [85-86-9]

Sudan Brown RR [6416-57-5]

Sudan Red 7B [6368-72-5]

Sulphafurazole (Sulphisoxazole) [127-69-5]

Sulphamethoxazole [723-46-6]

Sulphites (1992)

Sulphur dioxide [7446-09-5] (1992)

Sunset Yellow FCF [2783-94-0]

Symphytine [22571-95-5]

Talc [14807-96-6], not containing asbestiform fibres

Tannic acid [1401-55-4] and tannins

Temazepam [846-50-4] (1996)

2,2´,5,5´-Tetrachlorobenzidine [15721-02-5]

1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane [630-20-6]

1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane [79-34-5]

Tetrachlorvinphos [22248-79-9]

Tetrafluoroethylene [116-14-3]

Tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium salts (1990)

Theobromine [83-67-0] (1991)

Theophylline [58-55-9] (1991)

Thiouracil [141-90-2]

Thiram [137-26-8] (1991)

Titanium dioxide [13463-67-7] (1989)

Toluene [108-88-3] (1989)

Toremifene [89778-26-7] (1996)

Toxins derived from Fusarium graminearum, F. culmorum andF. crookwellense (1993)

Toxins derived from Fusarium sporotrichioides (1993)

Trichlorfon [52-68-6]

Trichloroacetic acid [76-03-9] (1995)

Trichloroacetonitrile [545-06-2] (1991)

1,1,1-Trichloroethane [71-55-6]

1,1,2-Trichloroethane [79-00-5] (1991)

Triethylene glycol diglydicyl ether [1954-28-5]

Trifluralin [1582-09-8] (1991)

4,4´,6-Trimethylangelicin [90370-29-9] plus ultravioletradiation

2,4,5-Trimethylaniline [137-17-7]

2,4,6-Trimethylaniline [88-05-1]

4,5´,8-Trimethylpsoralen [3902-71-4]

2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene [118-96-7] (1996)

Triphenylene [217-59-4]

Tris(aziridinyl)-p-benzoquinone (Triaziquone) [68-76-8]

Tris(1-aziridinyl)phosphine oxide [545-55-1]

2,4,6-Tris(1-aziridinyl)-s-triazine [51-18-3]

Tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate [115-96-8] (1990)

1,2,3-Tris(chloromethoxy)propane [38571-73-2]

Tris(2-methyl-1-aziridinyl)phosphine oxide [57-39-6]

Vat Yellow 4 [128-66-5] (1990)

Vinblastine sulphate [143-67-9]

Vincristine sulphate [2068-78-2]

Vinyl acetate [108-05-4]

Vinyl chloride-vinyl acetate copolymers [9003-22-9]

Vinylidene chloride [75-35-4]

Vinylidene chloride-vinyl chloride copolymers [9011-06-7]

Vinylidene fluoride [75-38-7]

N-Vinyl-2-pyrrolidone [88-12-0]

Vinyl toluene [25013-15-4] (1994)

Wollastonite [13983-17-0]

Xylene [1330-20-7] (1989)

2,4-Xylidine [95-68-1]

2,5-Xylidine [95-78-3]

Yellow AB [85-84-7]

Yellow OB [131-79-3]

Zectran [315-18-4]

Zeolites [1318-02-1] other than erionite (clinoptilolite,phillipsite, mordenite, non-fibrous Japanese zeolite,synthetic zeolites) (1997)

Zineb [12122-67-7]

Ziram [137-30-4] (1991)


Betel quid, without tobacco

Bitumens [8052-42-4], steam-refined, cracking-residue and air-refined

Crude oil [8002-05-9] (1989)

Diesel fuels, distillate (light) (1989)

Fuel oils, distillate (light) (1989)

Jet fuel (1989)

Mate (1990)

Mineral oils, highly refined

Petroleum solvents (1989)

Printing inks (1996)

Tea (1991)

Terpene polychlorinates (StrobaneR) [8001-50-1]

Exposure circumstances

Flat-glass and specialty glass (manufacture of) (1993)

Hair colouring products (personal use of) (1993)

Leather goods manufacture

Leather tanning and processing

Lumber and sawmill industries (including logging)

Paint manufacture (occupational exposure in) (1989)

Pulp and paper manufacture

Group 4—Probably not carcinogenic to humans (1)

Caprolactam [105-60-2]



Read 5431 times Last modified on Thursday, 13 October 2011 20:50


Part I. The Body
Part II. Health Care
Part III. Management & Policy
Part IV. Tools and Approaches
Biological Monitoring
Epidemiology and Statistics
Occupational Hygiene
Personal Protection
Record Systems and Surveillance
General Principles of Toxicology
Mechanisms of Toxicity
Toxicology Test Methods
Regulatory Toxicology
Part V. Psychosocial and Organizational Factors
Part VI. General Hazards
Part VII. The Environment
Part VIII. Accidents and Safety Management
Part IX. Chemicals
Part X. Industries Based on Biological Resources
Part XI. Industries Based on Natural Resources
Part XII. Chemical Industries
Part XIII. Manufacturing Industries
Part XIV. Textile and Apparel Industries
Part XV. Transport Industries
Part XVI. Construction
Part XVII. Services and Trade
Part XVIII. Guides

Toxicology Additional Resources

Click the Button below to view additional resources for this topic.


Toxicology References

Andersen, KE and HI Maibach. 1985. Contact allergy predictive tests on guinea pigs. Chap. 14 in Current Problems in Dermatology. Basel: Karger.

Ashby, J and RW Tennant. 1991. Definitive relationships among chemical structure, carcinogenicity and mutagenicity for 301 chemicals tested by the US NTP. Mutat Res 257:229-306.

Barlow, S and F Sullivan. 1982. Reproductive Hazards of Industrial Chemicals. London: Academic Press.

Barrett, JC. 1993a. Mechanisms of action of known human carcinogens. In Mechanisms of Carcinogenesis in Risk Identification, edited by H Vainio, PN Magee, DB McGregor, and AJ McMichael. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC).

—. 1993b. Mechanisms of multistep carcinogenesis and carcinogen risk assessment. Environ Health Persp 100:9-20.

Bernstein, ME. 1984. Agents affecting the male reproductive system: Effects of structure on activity. Drug Metab Rev 15:941-996.

Beutler, E. 1992. The molecular biology of G6PD variants and other red cell defects. Annu Rev Med 43:47-59.

Bloom, AD. 1981. Guidelines for Reproductive Studies in Exposed Human Populations. White Plains, New York: March of Dimes Foundation.

Borghoff, S, B Short and J Swenberg. 1990. Biochemical mechanisms and pathobiology of a-2-globulin nephropathy. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 30:349.

Burchell, B, DW Nebert, DR Nelson, KW Bock, T Iyanagi, PLM Jansen, D Lancet, GJ Mulder, JR Chowdhury, G Siest, TR Tephly, and PI Mackenzie. 1991. The UPD-glucuronosyltransferase gene superfamily: Suggested nomenclature based on evolutionary divergence. DNA Cell Biol 10:487-494.

Burleson, G, A Munson, and J Dean. 1995. Modern Methods in Immunotoxicology. New York: Wiley.

Capecchi, M. 1994. Targeted gene replacement. Sci Am 270:52-59.

Carney, EW. 1994. An integrated perspective on the developmental toxicity of ethylene glycol. Rep Toxicol 8:99-113.

Dean, JH, MI Luster, AE Munson, and I Kimber. 1994. Immunotoxicology and Immunopharmacology. New York: Raven Press.

Descotes, J. 1986. Immunotoxicology of Drugs and Chemicals. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Devary, Y, C Rosette, JA DiDonato, and M Karin. 1993. NFkB activation by ultraviolet light not dependent on a nuclear signal. Science 261:1442-1445.

Dixon, RL. 1985. Reproductive Toxicology. New York: Raven Press.

Duffus, JH. 1993. Glossary for chemists of terms used in toxicology. Pure Appl Chem 65:2003-2122.

Elsenhans, B, K Schuemann, and W Forth. 1991. Toxic metals: Interactions with essential metals. In Nutrition, Toxicity and Cancer, edited by IR Rowland. Boca-Raton: CRC Press.

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 1992. Guidelines for exposure assessment. Federal Reg 57:22888-22938.

—. 1993. Principles of neurotoxicity risk assessment. Federal Reg 58:41556-41598.

—. 1994. Guidelines for Reproductive Toxicity Assessment. Washington, DC: US EPA: Office of Research and Development.

Fergusson, JE. 1990. The Heavy Elements. Chap. 15 in Chemistry, Environmental Impact and Health Effects. Oxford: Pergamon.

Gehring, PJ, PG Watanabe, and GE Blau. 1976. Pharmacokinetic studies in evaluation of the toxicological and environmental hazard of chemicals. New Concepts Saf Eval 1(Part 1, Chapter 8):195-270.

Goldstein, JA and SMF de Morais. 1994. Biochemistry and molecular biology of the human CYP2C subfamily. Pharmacogenetics 4:285-299.

Gonzalez, FJ. 1992. Human cytochromes P450: Problems and prospects. Trends Pharmacol Sci 13:346-352.

Gonzalez, FJ, CL Crespi, and HV Gelboin. 1991. cDNA-expressed human cytochrome P450: A new age in molecular toxicology and human risk assessment. Mutat Res 247:113-127.

Gonzalez, FJ and DW Nebert. 1990. Evolution of the P450 gene superfamily: Animal-plant “warfare,” molecular drive, and human genetic differences in drug oxidation. Trends Genet 6:182-186.

Grant, DM. 1993. Molecular genetics of the N-acetyltransferases. Pharmacogenetics 3:45-50.

Gray, LE, J Ostby, R Sigmon, J Ferrel, R Linder, R Cooper, J Goldman, and J Laskey. 1988. The development of a protocol to assess reproductive effects of toxicants in the rat. Rep Toxicol 2:281-287.

Guengerich, FP. 1989. Polymorphism of cytochrome P450 in humans. Trends Pharmacol Sci 10:107-109.

—. 1993. Cytochrome P450 enzymes. Am Sci 81:440-447.

Hansch, C and A Leo. 1979. Substituent Constants for Correlation Analysis in Chemistry and Biology. New York: Wiley.

Hansch, C and L Zhang. 1993. Quantitative structure-activity relationships of cytochrome P450. Drug Metab Rev 25:1-48.

Hayes AW. 1988. Principles and Methods of Toxicology. 2nd ed. New York: Raven Press.

Heindell, JJ and RE Chapin. 1993. Methods in Toxicology: Male and Female Reproductive Toxicology. Vol. 1 and 2. San Diego, Calif.: Academic Press.

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). 1992. Solar and ultraviolet radiation. Lyon: IARC.

—. 1993. Occupational Exposures of Hairdressers and Barbers and Personal Use of Hair Colourants: Some Hair Dyes, Cosmetic Colourants, Industrial Dyestuffs and Aromatic Amines. Lyon: IARC.

—. 1994a. Preamble. Lyon: IARC.

—. 1994b. Some Industrial Chemicals. Lyon: IARC.

International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). 1965. Principles of Environmental Monitoring Related to the Handling of Radioactive Materials. Report of Committee IV of The International Commission On Radiological Protection. Oxford: Pergamon.

International Program on Chemical Safety (IPCS). 1991. Principles and Methods for the Assessment of Nephrotoxicity Associated With Exposure to Chemicals, EHC 119. Geneva: WHO.

—. 1996. Principles and Methods for Assessing Direct Immunotoxicity Associated With Exposure to Chemicals, EHC 180. Geneva: WHO.

Johanson, G and PH Naslund. 1988. Spreadsheet programming - a new approach in physiologically based modeling of solvent toxicokinetics. Toxicol Letters 41:115-127.

Johnson, BL. 1978. Prevention of Neurotoxic Illness in Working Populations. New York: Wiley.

Jones, JC, JM Ward, U Mohr, and RD Hunt. 1990. Hemopoietic System, ILSI Monograph, Berlin: Springer Verlag.

Kalow, W. 1962. Pharmocogenetics: Heredity and the Response to Drugs. Philadelphia: WB Saunders.

—. 1992. Pharmocogenetics of Drug Metabolism. New York: Pergamon.

Kammüller, ME, N Bloksma, and W Seinen. 1989. Autoimmunity and Toxicology. Immune Dysregulation Induced By Drugs and Chemicals. Amsterdam: Elsevier Sciences.

Kawajiri, K, J Watanabe, and SI Hayashi. 1994. Genetic polymorphism of P450 and human cancer. In Cytochrome P450: Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology, edited by MC Lechner. Paris: John Libbey Eurotext.

Kehrer, JP. 1993. Free radicals as mediators of tissue injury and disease. Crit Rev Toxicol 23:21-48.

Kellerman, G, CR Shaw, and M Luyten-Kellerman. 1973. Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase inducibility and bronochogenic carcinoma. New Engl J Med 289:934-937.

Khera, KS. 1991. Chemically induced alterations maternal homeostasis and histology of conceptus: Their etiologic significance in rat fetal anomalies. Teratology 44:259-297.

Kimmel, CA, GL Kimmel, and V Frankos. 1986. Interagency Regulatory Liaison Group workshop on reproductive toxicity risk assessment. Environ Health Persp 66:193-221.

Klaassen, CD, MO Amdur and J Doull (eds.). 1991. Casarett and Doull´s Toxicology. New York: Pergamon Press.

Kramer, HJ, EJHM Jansen, MJ Zeilmaker, HJ van Kranen and ED Kroese. 1995. Quantitative methods in toxicology for human dose-response assessment. RIVM-report nr. 659101004.

Kress, S, C Sutter, PT Strickland, H Mukhtar, J Schweizer, and M Schwarz. 1992. Carcinogen-specific mutational pattern in the p53 gene in ultraviolet B radiation-induced squamous cell carcinomas of mouse skin. Cancer Res 52:6400-6403.

Krewski, D, D Gaylor, M Szyazkowicz. 1991. A model-free approach to low-dose extrapolation. Env H Pers 90:270-285.

Lawton, MP, T Cresteil, AA Elfarra, E Hodgson, J Ozols, RM Philpot, AE Rettie, DE Williams, JR Cashman, CT Dolphin, RN Hines, T Kimura, IR Phillips, LL Poulsen, EA Shephare, and DM Ziegler. 1994. A nomenclature for the mammalian flavin-containing monooxygenase gene family based on amino acid sequence identities. Arch Biochem Biophys 308:254-257.

Lewalter, J and U Korallus. 1985. Blood protein conjugates and acetylation of aromatic amines. New findings on biological monitoring. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 56:179-196.

Majno, G and I Joris. 1995. Apoptosis, oncosis, and necrosis: An overview of cell death. Am J Pathol 146:3-15.

Mattison, DR and PJ Thomford. 1989. The mechanism of action of reproductive toxicants. Toxicol Pathol 17:364-376.

Meyer, UA. 1994. Polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 as a risk factor in carcinogenesis. In Cytochrome P450: Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology, edited by MC Lechner. Paris: John Libbey Eurotext.

Moller, H, H Vainio and E Heseltine. 1994. Quantitative estimation and prediction of risk at the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Cancer Res 54:3625-3627.

Moolenaar, RJ. 1994. Default assumptions in carcinogen risk assessment used by regulatory agencies. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 20:135-141.

Moser, VC. 1990. Screening approaches to neurotoxicity: A functional observational battery. J Am Coll Toxicol 1:85-93.

National Research Council (NRC). 1983. Risk Assessment in the Federal Government: Managing the Process. Washington, DC: NAS Press.

—. 1989. Biological Markers in Reproductive Toxicity. Washington, DC: NAS Press.

—. 1992. Biologic Markers in Immunotoxicology. Subcommittee on Toxicology. Washington, DC: NAS Press.

Nebert, DW. 1988. Genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes: Possible role in human disease. In Phenotypic Variation in Populations, edited by AD Woodhead, MA Bender, and RC Leonard. New York: Plenum Publishing.

—. 1994. Drug-metabolizing enzymes in ligand-modulated transcription. Biochem Pharmacol 47:25-37.

Nebert, DW and WW Weber. 1990. Pharmacogenetics. In Principles of Drug Action. The Basis of Pharmacology, edited by WB Pratt and PW Taylor. New York: Churchill-Livingstone.

Nebert, DW and DR Nelson. 1991. P450 gene nomenclature based on evolution. In Methods of Enzymology. Cytochrome P450, edited by MR Waterman and EF Johnson. Orlando, Fla: Academic Press.

Nebert, DW and RA McKinnon. 1994. Cytochrome P450: Evolution and functional diversity. Prog Liv Dis 12:63-97.

Nebert, DW, M Adesnik, MJ Coon, RW Estabrook, FJ Gonzalez, FP Guengerich, IC Gunsalus, EF Johnson, B Kemper, W Levin, IR Phillips, R Sato, and MR Waterman. 1987. The P450 gene superfamily: Recommended nomenclature. DNA Cell Biol 6:1-11.

Nebert, DW, DR Nelson, MJ Coon, RW Estabrook, R Feyereisen, Y Fujii-Kuriyama, FJ Gonzalez, FP Guengerich, IC Gunsalas, EF Johnson, JC Loper, R Sato, MR Waterman, and DJ Waxman. 1991. The P450 superfamily: Update on new sequences, gene mapping, and recommended nomenclature. DNA Cell Biol 10:1-14.

Nebert, DW, DD Petersen, and A Puga. 1991. Human AH locus polymorphism and cancer: Inducibility of CYP1A1 and other genes by combustion products and dioxin. Pharmacogenetics 1:68-78.

Nebert, DW, A Puga, and V Vasiliou. 1993. Role of the Ah receptor and the dioxin-inducible [Ah] gene battery in toxicity, cancer, and signal transduction. Ann NY Acad Sci 685:624-640.

Nelson, DR, T Kamataki, DJ Waxman, FP Guengerich, RW Estabrook, R Feyereisen, FJ Gonzalez, MJ Coon, IC Gunsalus, O Gotoh, DW Nebert, and K Okuda. 1993. The P450 superfamily: Update on new sequences, gene mapping, accession numbers, early trivial names of enzymes, and nomenclature. DNA Cell Biol 12:1-51.

Nicholson, DW, A All, NA Thornberry, JP Vaillancourt, CK Ding, M Gallant, Y Gareau, PR Griffin, M Labelle, YA Lazebnik, NA Munday, SM Raju, ME Smulson, TT Yamin, VL Yu, and DK Miller. 1995. Identification and inhibition of the ICE/CED-3 protease necessary for mammalian apoptosis. Nature 376:37-43.

Nolan, RJ, WT Stott, and PG Watanabe. 1995. Toxicologic data in chemical safety evaluation. Chap. 2 in Patty’s Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology, edited by LJ Cralley, LV Cralley, and JS Bus. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Nordberg, GF. 1976. Effect and Dose-Response Relationships of Toxic Metals. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Office of Technology Assessment (OTA). 1985. Reproductive Hazards in the Workplace. Document No. OTA-BA-266. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.

—. 1990. Neurotoxicity: Identifying and Controlling Poisons of the Nervous System. Document No. OTA-BA-436. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). 1993. US EPA/EC Joint Project On the Evaluation of (Quantitative) Structure Activity Relationships. Paris: OECD.

Park, CN and NC Hawkins. 1993. Technology review; an overview of cancer risk assessment. Toxicol Methods 3:63-86.

Pease, W, J Vandenberg, and WK Hooper. 1991. Comparing alternative approaches to establishing regulatory levels for reproductive toxicants: DBCP as a case study. Environ Health Persp 91:141-155.

Prpi<F"WP MultinationalA Roman"P6.5>ƒ<F255P255>-Maji<F"WP MultinationalA Roman"P6.5%0>ƒ<F255P255>, D, S Telišman, and S Kezi<F"WP MultinationalA Roman"P6.5%0>ƒ<F255P255>. 1984. In vitro study on lead and alcohol interaction and the inhibition of erythrocyte delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase in man. Scand J Work Environ Health 10:235-238.

Reitz, RH, RJ Nolan, and AM Schumann. 1987. Development of multispecies, multiroute pharmacokinetic models for methylene chloride and 1,1,1-trichloroethane. In Pharmacokinetics and Risk Assessment, Drinking Water and Health. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Roitt, I, J Brostoff, and D Male. 1989. Immunology. London: Gower Medical Publishing.

Sato, A. 1991. The effect of environmental factors on the pharmacokinetic behaviour of organic solvent vapours. Ann Occup Hyg 35:525-541.

Silbergeld, EK. 1990. Developing formal risk assessment methods for neurotoxicants: An evaluation of the state of the art. In Advances in Neurobehavioral Toxicology, edited by BL Johnson, WK Anger, A Durao, and C Xintaras. Chelsea, Mich.: Lewis.

Spencer, PS and HH Schaumberg. 1980. Experimental and Clinical Neurotoxicology. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.

Sweeney, AM, MR Meyer, JH Aarons, JL Mills, and RE LePorte. 1988. Evaluation of methods for the prospective identification of early fetal losses in environmental epidemiology studies. Am J Epidemiol 127:843-850.

Taylor, BA, HJ Heiniger, and H Meier. 1973. Genetic analysis of resistance to cadmium-induced testicular damage in mice. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 143:629-633.

Telišman, S. 1995. Interactions of essential and/or toxic metals and metalloids regarding interindividual differences in susceptibility to various toxicants and chronic diseases in man. Arh rig rada toksikol 46:459-476.

Telišman, S, A Pinent, and D Prpi<F"WP MultinationalA Roman"P6.5J255%0>ƒ<F255P255J0>-Maji<F"WP MultinationalA Roman"P6.5J255%0>ƒ<F255P255J0>. 1993. Lead interference in zinc metabolism and the lead and zinc interaction in humans as a possible explanation of apparent individual susceptibility to lead. In Heavy Metals in the Environment, edited by RJ Allan and JO Nriagu. Edinburgh: CEP Consultants.

Telišman, S, D Prpi<F"WP MultinationalA Roman"P6.5%0>ƒ<F255P255>-Maji<F"WP MultinationalA Roman"P6.5%0>ƒ<F255P255>, and S Kezi<F"WP MultinationalA Roman"P6.5%0>ƒ<F255P255>. 1984. In vivo study on lead and alcohol interaction and the inhibition of erythrocyte delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase in man. Scand J Work Environ Health 10:239-244.

Tilson, HA and PA Cabe. 1978. Strategies for the assessment of neurobehavioral consequences of environmental factors. Environ Health Persp 26:287-299.

Trump, BF and AU Arstila. 1971. Cell injury and cell death. In Principles of Pathobiology, edited by MF LaVia and RB Hill Jr. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

Trump, BF and IK Berezesky. 1992. The role of cytosolic Ca2<F"Symbol"P8>+<F255P255> in cell injury, necrosis and apoptosis. Curr Opin Cell Biol 4:227-232.

—. 1995. Calcium-mediated cell injury and cell death. FASEB J 9:219-228.

Trump, BF, IK Berezesky, and A Osornio-Vargas. 1981. Cell death and the disease process. The role of cell calcium. In Cell Death in Biology and Pathology, edited by ID Bowen and RA Lockshin. London: Chapman & Hall.

Vos, JG, M Younes and E Smith. 1995. Allergic Hyper-sensitivities Induced by Chemicals: Recommendations for Prevention Published on Behalf of the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Weber, WW. 1987. The Acetylator Genes and Drug Response. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.

World Health Organization (WHO). 1980. Recommended Health-Based Limits in Occupational Exposure to Heavy Metals. Technical Report Series, No. 647. Geneva: WHO.

—. 1986. Principles and Methods for the Assessment of Neurotoxicity Associated With Exposure to Chemicals. Environmental Health Criteria, No.60. Geneva: WHO.

—. 1987. Air Quality Guidelines for Europe. European Series, No. 23. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Publications.

—. 1989. Glossary of Terms On Chemical Safety for Use in IPCS Publications. Geneva: WHO.

—. 1993. The Derivation of Guidance Values for Health-Based Exposure Limits. Environmental Health Criteria, unedited draft. Geneva: WHO.

Wyllie, AH, JFR Kerr, and AR Currie. 1980. Cell death: The significance of apoptosis. Int Rev Cytol 68:251-306.

@REFS LABEL = Other relevant readings

Albert, RE. 1994. Carcinogen risk assessment in the US Environmental Protection Agency. Crit. Rev. Toxicol 24:75-85.

Alberts, B, D Bray, J Lewis, M Raff, K Roberts, and JD Watson. 1988. Molecular Biology of the Cell. New York: Garland Publishing.

Ariens, EJ. 1964. Molecular Pharmacology. Vol.1. New York: Academic Press.

Ariens, EJ, E Mutschler, and AM Simonis. 1978. Allgemeine Toxicologie [General Toxicology]. Stuttgart: Georg Thieme Verlag.

Ashby, J and RW Tennant. 1994. Prediction of rodent carcinogenicity for 44 chemicals: Results. Mutagenesis 9:7-15.

Ashford, NA, CJ Spadafor, DB Hattis, and CC Caldart. 1990. Monitoring the Worker for Exposure and Disease. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press.

Balabuha, NS and GE Fradkin. 1958. Nakoplenie radioaktivnih elementov v organizme I ih vivedenie [Accumulation of Radioactive Elements in the Organism and their Excretion]. Moskva: Medgiz.

Balls, M, J Bridges, and J Southee. 1991. Animals and Alternatives in Toxicology Present Status and Future Prospects. Nottingham, UK: The Fund for Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments.

Berlin, A, J Dean, MH Draper, EMB Smith, and F Spreafico. 1987. Immunotoxicology. Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff.

Boyhous, A. 1974. Breathing. New York: Grune & Stratton.

Brandau, R and BH Lippold. 1982. Dermal and Transdermal Absorption. Stuttgart: Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft.

Brusick, DJ. 1994. Methods for Genetic Risk Assessment. Boca Raton: Lewis Publishers.

Burrell, R. 1993. Human immune toxicity. Mol Aspects Med 14:1-81.

Castell, JV and MJ Gómez-Lechón. 1992. In Vitro Alternatives to Animal Pharmaco-Toxicology. Madrid, Spain: Farmaindustria.

Chapman, G. 1967. Body Fluids and their Functions. London: Edward Arnold.

Committee on Biological Markers of the National Research Council. 1987. Biological markers in environmental health research. Environ Health Persp 74:3-9.

Cralley, LJ, LV Cralley and JS Bus (eds.). 1978. Patty’s Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. New York: Witey.

Dayan, AD, RF Hertel, E Heseltine, G Kazantis, EM Smith, and MT Van der Venne. 1990. Immunotoxicity of Metals and Immunotoxicology. New York: Plenum Press.

Djuric, D. 1987. Molecular-cellular Aspects of Occupational Exposure to Toxic Chemicals. In Part 1 Toxicokinetics. Geneva: WHO.

Duffus, JH. 1980. Environmental Toxicology. London: Edward Arnold.

ECOTOC. 1986. Structure-Activity Relationship in Toxicology and Ecotoxicology, Monograph No. 8. Brussels: ECOTOC.

Forth, W, D Henschler, and W Rummel. 1983. Pharmakologie und Toxikologie. Mannheim: Biblio- graphische Institut.

Frazier, JM. 1990. Scientific criteria for Validation of in VitroToxicity Tests. OECD Environmental Monograph, no. 36. Paris: OECD.

—. 1992. In Vitro Toxicity—Applications to Safety Evaluation. New York: Marcel Dekker.

Gad, SC. 1994. In Vitro Toxicology. New York: Raven Press.

Gadaskina, ID. 1970. Zhiroraya tkan I yadi [Fatty Tissues and Toxicants]. In Aktualnie Vaprosi promishlenoi toksikolgii [Actual Problems in Occupational Toxicology], edited by NV Lazarev. Leningrad: Ministry of Health RSFSR.

Gaylor, DW. 1983. The use of safety factors for controlling risk. J Toxicol Environ Health 11:329-336.

Gibson, GG, R Hubbard, and DV Parke. 1983. Immunotoxicology. London: Academic Press.

Goldberg, AM. 1983-1995. Alternatives in Toxicology. Vol. 1-12. New York: Mary Ann Liebert.

Grandjean, P. 1992. Individual susceptibility to toxicity. Toxicol Letters 64/65:43-51.

Hanke, J and JK Piotrowski. 1984. Biochemyczne podstawy toksikologii [Biochemical Basis of Toxicology]. Warsaw: PZWL.

Hatch, T and P Gross. 1954. Pulmonary Deposition and Retention of Inhaled Aerosols. New York: Academic Press.

Health Council of the Netherlands: Committee on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenicity of Chemical Substances. 1994. Risk assessment of carcinogenic chemicals in The Netherlands. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 19:14-30.

Holland, WC, RL Klein, and AH Briggs. 1967. Molekulaere Pharmakologie.

Huff, JE. 1993. Chemicals and cancer in humans: First evidence in experimental animals. Environ Health Persp 100:201-210.

Klaassen, CD and DL Eaton. 1991. Principles of toxicology. Chap. 2 in Casarett and Doull’s Toxicology, edited by CD Klaassen, MO Amdur and J Doull. New York: Pergamon Press.

Kossover, EM. 1962. Molecular Biochemistry. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Kundiev, YI. 1975.Vssavanie pesticidov cherez kozsu I profilaktika otravlenii [Absorption of Pesticides Through Skin and Prevention of Intoxication]. Kiev: Zdorovia.

Kustov, VV, LA Tiunov, and JA Vasiljev. 1975. Komvinovanie deistvie promishlenih yadov [Combined Effects of Industrial Toxicants]. Moskva: Medicina.

Lauwerys, R. 1982. Toxicologie industrielle et intoxications professionelles. Paris: Masson.

Li, AP and RH Heflich. 1991. Genetic Toxicology. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

Loewey, AG and P Siekewitz. 1969. Cell Structure and Functions. New York: Holt, Reinhart and Winston.

Loomis, TA. 1976. Essentials of Toxicology. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger.

Mendelsohn, ML and RJ Albertini. 1990. Mutation and the Environment, Parts A-E. New York: Wiley Liss.

Mettzler, DE. 1977. Biochemistry. New York: Academic Press.

Miller, K, JL Turk, and S Nicklin. 1992. Principles and Practice of Immunotoxicology. Oxford: Blackwells Scientific.

Ministry of International Trade and Industry. 1981. Handbook of Existing Chemical Substances. Tokyo: Chemical Daily Press.

—. 1987. Application for Approval of Chemicals by Chemical Substances Control Law. (In Japanese and in English). Tokyo: Kagaku Kogyo Nippo Press.

Montagna, W. 1956. The Structure and Function of Skin. New York: Academic Press.

Moolenaar, RJ. 1994. Carcinogen risk assessment: international comparison. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 20:302-336.

National Research Council. 1989. Biological Markers in Reproductive Toxicity. Washington, DC: NAS Press.

Neuman, WG and M Neuman. 1958. The Chemical Dynamic of Bone Minerals. Chicago: The Univ. of Chicago Press.

Newcombe, DS, NR Rose, and JC Bloom. 1992. Clinical Immunotoxicology. New York: Raven Press.

Pacheco, H. 1973. La pharmacologie moleculaire. Paris: Presse Universitaire.

Piotrowski, JK. 1971. The Application of Metabolic and Excretory Kinetics to Problems of Industrial Toxicology. Washington, DC: US Department of Health, Education and Welfare.

—. 1983. Biochemical interactions of heavy metals: Methalothionein. In Health Effects of Combined Exposure to Chemicals. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe.

Proceedings of the Arnold O. Beckman/IFCC Conference of Environmental Toxicology Biomarkers of Chemical Exposure. 1994. Clin Chem 40(7B).

Russell, WMS and RL Burch. 1959. The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. London: Methuen & Co. Reprinted by Universities Federation for Animal Welfare,1993.

Rycroft, RJG, T Menné, PJ Frosch, and C Benezra. 1992. Textbook of Contact Dermatitis. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Schubert, J. 1951. Estimating radioelements in exposed individuals. Nucleonics 8:13-28.

Shelby, MD and E Zeiger. 1990. Activity of human carcinogens in the Salmonella and rodent bone-marrow cytogenetics tests. Mutat Res 234:257-261.

Stone, R. 1995. A molecular approach to cancer risk. Science 268:356-357.

Teisinger, J. 1984. Expositiontest in der Industrietoxikologie [Exposure Tests in Industrial Toxicology]. Berlin: VEB Verlag Volk und Gesundheit.

US Congress. 1990. Genetic Monitoring and Screening in the Workplace, OTA-BA-455. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.

VEB. 1981. Kleine Enzyklopaedie: Leben [Life]. Leipzig: VEB Bibliographische Institut.

Weil, E. 1975. Elements de toxicologie industrielle [Elements of Industrial Toxicology]. Paris: Masson et Cie.

World Health Organization (WHO). 1975. Methods Used in USSR for Establishing Safe Levels of Toxic Substances. Geneva: WHO.

1978. Principles and Methods for Evaluating the Toxicity of Chemicals, Part 1. Environmental Health Criteria, no.6. Geneva: WHO.

—. 1981. Combined Exposure to Chemicals, Interim Document no.11. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe.

—. 1986. Principles of Toxicokinetic Studies. Environmental Health Criteria, no. 57. Geneva: WHO.

Yoftrey, JM and FC Courtice. 1956. Limphatics, Lymph and Lymphoid Tissue. Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press.

Zakutinskiy, DI. 1959. Voprosi toksikologii radioaktivnih veshchestv [Problems of Toxicology of Radioactive Materials]. Moscow: Medgiz.

Zurlo, J, D Rudacille, and AM Goldberg. 1993. Animals and Alternatives in Testing: History, Science and Ethics. New York: Mary Ann Liebert.