" DISCLAIMER: The ILO does not take responsibility for content presented on this web portal that is presented in any language other than English, which is the language used for the initial production and peer-review of original content. Certain statistics have not been updated since the production of the 4th edition of the Encyclopaedia (1998)."

Hespanhol, Ivanildo

Hespanhol, Ivanildo

Address: Department of Hydraulic and Sanitary Engineering, University of Sao Paulo, A.V. Prof. Almeida Prado 271, P.O. Box 61548, 05508-900 Sao Paulo SP

Country: Brazil

Phone: 55-11/818 5286

Fax: 55-11/818 5423

E-mail: ivanhes@usp.br

Past position(s): Technology Adviser, World Health Organization

Education: PhD, University of Sao Paulo; PhD, University of California at Berkeley

Areas of interest: Environmental engineering; public health; wastewater reuse; water quality management



Part I. The Body
Part II. Health Care
Part III. Management & Policy
Part IV. Tools and Approaches
Part V. Psychosocial and Organizational Factors
Part VI. General Hazards
Part VII. The Environment
Environmental Health Hazards
Environmental Policy
Environmental Pollution Control
Part VIII. Accidents and Safety Management
Part IX. Chemicals
Part X. Industries Based on Biological Resources
Part XI. Industries Based on Natural Resources
Part XII. Chemical Industries
Part XIII. Manufacturing Industries
Part XIV. Textile and Apparel Industries
Part XV. Transport Industries
Part XVI. Construction
Part XVII. Services and Trade
Part XVIII. Guides

Environmental Health Hazards Additional Resources

Click the Button below to view additional resources for this topic.


Environmental Health Hazards References

Allan, JS. 1992. Viral evolution and AIDS. J Natl Inst Health Res 4:51-54.

Angier, N. 1991. Study finds mysterious rise in childhood cancer rate. New York Times (26 June):D22.

Arceivala, SJ. 1989. Water quality and pollution control: Planning and management. In Criteria for and Approaches for Water Quality Management in Developing Countries. New York: United Nations.

Archer, DL and JE Kvenberg. 1985. Incidence and cost of foodborne diarrhoea disease in the United States. J Food Prod 48(10):887-894.

Balick, MJ. 1990. Ethnobotany and the identification of therapeutic agents from the rainforest. CIBA F Symp 154:22-39.

Bascom, R et al. 1996. Health effects of outdoor air pollution. State of the Art. Am J Resp Crit Care Med 153:3-50.

Blakeslee, S. 1990. Scientists confront an alarming mystery: The vanishing frog. New York Times. 20 February:B7.

Blaustein, AR.1994. UL repair and resistance to solar UV-B in amphibian eggs: A link to population declines. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91:1791-1795.

Borja-Arburto, VH, DP Loomis, C Shy, and S Bangdiwala. 1995. Air pollution and daily mortality in Mexico City. Epidemiology S64:231.

Bridigare, RR. 1989. Potential effects of UVB on marine organisms of the Southern Ocean: Distribution of phytoplankton and krill during Austral Spring. Photochem Photobiol 50:469-478.

Brody, JE. 1990. Using the toxin from tiny frogs, researchers seek clues to disease. New York Times. 23 January.

Brody, JE. 1991. Far from fearsome, bats lose ground to ignorance and greed. New York Times. 29 October:Cl,C10.

Carlsen, E and A Gimmercman. 1992. Evidence for decreasing quality of semen during the past 50 years. Br Med J 305:609-613.

Castillejos, M, D Gold, D Dockery, T Tosteson, T Baum, and FE Speizer. 1992. Effects of ambient ozone on respiratory functions and symptoms in school children in Mexico City. Am Rev Respir Dis 145:276-282.

Castillejos, M, D Gold, A Damokosh, P Serrano, G Allen, WF McDonnell, D Dockery, S Ruiz-Velasco, M Hernandez, and C Hayes. 1995. Acute effects of ozone on the pulmonary function of exercising schoolchildren from Mexico City. Am J Resp Crit Care Med 152:1501-1507.

Centers for Disease Control (CDC). 1991. Preventing Lead Poisoning in Young Children. Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human Services.

Cohen, ML. 1987. Prepared statement in “Hearing before the Committee of Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry”. US Senate, 100th Congress, First Session. (US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC).

Coleman, MP, J Esteve, P Damiecki, A Arslan, and H Renard. 1993. Trends in Cancer Incidence and Mortality. IARC Scientific Publications, No.121. Lyon: IARC.

Davis, DL, GE Dinse, and DG Hoel. 1994. Decreasing cardiovascular disease and increasing cancer among whites in the United States from 1973-1987. JAMA 271(6):431-437.

Davis, DL and D Hoel. 1990a. International trends in cancer mortality in France, West Germany, Italy, Japan, England and Wales and the USA. Lancet 336 (25 August):474-481.

—. 1990b. Trends in Cancer Mortality in Industrial Countries. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, No. 609.

Dockery, DW and CA Pope. 1994. Acute respiratory effects of particulate air pollution. Ann Rev Publ Health 15:107-132.

Dold, C. 1992. Toxic agents found to be killing off whales. New York Times. 16 June:C4.

Domingo, M and L Ferrer. 1990. Morbillivirus in dolphins. Nature 348:21.

Ehrlich, PR and EO Wilson. 1991. Biodiversity studies: Science and policy. Science 253(5021):758-762.

Epstein, PR. 1995. Emerging diseases and ecosystem instability. Am J Public Health 85:168-172.

Farman, JC, H Gardiner, and JD Shanklin. 1985. Large losses of total ozone in Antarctica reveal seasonal ClOx/NOx interaction. Nature 315:207-211.

Farnsworth, NR. 1990. The role of ethnopharmacology in drug development. CIBA F Symp 154:2-21.

Farnsworth, NR, O Akerele, et al. 1985. Medicinal plants in therapy. Bull WHO 63(6):965-981.

Federal Health Office (Switzerland). 1990. Bulletin of Federal Health Office. 29 October.

Floyd, T, RA Nelson, and GF Wynne. 1990. Calcium and bone metabolic homeostasis in active and denning black bears. Clin Orthop Relat R 255 (June):301-309.

Focks, DA, E Daniels, DG Haile, and JE Keesling. 1995. A simulation model of the epidemiology of urban dengue fever: literature analysis, model development, preliminary validation, and samples of simulation results. Am J Trop Med Hyg 53:489-506.

Galal-Gorchev, H. 1986. Drinking-Water Quality and Health. Geneva:WHO, unpublished.

—. 1994. WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. Geneva:WHO, unpublished.

Gao, F and L Yue. 1992. Human infection by genetically diverse SIVsm-related HIV-2 in West Africa. Nature 358:495.

Gilles, HM and DA Warrell. 1993. Bruce-Chwatt’s Essential Malaniology. London: Edward Arnold Press.

Gleason, JF, PK Bhartia, JR Herman, R McPeters, et al. 1993. Record low global ozone in 1992. Science 260:523-526.

Gottlieb, OR and WB Mors. 1980. Potential utilization of Brazilian wood extractives. J Agricul Food Chem 28(2): 196-215.

Grossklaus, D. 1990. Gesundheitliche Fragen im EG-Binnemarkt. Arch Lebensmittelhyg 41(5):99-102.

Hamza, A. 1991. Impacts of Industrial and Small-Scale Manufacturing Wastes On Urban Environment in Developing Countries. Nairobi: United Nations Centre for Human Settlements.

Hardoy, JE, S Cairncross, and D Satterthwaite. 1990. The Poor Die Young: Housing and Health in Third World Cities. London: Earthscan Publications.

Hardoy, JE and F Satterthwaite. 1989. Squatter Citizen: Life in the Urban Third World. London: Earthscan Publications.

Harpham, T, T Lusty, and P Vaugham. 1988. In the Shadow of the City—Community Health and the Urban Poor. Oxford: OUP.

Hirsch, VM and M Olmsted. 1989. An African primate lentivirus (SIVsm) closely related to HIV-s. Nature 339:389.

Hoel, DG. 1992. Trends in cancer mortality in 15 industrialized countries, 1969-1986. J Natl Cancer Inst 84(5):313-320.

Hoogenboom-Vergedaal, AMM et al. 1990. Epdemiologisch En Microbiologisch Onderzoek Met Betrekking Tot Gastro-Enteritis Bij De Mens in De Regio’s Amsterdam En Helmond in 1987 En 1988. Netherlands: National Institute of Public
Health and Environmental Protection.

Huet, T and A Cheynier. 1990. Genetic organization of a chimpanzee lentivirus related to HIV-1. Nature 345:356.

Huq, A, RR Colwell, R Rahman, A Ali, MA Chowdhury, S Parveen, DA Sack, and E Russek-Cohen. 1990. Detection of Vibrio cholerae 01 in the aquatic environment by fluorescent-monoclonal antibody and culture methods. Appl Environ Microbiol 56:2370-2373.

Institute of Medicine. 1991. Malaria: Obstacles and Opportunities. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

—. 1992. Emerging Infections: Microbial Threats to Health in the United States. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). 1990. Climate Change: The IPCC Impacts Assessment. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.

—. 1992. Climate Change 1992: The Supplementary Report to the IPCC Impacts Assessment. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). 1992. Solar and Ultraviolet Radiation. IARC Monographs On the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lyon: IARC.

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). 1991. International Chernobyl Project Assessment of Radiological Consequences and Evaluation of Protective Measures. Vienna: IAEA.

Kalkstein, LS and KE Smoyer. 1993. The impact of climate change on human health: Some international implications. Experiencia 49:469-479.

Kennedy, S and JA Smyth. 1988. Confirmation of cause of recent seal deaths. Nature 335:404.

Kerr, JB and CT McElroy. 1993. Evidence for large upward trends of ultraviolet-B radiation linked to ozone depletion. Science 262 (November):1032-1034.

Kilbourne EM. 1989. Heat waves. In The public health consequences of disasters. 1989, edited by MB Gregg. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control.

Kingman, S. 1989. Malaria runs riot on Brazil’s wild frontier. New Scientist 123:24-25.

Kjellström, T. 1986. Itai-itai disease. In Cadmium and Health, edited by L Friberg et al. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

Koopman, JS, DR Prevots, MA Vaca-Marin, H Gomez-Dantes, ML Zarate-Aquino, IM Longini Jr, and J Sepulveda-Amor. 1991. Determinants and predictors of dengue infection in Mexico. Am J Epidemiol 133:1168-1178.

Kripke, ML and WL Morison. 1986. Studies on the mechanism of systemic suppression of contact hypersensitivity by UVB radiation. II: Differences in the suppression of delayed and contact hypersensitivity in mice. J Invest Dermatol 86:543-549.
Kurihara, M, K Aoki, and S Tominaga. 1984. Cancer Mortality Statistics in the World. Nagoya, Japan: The University of Nagoya Press.

Lee, A and R Langer. 1983. Shark cartilage contains inhibitors of tumor angiogenesis. Science 221:1185-1187.

Loevinsohn, M. 1994. Climatic warming and increased malaria incidence in Rwanda. Lancet 343:714-718.

Longstreth, J and J Wiseman. 1989. The potential impact of climate change on patterns of infectious disease in the United States. In The Potential Effects of Global Climate Change in the United States, edited by JB Smith and DA
Tirpak. Washington, DC: US Environmental Protection Agency.

Martens, WM, LW Niessen, J Rotmans, TH Jetten, and AJ McMichael. 1995. Potential impact of global climate change on malaria risk. Environ Health Persp 103:458-464.

Matlai, P and V Beral. 1985. Trends in congenital malformations of external genitalia. Lancet 1 (12 January):108.

McMichael, AJ. 1993. Planetary Overload: Global Environmental Change and the Health of the Human Species. London: Cambridge University Press.

Meybeck, M, D Chapman, and R Helmer. 1989. Global Freshwater Quality: A First Assessment. Geneva: Global Environmental Monitoring System (GEMS/-WATER).

Meybeck, M and R Helmer. 1989. The quality of rivers: From pristine stage to global pollution. Paleogeogr Paleoclimatol Paleoecol 75:283-309.

Michaels, D, C Barrera, and MG Gacharna. 1985. Economic development and occupational health in Latin America: New directions for public health in less developed countries. Am J Public Health 75(5):536-542.

Molina, MJ and FS Rowland. 1974. Stratospheric sink for chloro-fluoro-methanes: Chlorine atom-catalyzed destruction of ozone. Nature 249:810-814.

Montgomery, S. 1992. Grisly trade imperils world’s bears. The Boston Globe. March 2:23-24.

Nelson, RA. 1973. Winter sleep in the black bear. Mayo Clin Proc 48:733-737.

Nimmannitya, S. 1996. Dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fever. In Manson’s Tropical Diseases, edited by GC Cook. London: WB Saunders.

Nogueira, DP. 1987. Prevention of accidents and injuries in Brazil. Ergonomics 30(2):387-393.

Notermans, S. 1984. Beurteilung des bakteriologischen Status frischen Geflügels in Läden und auf Märkten. Fleischwirtschaft 61(1):131-134.

Noweir, MH. 1986. Occupational health in developing countries, with special reference to Egypt. Am J Ind Med 9:125-141.

Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and World Health Organization (WHO). 1989. Final Report of the Working Group on Epidemiological Surveillance and Foodborne Diseases. Unpublished document HPV/FOS/89-005.

Patz, JA, PR Epstein, TA Burke, and JM Balbus. 1996. Global climate change and emerging infections diseases. JAMA 275:217-223.

Pope, CA, DV Bates, and ME Razienne. 1995. Health effects of particulate air pollution: Time for reassessment? Environ Health Persp 103:472-480.

Reeves, WC, JL Hardy, WK Reisen, and MM Milky. 1994. The potential effect of global warming on mosquitoborne arboviruses. J Med Entomol 31(3):323-332.

Roberts, D. 1990. Sources of infection: Food. Lancet 336:859-861.

Roberts, L. 1989. Does the ozone hole threaten antarctic life. Science 244:288-289.

Rodrigue, DG. 1990. International increase in Salmonella enteritidis. A new pandemic? Epidemiol Inf 105:21-21.

Romieu, I, H Weizenfeld, and J Finkelman. 1990. Urban air pollution in Latin America and the Caribbean: Health perspectives. World Health Stat Q 43:153-167.

—. 1991. Urban air pollution in Latin America and the Caribbean. J Air Waste Manage Assoc 41:1166-1170.

Romieu, I, M Cortés, S Ruíz, S Sánchez, F Meneses, and M Hernándes-Avila. 1992. Air pollution and school absenteeism among children in Mexico City. Am J Epidemiol 136:1524-1531.

Romieu, I, F Meneses, J Sienra, J Huerta, S Ruiz, M White, R Etzel, and M Hernandez-Avila. 1994. Effects of ambient air pollution on respiratory health of Mexican children with mild asthma. Am J Resp Crit Care Med 129:A659.

Romieu, I, F Meneses, S Ruíz, JJ Sierra, J Huerta, M White, R Etzel, and M Hernández. 1995. Effects of urban air pollution on emergency visits for childhood asthma in Mexico City. Am J Epidemiol 141(6):546-553.

Romieu, I, F Meneses, S Ruiz, J Sienra, J Huerta, M White, and R Etzel. 1996. Effects of air pollution on respiratory health of children with mild asthma living in Mexico City. Am J Resp Crit Care Med 154:300-307.

Rosenthal, E. 1993. Hibernating bears emerge with hints about human ills. New York Times 21 April:C1,C9.

Ryzan, CA. 1987. Massive outbreak of antimicrobial-resistant salmonellosis traced to pasteurized milk. JAMA 258(22):3269-3274.

Sanford, JP. 1991. Arenavirus infections. In Chap. 149 in Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine, edited by JD Wilson, E Braunwald, KJ Isselbacher, RG Petersdorf, JB Martin, AS Fauci, and RK Root.

Schneider, K. 1991. Ozone depletion harming sea life. New York Times 16 November:6.

Schultes, RE 1991. Dwindling forest medicinal plants of the Amazon. Harvard Med Alum Bull (Summer):32-36.

—.1992: Personal communication. 24 January 1992.

Sharp, D. (ed.). 1994. Health and Climate Change. London: The Lancet Ltd.

Shope, RE. 1990. Infectious diseases and atmospheric change. In Global Atmospheric Change and Public Health: Proceedings of the Center for Environmental Information, edited by JC White. New York: Elsevier.

Shulka, J, C Nobre, and P Sellers. 1990. Amazon deforestation and climate change. Science 247:1325.

Statistisches Bundesamt. 1994. Gesundheitswersen: Meldepflichtige Krankheiten. Wiesbaden: Statistisches Bundesamt.

Stevens, WK. 1992. Terror of the deep faces harsher predator. New York Times. 8 December:Cl,C12.

Stolarski, R, R Bojkov, L Bishop, C Zerefos, et al. 1992. Measured trends in stratospheric ozone. Science 256:342-349.

Taylor, HR. 1990. Cataracts and ultraviolet light. In Global Atmospheric Change and Public Health: Proceedings of the Center for Environmental Information, edited by JC White. New York: Elsevier.

Taylor, HR, SK West, FS Rosenthal, B Munoz, HS Newland, H Abbey, EA Emmett. 1988. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on cataract formation. N Engl J Med 319:1429-33.

Terborgh, J. 1980. Where Have All the Birds Gone? Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Tucker, JB. 1985. Drugs from the sea spark renewed interest. Bioscience 35(9):541-545.

United Nations (UN). 1993. Agenda 21. New York: UN.

United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED). 1992. Protection for the quality and supply of freshwater resources. In Chap. 18 in Application of Integrated Approaches to the Development, Management and Use of Water Resources. Rio de Janeiro: UNCED.

United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). 1988. Assessment of Chemical Contaminants in Food. Nairobi: UNEP/FAO/WHO.

—. 1991a. Environmental Effects of Ozone Depletion: 1991 Update. Nairobi: UNEP.

—. 1991b. Urban Air Pollution. Environment Library, No. 4. Nairobi: UNEP.
Urban Edge. 1990a. Reducing accidents: Lessons learned. Urban Edge 14(5):4-6.

—. 1990b. Road safety a lethal problem in third world. Urban Edge 14(5):1-3.

Watts, DM, DS Burke, BA Harrison, RE Whitmire, A Nisalak. 1987. Effect of temperature on the vector efficiency of Aedes aegypti for dengue 2 virus. Am J Trop Med Hyg 36:143-152.

Wenzel, RP. 1994. A new hantavirus infection in North America. New Engl J Med 330(14):1004-1005.

Wilson, EO. 1988. The current state of biological diversity. In Biodiversity, edited by EO Wilson. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

—. 1989. Threats to biodiversity. Sci Am 261:108-116.

—. 1992. The Diversity of Life. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

World Bank. 1992. Development and the Environment. Oxford: OUP.

World Health Organization (WHO). 1984. Toxic Oil Syndrome: Mass Food Poisoning in Spain. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe.

—. 1987. Air Quality Guidelines for Europe. European Series, No. 23. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe.

—. 1990a. Acute Effects On Health of Smog Episodes. WHO Regional Publications European Series, No. 3. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe.

—. 1990b. Diet, Nutrition and Prevention of Chronic Diseases. WHO Technical Report Series, No. 797. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe.

—. 1990c. Global Estimates for Health Situation, Assessment and Projections. WHO Technical Report Series, No. 797. Geneva: WHO.

—. 1990d. Potential Health Effects of Climatic Change. Geneva: WHO.

—. 1990e. Public health impact of pesticides used in agriculture. World Health Statistics Quarterly 43:118-187.

—. 1992a. Indoor Air Pollution from Biomass Fuel. Geneva: WHO.

—. 1992b. Our Planet, Our Health. Geneva: WHO.

—. 1993. Weekly Epidemiol Rec 3(69):13-20.

—. 1994. Ultraviolet Radiation. Environmental Health Criteria, No. 160. Geneva: WHO.

—. 1995. Update and Revision of the Air Quality Guidelines for Europe. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe.

—. in press. Potential Health Effects of Global Climate Change: Update. Geneva: WHO.
World Health Organization (WHO) and ECOTOX. 1992. Motor Vehicle Air Pollution. Public Health Impact and Control Measures. Geneva: WHO.

World Health Organization (WHO) and FAO. 1984. The Role of Food Safety in Health and Development. WHO Technical Report Series, No. 705. Geneva: WHO.

World Health Organization (WHO) and UNEP. 1991. Progress in the Implementation of the Mar Del Plata Action Plan and a Strategy for the 1990s. Geneva: WHO.

—. 1992. Urban Air Pollution in Megacities of the World. Blackwells, UK: WHO.

World Health Organization (WHO) Commission on Health and Environment. 1992a. Report of the Panel On Urbanization. Geneva: WHO.

—. 1992b. Report of the Panel On Energy. Geneva: WHO.

World Meteorological Organization (WMO). 1992. GCOS: Responding to the Need for Climate Observations. Geneva: WMO.
Young, FE. 1987. Food safety and FDA’s action plan phase II. Food Technol 41:116-123.