" DISCLAIMER: The ILO does not take responsibility for content presented on this web portal that is presented in any language other than English, which is the language used for the initial production and peer-review of original content. Certain statistics have not been updated since the production of the 4th edition of the Encyclopaedia (1998)."

Thursday, 10 March 2011 14:42

Farmworker Education About Pesticides: A Case Study

Written by
Rate this item
(0 votes)

At the San Antonio farm, several workers became poisoned when applying the pesticide Lannate. An investigation of the case revealed that the workers had been using backpack sprayers for application without wearing any protective clothing, gloves or boots. Their employer had never provided the necessary equipment, and soap and showers were also unavailable. Following the poisonings, the employer was directed to take the appropriate corrective actions.

When the Ministry of Health made a follow-up inspection, they discovered that many farmers were still not using any protective clothing or equipment. When they were asked why, some said that the equipment was too hot and uncomfortable. Others explained that they had been working this way for years and never had any problems. Several commented that they didn’t need the equipment because they drank a large glass of milk after applying pesticides.

This experience, which took place in Nicaragua, is common to many parts of the world and illustrates the challenge to effective farmworker training. Training must be accompanied by provision of a safe work environment and legislative enforcement, but must also consider the barriers to implementing safe work practices and incorporate them in training programmes. These barriers, such as unsafe work environments, absence of protective equipment and attitudes and beliefs which are not health-promoting, should be directly discussed in training sessions, and strategies to address them should be developed.

This article describes an action-oriented training approach applied in two multidisciplinary pesticide projects that were designed to address the problem of farmworker pesticide poisoning. They were implemented in Nicaragua by CARE, Nicaragua and the American Friends Service Committee (1985 to 1989) and in the Central American region by the International Labour Organization (ILO, 1993 to present). In addition to a strong educational approach, the Nicaraguan project developed improved methods to mix and load pesticides, a medical monitoring plan to screen workers for overexposure to pesticides and a system to collect data for epidemiological investigation (Weinger and Lyons 1992). Within its multifaceted project, the ILO emphasized legislative improvements, training and building a regional network of pesticide educators.

Key elements of both projects were the implementation of a training needs assessment in order to tailor teaching content to the target audience, the use of a variety of participatory teaching approaches (Weinger and Wallerstein 1990) and the production of a teacher’s guide and educational materials to facilitate the learning process. Training topics included the health effects of pesticides, symptoms of pesticide poisoning, rights, resources and a problem-solving component which analysed the obstacles to working safely and how to resolve them.

Although there were many similarities between the two projects, the Nicaraguan project emphasized worker education while the regional project focused on teacher training. This article provides selected guidelines for both worker and teacher training.

Worker Education

Needs assessment

The first step in developing the training programme was the needs assessment or “listening phase”, which identified problems and obstacles to effective change, recognized factors which were conducive to change, defined values and beliefs held by the farmworkers and identified specific hazardous exposures and experiences which needed to be incorporated into the training. Walkthrough inspections were used by the Nicaraguan project team to observe work practices and sources of worker exposure to pesticides. Photographs were taken of the work environment and work practices for documentation, analysis and discussion during the training. The team also listened for emotional issues which might be barriers to action: worker frustration with inadequate personal protection, lack of soap and water or lack of safe alternatives to currently used pesticides.

Training methods and objectives

The next step in the training process was to identify the content areas to be covered utilizing information gained from listening to workers and then to select appropriate training methods based on the learning objectives. The training had four objectives: providing information; identifying and changing attitudes/emotions; promoting healthy behaviours; and developing action/problem-solving skills. What follows are examples of methods grouped under the objective which they best achieve. The following methods were incorporated into a 2-day training session (Wallerstein and Weinger 1992).

Methods for information objectives

Flipchart. In Nicaragua, the project staff needed visual educational tools which were easily portable and independent of electricity for use during field training or with medical screening on the farms. The flipchart included 18 drawings based on real-life situations, which were designed for use as discussion starters. Each picture had specific objectives and key questions that were outlined in an accompanying guide for instructors.

The flipchart could be used both to provide information and to promote problem analysis leading to action planning. For example, a drawing was used to provide information on the routes of entry by asking “How do pesticides enter the body?” To generate analysis of the problem of pesticide poisoning, the instructor would ask participants: “What’s happening here? Is this scene familiar? Why does this occur? What can (he) you do about it?” The introduction of two or more people into a drawing (of two people entering a recently sprayed field) encourages discussion of suspected motivations and feelings. “Why is she reading the sign? Why did he go right in?” With effective visual images, the same picture may trigger a variety of discussions, depending upon the group.

Slides. Slides which portray familiar images or problems were used in the same way as the flipchart. Using photos taken during the needs assessment phase, a slide show was created following the path of pesticide use from selection and purchase to disposal and clean-up at the end of the workday.

Methods for attitude-emotion objectives

Attitudes and emotions may effectively block learning and influence how health and safety practices are implemented back on the job.

Scripted role-play. A scripted role-play was often used to explore attitudes and trigger discussion of the problems of exposure to pesticides. The following script was given to three workers, who read their roles to the entire group.

Jose: What’s the matter?

Rafael: I’m about ready to give up. Two workers were poisoned today, just one week after that big training session. Nothing ever changes around here.

Jose: What did you expect? The managers didn’t even attend the training.

Sara: But at least they scheduled a training for the workers. That’s more than the other farms are doing.

Jose: Setting up a training is one thing, but what about follow-up? Are the managers providing showers and adequate protective equipment?

Sara: Have you ever thought that the workers might have something to do with these poisonings? How do you know they’re working safely?

Rafael: I don’t know. All I know is that two guys are in the hospital today and I have to go back to work.

The role-play was developed to explore the complex problem of pesticide health and safety and the multiple elements involved in resolving it, including training. In the discussion which followed, the facilitator asked the group if they shared any of the attitudes expressed by the farmworkers in the role-play, explored obstacles to resolving the problems portrayed and solicited strategies for overcoming them.

Worksheet questionnaire. In addition to serving as an excellent discussion starter and providing factual information, a questionnaire can also be a vehicle for eliciting attitudes. Sample questions for a farmworker group in Nicaragua were:

1. Drinking milk before work is effective in preventing pesticide poisoning.

Agree            Disagree

2. All pesticides have the same effect on your health.

Agree            Disagree


A discussion of attitudes was encouraged by inviting participants with conflicting viewpoints to present and justify their opinions. Rather than affirming the “correct” answer, the instructor acknowledged useful elements in the variety of attitudes that were expressed.

Methods for behavioural skill objectives

Behavioural skills are the desired competencies that workers will acquire as a result of training. The most effective way to achieve objectives for behavioural skill development is to provide participants with opportunities to practise in the class, to see an activity and perform it.

Personal protective equipment demonstration. A display of protective equipment and clothing was laid out on a table in front of the class, including an array of appropriate and inappropriate options. The trainer asked a volunteer from the audience to get dressed for work applying pesticides. The farmworker chose clothing from the display and put it on; the audience was asked to comment. A discussion followed concerning appropriate protective clothing and alternatives to uncomfortable clothing.

Hands-on practice. Both trainers and farmworkers in Nicaragua learned to interpret pesticide labels by reading them in small groups during the class. In this activity, the class was divided into groups and given the task of reading different labels as a group. For low-literacy groups, volunteer participants were recruited to read the label aloud and lead their group through a worksheet questionnaire on the label, which emphasized visual cues to determine level of toxicity. Back in the large group, volunteer spokespeople introduced their pesticide to the group with instructions for potential users.

Methods for action/problem-solving objectives

A primary goal of the training session is to provide farmworkers with the information and skills to make changes back on the job.

Discussion starters. A discussion starter can be used to pose problems or potential obstacles to change, for analysis by the group. A discussion starter can take a variety of forms: a role-play, a picture in a flipchart or slide, a case study. To lead a dialogue on the discussion starter, there is a 5-step questioning process which invites participants to identify the problem, project themselves into the situation being presented, share their personal reactions, analyse the causes of the problem and suggest action strategies (Weinger and Wallerstein 1990).

Case studies. Cases were drawn from real and familiar situations that occurred in Nicaragua that were identified in the planning process. They most commonly illustrated problems such as employer noncompliance, worker noncompliance with safety precautions within their control and the dilemma of a worker with symptoms that may be related to pesticide exposure. A sample case study was used to introduce this article.

Participants read the case in small groups and responded to a series of questions such as: What are some of the causes of pesticide poisoning in this incident? Who’s benefiting? Who’s being harmed? What steps would you take to prevent a similar problem in the future?

Action planning. Prior to the conclusion of the training session, participants worked independently or in groups to develop a plan of action to increase workplace health and safety when pesticides are used. Using a worksheet, participants identified at least one step they could take to promote safe working conditions and practices.

Evaluation and Teacher Training

Determining the extent to which the sessions met their objectives is a crucial part of training projects. Evaluation tools included a written post-workshop questionnaire and follow-up visits to farms as well as surveys and interviews with participants 6 months following the training session.

Training teachers who would utilize the approach outlined above to provide information and training to farmworkers was an essential component of the ILO-sponsored Central American programmes. The objectives of the teacher training programme were to increase the knowledge on pesticide health and safety and the teaching skill of trainers; to increase the number and quality of training sessions directed toward farmworkers, employers, extension workers and agronomists in project countries; and to initiate a network of educators in pesticide health and safety in the region.

Training topics in the 1-week session included: an overview of the health effects of pesticides, safe work practices and equipment; the principles of adult education; steps in planning an educational programme and how to implement them; demonstration of selected teaching methods; overview of presentation skills; practice teaching by participants using participatory methods, with critique; and development of action plans for future teaching about pesticides and alternatives to their use. A 2-week session allows time to conduct a field visit and training needs assessment during the workshop, to develop educational materials in the classroom and to conduct worker training sessions in the field.

A trainer’s guide and sample curricula were provided during the workshop to facilitate practice teaching both in the classroom and following the workshop. The educators’ network offers another source of support and a vehicle for sharing innovative teaching approaches and materials.


The success of this teaching approach with workers in the cotton fields of Nicaragua, trade unionists in Panama and trainers from the Ministry of Health in Costa Rica, among others, demonstrates its adaptability to a variety of work settings and target groups. Its goals are not only to increase knowledge and skills, but also to provide the tools for problem-solving in the field after the teaching sessions have ended. One must be clear, however, that education alone cannot resolve the problems of pesticide use and abuse. A multidisciplinary approach which includes farmworker organizing, legislative enforcement strategies, engineering controls, medical monitoring and investigation into alternatives to pesticides is essential to effect comprehensive changes in pesticide practices.



Read 2521 times Last modified on Tuesday, 28 June 2011 08:07


Part I. The Body
Part II. Health Care
Part III. Management & Policy
Part IV. Tools and Approaches
Part V. Psychosocial and Organizational Factors
Part VI. General Hazards
Part VII. The Environment
Part VIII. Accidents and Safety Management
Part IX. Chemicals
Part X. Industries Based on Biological Resources
Agriculture and Natural Resources Based Industries
Farming Systems
Food and Fibre Crops
Tree, Bramble and Vine Crops
Specialty Crops
Beverage Crops
Health and Environmental Issues
Beverage Industry
Food Industry
Livestock Rearing
Paper and Pulp Industry
Part XI. Industries Based on Natural Resources
Part XII. Chemical Industries
Part XIII. Manufacturing Industries
Part XIV. Textile and Apparel Industries
Part XV. Transport Industries
Part XVI. Construction
Part XVII. Services and Trade
Part XVIII. Guides

Agriculture and Natural Resources Based Industries Additional Resources

Click the Button below to view additional resources for this topic.


Agriculture and Natural Resources Based Industries References

AgSafe—Coalition for Health and Safety in Agriculture. 1992. Occupational Injuries in California Agriculture 1981–1990. Berkeley, CA: University of California.

Alexandratos, N. 1995. World Agriculture: Towards 2010. An FAO Study. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Bean, TL and TS Lawrence. 1992. Vehicles on Public Highways. National Institute for Farm Safety Paper No. 92-04.
Myrtle Beach, SC: National Institute for Farm Safety.

Bonsall, JL. 1985. Measurement of occupational exposure to pesticides. In Occupational Hazards of Pesticide Use, edited by GJ Turnbull. London: Taylor and Francis.

Boxer PA, C Burnett, and N Swanson. 1995. Suicide and occupation: A review of the literature. J Occup Med 37(4):442–452.

Bringhurst, LS, RN Byrne, and J Gershon-Cohen. 1959. Respiratory disease of mushroom workers. Farmer’s lung. JAMA 171:15–18.

Brown, LR, N Lenssen, and H Kane. 1995. Vital Signs 1995: The Trends that Are Shaping Our Future. New York: WW Norton & Company.

Bull, D. 1982. A Growing Problem: Pesticides and the Third World Poor. Washington DC: Oxfam.

Campbell, WP. 1987. The Condition of Agricultural Driveline System Shielding and Its Impact on Injuries and Fatalities. MS Thesis. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University.

Chang, S. 1993. Mushroom biology: The impact on mushroom production and mushroom products. In Mushroom Biology and Mushroom Products, edited by S Chang, JA Buswell, and S Chiu. Hong Kong: Chinese University Press.

Christiani, DC. 1990. Occupational health in developing countries: Review of research needs. Am J Ind Med 17:393–401.

Connally LB, PA Schulte, RJ Alderfer, LM Goldenhar, GM Calvert, KE Davis-King, and WT Sanderson. 1996. Developing the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health’s cancer control demonstration projects for farm populations. Journal of Rural Health suppl 12(4):258–264.

Cox, A, HTM Folgering, and LJLD Van Griensven. 1988. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis caused by the spores of the Oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus. Eur Respir J 1:466–468.

—. 1989. Allergische Alveolitis verursacht durch Einatmung von Sporen des Pilzes Shii-take (Lentinus edodes). Atemwegs Lungenkr 15:233–234.

Dankelman, I and J Davidson. 1988. Women and Environment in the Third World: Alliance for the Future. London: Earthscan Publications.

Davies DR. 1995. Organophosphates, affective disorders, and suicide. Journal of Nutritional and Environmental Medicine 5:367–374.

Deere & Co. 1994. Farm and Ranch Safety Management. Moline, IL: Deere & Company.

Dufaut, A. 1988. Women carrying water: How it affects their health. Waterlines 6:23–25.

Eicher, LC. 1993. State Codes for Road Travel of Agricultural Machinery. American Society of Agricultural Engineering (ASAE) Paper No. 931513. St. Joseph, MI: ASAE.

Estlander T, L Kanerva and P Piirilä. 1996. Allergic dermatoses and respiratory diseases caused by decorative plants. Afr Newslttr Occup Health Saf 6(1):11–13.

Etherton, JR, JR Myers, RC Jensen, JC Russell, and RW Broddee. 1991. Agricultural machine-related deaths. Am J Public Health 81(6):776–768.

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. 1987. African Agriculture: The Next 25 Years. Rome: FAO.

—. 1995. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture. Rome: FAO.

—. 1997. FAOSTAT Statistics Database (http://apps.fao.org/Default.htm). Accessed 22 January.

Forget, G. 1991. Pesticides and the third world. J Toxicol Environ Health 32:11–31.

—. 1992. Occupational health and development: An overview of the situation. IDRC Reports: Perils in the Workplace 20:4–7.

Franck IM and DM Brownstone. 1987. Harvesters. New York: Facts on File Publications.

Freivalds, A. 1984. Evaluation of the lift angle in spade work. Ergonomics 27 suppl:128–133.

Gerrits, JPG and LJLD Van Griensven. 1990. New developments in indoor composting (tunnel process). Mushroom J 205:21–29.

Gite, LP. 1991. Optimum handle height for animal drawn mould board plough. Appl Ergon 22:21–28.

Gite, LP and BG Yadav. 1990. Optimum handle height for a push-pull type manually operated dryland weeder. Ergonomics 33:1487–1494.

Glascock, LA, TL Bean, RK Wood, TG Carpenter, and RG Holmes. 1993. Characteristics of SMV Accidents. American Society of Agricultural Engineering (ASAE) Paper No. 931618. St. Joseph, MI: ASAE.

Griffin, GA. 1973. Combine Harvesting. Moline, IL: Deere & Company.

Gunderson, PD. 1995. An analysis of suicides on the farm or ranch within five north central United States, 1980 to 1988. In Agricultural Health and Safety: Workplace, Environment, Sustainability, edited by HH McDuffie, JA Dosman, KM Semchuk, SA Olenchock, and A Senthilselvan. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Hanrahan, LP, HA Anderson, LK Haskins, J Olson, K Lappe, and D Reding. 1996. Wisconsin farmer cancer mortality, 1981 to 1990: Selected malignancies. Journal of Rural Health suppl 12(4):273–277.

Hausen, BM, KH Schulz, and U Noster. 1974. Allergic disease caused by the spores of an edible fungus Pleurotus florida. Mushr Sci 9:219–225.

Horner, WE, MD Ibanez, V Liengswangwong, JE Salvaggio, and SB Lehrer. 1988. Characterization of allergens from spores of the Oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus. J Allergy Clin Immunol 82:978–986.

International Labour Organization (ILO). 1994. Recent Developments in the Plantation Sector. Geneva: ILO.

International Organization for Standardization (ISO). 1985. ISO 263. Evaluation of Human Exposure to Whole-body Vibration: Part I: General Requirements. Geneva: ISO.

Jones, TH. 1978. How to Build Greenhouses, Garden Shelters, and Sheds. New York: Harper & Row.

Kelley, KA. 1996. Characteristics of flowing grain-related entrapments and suffocations with emphasis on grain transport vehicles. Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health 96(3):143–151.

Klincewicz, S, AT Fidler, G Siwinski, and A Fleeger. 1990. Health Hazard Report: Penick Corporation, Newark, New Jersey. No. HETA -87-311-2087. Cincinnati, OH: NIOSH.

Kundiev, YI. 1983. Conditions of labor in agriculture. In Occupational Diseases of Agricultural
Workers, edited by YI Kundiev and EP Krasnyu. Kiev: Zdorovye.

Loftas, T (ed.). 1995. Dimensions of Need: An Atlas of Food and Agriculture. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, Inc.

Makinen-Kiljunen, S, K Turjanmaa, T Palosuo, and T Reunala. 1992. Characterization of latex antigens and allergens in surgical gloves and natural rubber by immunoelectrophoretic methods. Journal Allergy Clin Immunol 90(2):230_235.

McDuffie, HH, JA Dosman, KM Semchuk, SA Olenchock, and A Senthilselvan (eds.). 1994. Agricultural Health and Safety: Workplace, Environment, Sustainability. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Merchant. JP, BA Boehlecke, G Taylor, and M Pickett-Harner (eds.). 1986. Occupational Respiratory Diseases. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 86-102. Washington, DC: GPO.

Meridian Research, Inc. 1994. Occupational Safety and Health Hazards in Agriculture: A Review of the Literature. Silver Spring, MD: Meridian Research.

Meyers, JR. 1997. Injuries among Farm Workers in the United States, 1993. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-115. Cincinnati, OH: NIOSH.

Meyers, JR and DL Hard. 1995. Work-related fatalities in the agricultural production and services sectors, 1980–1989. Am J Ind Med 27:51–63.

Miles, J. 1996. Personal communication.

Mines, R and PL Martin. 1986. A Profile of California Farmworkers. Giannini Information Series 86-2, Berkeley: University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources.

Mohan D and R Patel. 1992. Design of safer agricultural equipment: Application of ergonomics and epidemiology. Int J Ind Erg 10: 301–310.

Murphy, DJ and RC Williams. 1983. Safe Forage Harvesting. Agricultural Engineering Fact Sheet No. 21. State College, PA: Pennsylvania State University Cooperative Extension Service.

Murphy, DJ. 1992. Safety and Health for Production Agriculture. St. Joseph, MI: American Society of Agricultural Engineering.

Myers, ML. 1992. Sustainable Agriculture as a Strategy in Agricultural Safety. American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE) Paper No. 928510. St. Joseph, MI: ASAE.

Nag, PK and SK Chatterjeee. 1981. Physiological reactions of female workers in Indian agricultural work. Hum Factors 23:607–614.

Nag, PK and P Dutt. 1979. Effectiveness of some simple agricultural weeders with reference to physiological responses. J Hum Ergol 8:13–21.

—. 1980. Circulo-respiratory efficiency in some agricultural work. Appl Ergon 11:81–84.

Nag, PK and CK Pradhan. 1992. Ergonomics in the hoeing operation. Int J Ind Erg 10:341–350.

Nag, PK, NC Sebastian, and MG Marlankar. 1980. Occupational workload of Indian agricultural workers. Ergonomics 23:91–102.

Nag, PK, A Goswami, SP Ashtekar, and CK Pradhan. 1988. Ergonomics in sickle operation. Appl Ergon 19:233–239.

Nakazawa, T, K Kanatani and Y Umegae. 1981. Mushroom workers lung due to the inhalation of spores of Cortinus shii-take. Jpn J Chest Dis 40:934–938.

National Committee for Childhood Agricultural Injury Prevention. 1996. Children and Agriculture: Opportunities for Safety and Health. Marshfield, WI: Marshfield Clinic.

National Research Council (NRC). 1989. Alternative Agriculture. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

—. 1993. Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the Humid Tropics. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

National Safety Council (NSC). 1942. Accident Facts. Chicago, IL: NSC.

—. 1986. Grain Harvest Safety. Chicago, IL: NSC.

—. 1993. Accident Facts. Chicago, IL: NSC.

—. 1995. Accident Facts. Chicago, IL: NSC.

Nomura, S. 1993. Studies on the work load and health management in agricultural workers. Journal of Japanese Association of Rural Medicine 42:1007–1011.

Olson, J.A. 1987. Pleurotus spores as allergens. Mushr J 172:115–117.

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). 1994. Farm Employment and Economic Adjustment in OECD Countries. Paris: OECD.

Parrón, T, AF Hernández, and E Villanueva. 1996. Increased risk of suicide with exposure to pesticides in an intensive agricultural area: A 12-year retrospective study. Forensic Science International 79:53–63.

Partanen, T. 1996. Improving the work environment by means of risk surveys. Afr Newslttr Occup Health Saf 6(2):28–29.

Pearce, N and JS Reif. 1990. Epidemiologic studies of cancer in agricultural workers. Am J Ind Med 18:133–148.

Pepys, J. 1967. Hypersensitivity against inhaled organic antigens. J Roy Coll Phys London 2:42–48.

Popendorf, W and KJ Donham. 1991. Agricultural hygiene. In Patty’s Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology, 4th edition, edited by GD Clayton and FE Clayton. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Pradhan, CK, A Goswami, SK Ghosh, and PK Nag. 1986. Evaluation of working with spade in agriculture. Indian J Med Res 84:424–429.

Raffle, PAB, PH Adams, PJ Baxter, and WR Lee. 1994. Hunter’s Diseases of Occupations, 8th edition, London: Edward Arnold.

Recht, C and MF Wetterwald. 1992. Bamboos. Portland, OR: Timber Press.

Rowntree, RA. 1987. Contemplating the urban forests. In Our American Land: 1987 Yearbook of Agriculture. Washington, DC: USDA.

Rylander, R. 1986. Lung diseases caused by organic dusts in the farm environment. Am J Ind Med 10:221–227.

Sakula, A. 1967. Mushroom-worker’s lung. Brit Med J 3:708–710.

Sastre, J, MD Ibanez, M Lopez, and SB Lehrer. 1990. Respiratory and immunological reactions among Shii-take (Lentinus edodes) workers. Clin Exp Allergy 20:13–20.

Scherf, BD. 1995. World Watch List for Domestic Animal Diversity. Rome: FAO.

Sen, RN and PK Nag. 1975. Work organization of heavy load handling in India. J Hum Ergol 4:103–113.

Shutske, JM, WE Field, LD Gaultney, and SD Parsons. 1991. Agricultural machinery fire losses: A preventative approach. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 6(5):575–581.

Skillicorn, P, W Spira, and W Journet. 1993. Duckweed Aquaculture: A New Aquatic Farming System for Developing Countries. Washington, DC: World Bank.

Snyder, K and T Bobick. 1995. Safe Grain and Silage Handling. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 95-109. Cincinnati, OH: NIOSH.

Sonnenberg, ASM, PCC Van Loon, and LJLD Van Griensven. 1996. Het aantal sporen dat Pleurotus
spp. in de lucht verspreidt (with an English summary). De Champignoncultuur 40:269–272.

Steinke, WE. 1991. Farm Labor, Tractor Use, and Farm Work Injury Survey. Unpublished data. Davis, CA: University of California.

Stewart, CJ. 1974. Mushroom worker’s lung—Two outbreaks. Thorax 29:252–257.

Stolz, JL, PH Arger, and JM Benson. 1976. Mushroom worker’s lung disease. Radiology 119:61–63.

Storch, G, JG Burford, RB George, L Kaufman, and L Ajello. 1980. Acute histoplasmosis: Description of an outbreak in Northern Louisiana. Chest 77(1):38–42.

Sullivan JB, M Gonzales, GR Krieger, and CF Runge. 1992. Health-related hazards of agriculture. In Hazardous Material Toxicology: Clinical Principles of Environmental Health, edited by JB Sullivan and GR Kreiger. London: Williams & Wilkins.

Tannahill, R. 1973. Food in History. New York: Stein and Day.

Toner, M. 1996. Debugging king cotton. Atlanta Journal-Constitution 47(50):G1.

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). 1996. Urban Agriculture: Food, Jobs, and Sustainable Cities. New York: UNDP.

US Department of Agriculture (USDA). 1996. Foreign Agricultural Service Circular Series FTROP 2-96. Washington, DC: USDA.

US Department of Labor (DOL). 1968. Fair Labor Standards Act—The Hazardous Occupations Order for Agriculture. Washington, DC: US DOL.

US Department of State. 1996. International Narcotics Control Report. Washington, DC: US Department of State.

Van den Bogart, HGG. 1990. De champignonkwekerslong: een onderzoek naar voorkomen en etiologie in Nederland. PhD dissertation. Nijmegen, Netherlands: University of Nijmegen.

Van den Bogart, HGG, G Van den Ende, PGG Van Loon, and LJLD Van Griensven. 1993. Mushroom worker’s lung: serologic reactions to thermophilic actinomycetes in the air of compost tunnels. Mycopathologia 122:21–28.

Van Haaren, JPM. 1988. Occupational diseases. In The Cultivation of Mushrooms, edited by LJLD Van Griensven. Rustington, UK: Darlington Mushroom Laboratories.

Van Loon, PCC, AL Cox, OPJM Wuisman, SLGE Burgers, and LJLD Van Griensven. 1992. Mushroom worker’s lung. Detection of antibodies against shii take (Lentinus edodes) spore antigens in shii take workers. J Occup Med 34:1097–1101.

Villarejo, D. 1995. Issues for farm employees in the United States. In Agricultural Health and Safety: Workplace, Environment and Sustainability, edited by HH McDuffie, JA Dosman, KM Semchulk, SA Olenchock, and A Senthilselvan. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Viten VPh, EP Krashyyuh, and OV Ilyna. 1994. Ergonomic and health aspects of pesticide exposure in greenhouses. In Health, Safety and Ergonomic Aspects in Use of Chemicals in Agriculture and Forestry: Proceedings of the XII Joint GIGR; IAAMRH, IUFRP International Symposium, edited by Y Kundiev. Kiev: Institute for Occupational Health.

Wallerstein N and M Weinger. 1992. Health and safety education for worker empowerment. Am J Ind Med 22:619–635.

Weinger, J and M Lyons. 1992. Problem-solving in the fields: An action-oriented approach to farmworker education about pesticides. Am J Ind Med 22:677–690.

Weinger, M and N Wallerstein. 1990. Education for action: An innovative approach to training hospital employees. In Essentials of Modern Hospital Safety, edited by W Charney and J Whirmer. Chelsea, MI: Lewis Publishers.

Zejda. JE, HH McDuffie, and JA Dosman. 1993. Epidemiology of health and safety risks in agriculture and related industries: Practical applications for rural physicians. West J Med 158:56–63.