" DISCLAIMER: The ILO does not take responsibility for content presented on this web portal that is presented in any language other than English, which is the language used for the initial production and peer-review of original content. Certain statistics have not been updated since the production of the 4th edition of the Encyclopaedia (1998)."

Thursday, 10 March 2011 14:12


Written by
Rate this item
(0 votes)

Adapted from 3rd edition, “Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety”.

The term plantation is widely used to describe large-scale units where industrial methods are applied to certain agricultural enterprises. These enterprises are found primarily in the tropical regions of Asia, Africa and Central and South America, but they are also found in certain subtropical areas where the climate and soil are suitable for the growth of tropical fruits and vegetation.

Plantation agriculture includes short-rotation crops, such as pineapple and sugar cane, as well as tree crops, such as bananas and rubber. In addition, the following tropical and subtropical crops are usually considered as plantation crops: tea, coffee, cocoa, coconuts, mango, sisal and palm nuts. However, large-scale cultivation of certain other crops, such as rice, tobacco, cotton, maize, citrus fruits, castor beans, peanuts, jute, hemp and bamboo, is also referred to as plantation cultivation. Plantation crops have several characteristics:

  • They are either tropical or subtropical products for which an export market exists.
  • Most require prompt initial processing.
  • The crop passes through few local marketing or processing centres before reaching the consumer.
  • They typically require a significant investment of fixed capital, such as processing facilities.
  • They generate some activity for most of the year, and thus offer continuous employment.
  • Monocropping is typical, which allows for specialization of technology and management.


While the cultivation of the various plantation crops requires widely different geographic, geological and climatic conditions, practically all of them thrive best in areas where climatic and environmental conditions are arduous. In addition, the extensive nature of plantation undertakings, and in most cases their isolation, has given rise to new settlements that differ considerably from indigenous settlements (NRC 1993).

Plantation Work

The main activity on a plantation is the cultivation of one of two kinds of crops. This involves the following kinds of work: soil preparation, planting, cultivation, weeding, crop treatment, harvesting, transportation and storage of produce. These operations entail the use of a variety of tools, machines and agricultural chemicals. Where virgin land is to be cultivated, it may be necessary to clear forest land by felling trees, uprooting stumps and burning off undergrowth, followed by ditch and irrigation channel digging. In addition to the basic cultivation work, other activities may also be carried out on a plantation: raising livestock, processing crops and maintaining and repairing buildings, plants, machinery, implements, roads and railway tracks. It may be necessary to generate electricity, dig wells, maintain irrigation trenches, operate engineering or woodworking shops and transport products to the market.

Child labour is employed on plantations around the world. Children work with their parents as part of a team for task-based compensation, or they are employed directly for special plantation jobs. They typically experience long and arduous working hours, little safety and health protection and inadequate diet, rest and education. Rather than direct employment, many children are recruited as labour through contractors, which is common for occasional and seasonal tasks. Employing labour through contracted intermediaries is a long-standing practice on plantations. The plantation management thus does not have an employer- employee relationship with the plantation workers. Rather, they contract with the intermediary to supply the labour. Generally, conditions of work for contract labour are inferior to those of directly employed workers.

Many plantation workers are paid based upon the tasks performed rather than the hours worked. For example, these tasks may include lines of sugar cane cut and loaded, number of rubber trees tapped, rows weeded, bushels of sisal cut, kilograms of tea plucked or hectares of fertilizer applied. Conditions such as climate and terrain may affect the time to complete these tasks, and whole families may work from dawn to dusk without taking a break. The majority of countries where plantation commodities are grown report that plantation employees work more than 40 hours per week. Moreover, most plantation workers move to their work location on foot, and since plantations are large, much time and effort are expended on travel to and from the job. This travel can take hours each way (ILO 1994).

Hazards and Their Prevention

Work on plantations involves numerous hazards relating to the work environment, the tools and equipment used and the very nature of the work. One of the first steps toward improving safety and health on plantations is to appoint a safety officer and form a joint safety and health committee. Safety officers should assure that buildings and equipment are kept safe and that work is performed safely. Safety committees bring management and labour together in a common undertaking and enable the workers to participate directly in improving safety. Safety committee functions include developing work rules for safety, participating in injury and disease investigations and identifying locations that place workers and their families in danger.

Medical services and first aid materials with adequate instruction should be provided. Medical doctors should be trained in the recognition of occupational diseases related to plantation work including pesticide poisoning and heat stress. A risk survey should be implemented on the plantation. The purpose of the survey is to comprehend risk circumstances so that preventive action can be taken. The safety and health committee can be engaged in the survey along with experts including the safety officer, the medical supervisor and inspectors. Table 1  shows the steps involved in a survey. The survey should result in action including the control of potential hazards as well as hazards that have resulted in an injury or disease (Partanen 1996). A description of some potential hazards and their control follow.


Table 1. Ten steps for a plantation work risk survey


  1. Define the problem and its priority.
  2. Find existing data.
  3. Justify the need for more data.
  4. Define survey objectives, design, population, time and methods.
  5. Define tasks and costs, and their timing.
  6. Prepare protocol.
  7. Collect data.
  8. Analyse data and assess risks.
  9. Publish results.
  10. Follow up.

Source: Partanen 1996.


Fatigue and climate-related hazards

The long hours and demanding work make fatigue a major concern. Fatigued workers may be unable to make safe judgements; this may lead to incidents that can result in injuries or other inadvertent exposures. Rest periods and shorter workdays can reduce fatigue.

Physical stress is increased by heat and relative humidity. Frequent water consumption and rest breaks help to avoid problems with heat stress.

Tool and equipment-related injuries

Poorly designed tools will often result in poor work posture, and poorly sharpened tools will require greater physical effort to complete tasks. Working in a bent or stooping position and lifting heavy loads imposes strain on the back. Working with arms above the shoulder can cause upper-extremity musculoskeletal disorders (figure 1). Proper tools should be selected to eliminate poor posture, and they should be well maintained. Heavy lifting can be reduced by lessening the weight of the load or engaging more workers to lift the load.

Figure 1. Banana cutters at work on "La Julia" plantation in Ecuador


Injuries can result from improper uses of hand tools such as machetes, scythes, axes and other sharp-edged or pointed tools, or portable power tools such as chain-saws; poor positioning and disrepair of ladders; or unsuitable replacements for broken ropes and chains. Workers should be trained in the proper use and maintenance of equipment and tools. Appropriate replacements should be provided for broken or damaged tools and equipment.

Unguarded machinery can entangle clothing or hair and can crush workers and result in serious injury or death. All machines should have safety built in, and the possibility of dangerous contact with moving parts should be eliminated. A lockout/tagout programme should be in effect for all maintenance and repair.

Machinery and equipment are also sources of excessive noise, resulting in hearing loss among plantation workers. Hearing protection should be used with machinery with high levels of noise. Low noise levels should be a factor in selecting equipment.


Vehicle-related injuries

Plantation roadways and paths may be narrow, thus presenting the hazard of head-on crashes between vehicles or overturns off the side of the road. Safe boarding of transport vehicles including trucks, tractor- or animal-drawn trailers and railways should be ensured. Where two-way roads are used, wider passages should be provided at suitable intervals to allow vehicles to pass. Adequate railing should be provided on bridges and along precipices and ravines.

Tractors and other vehicles pose two principal dangers to workers. One is tractor overturns, which commonly result in the fatal crushing of the operator. Employers should ensure that rollover protective structures are mounted on tractors. Seat-belts should also be worn during tractor operation. The other major problem is vehicle run-overs; workers should remain clear of vehicle travel paths, and extra riders should not be allowed on tractors unless safe seating is available.


Electricity is used on plantations in shops and for processing crops and lighting buildings and grounds. Improper use of electric installations or equipment can expose workers to severe shocks, burns or electrocutions. The danger is more acute in damp places or when working with wet hands or clothing. Wherever water is present, or for electrical outlets outdoors, ground fault interrupter circuits should be installed. Wherever thunderstorms are frequent or severe, lightning protection should be provided for all plantation buildings, and workers should be trained in ways to minimize their danger of being struck and to locate safe refuges.


Electricity as well as open flames or smouldering cigarettes can provide the ignition source for fuel or organic dust explosions. Fuels—kerosene, gasoline or diesel fuel—can cause fires or explosions if mishandled or improperly stored. Greasy and combustible waste poses a risk of fire in shops. Fuels should be kept clear of any ignition source. Flameproof electrical devices and appliances should be used wherever flammables or explosives are present. Fuses or electrical breaker devices should also be used in electrical circuits.


The use of toxic agrochemicals is a major concern, particularly during the intensive use of pesticides, including herbicides, fungicides and insecticides. Exposures can take place during agricultural production, packaging, storage, transport, retailing, application (often by hand or aerial spraying), recycling or disposal. Risk of exposure to pesticides can be aggravated by illiteracy, poor or faulty labelling, leaking containers, poor or no protective gear, dangerous reformulations, ignorance of the hazard, disregard of rules and a lack of supervision or technical training. Workers applying pesticides should be trained in pesticide use and should wear appropriate clothing and respiratory protection, a particularly difficult behaviour to enforce in tropical areas where protective equipment can add to the heat stress of the wearer (figure 2 ). Alternatives to pesticide use should be a priority, or less toxic pesticides should be used.

Figure 2. Protective clothing worn when applying pesticides


Animal-inflicted injuries and illnesses

On some plantations, draught animals are used for dragging or carrying loads. These animals include horses, donkeys, mules and oxen. These types of animals have injured workers by kicking or biting. They also potentially expose workers to zoonotic diseases including anthrax, brucellosis, rabies, Q-fever or tularaemia. Animals should be well trained, and those that exhibit dangerous behaviour should not be used for work. Bridles, harnesses, saddles and so on should be used and maintained in good condition and be properly adjusted. Diseased animals should be identified and treated or disposed of.

Poisonous snakes may be present on the ground or some species may fall from trees onto workers. Snakebite kits should be provided to workers and emergency procedures should be in place for obtaining medical assistance and the appropriate anti-venom drugs should be available. Special hats made of hard materials that are capable of deflecting snakes should be provided and worn in locations where snakes drop on their victims from trees.

Infectious diseases

Infectious diseases can be transmitted to plantation workers by rats that infest buildings, or by drinking water or food. Unsanitary water leads to dysentery, a common problem among plantation workers. Sanitary and washing facilities should be installed and maintained in accordance with national legislation, and safe drinking water consistent with national requirements should be provided to workers and their families.

Confined spaces

Confined spaces, such as silos, can pose problems of toxic gases or oxygen deficiency. Good ventilation of confined spaces should be assured prior to entry, or appropriate respiratory protective equipment should be worn.



Read 4725 times Last modified on Tuesday, 06 September 2011 23:23
More in this category: Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers »


Part I. The Body
Part II. Health Care
Part III. Management & Policy
Part IV. Tools and Approaches
Part V. Psychosocial and Organizational Factors
Part VI. General Hazards
Part VII. The Environment
Part VIII. Accidents and Safety Management
Part IX. Chemicals
Part X. Industries Based on Biological Resources
Agriculture and Natural Resources Based Industries
Farming Systems
Food and Fibre Crops
Tree, Bramble and Vine Crops
Specialty Crops
Beverage Crops
Health and Environmental Issues
Beverage Industry
Food Industry
Livestock Rearing
Paper and Pulp Industry
Part XI. Industries Based on Natural Resources
Part XII. Chemical Industries
Part XIII. Manufacturing Industries
Part XIV. Textile and Apparel Industries
Part XV. Transport Industries
Part XVI. Construction
Part XVII. Services and Trade
Part XVIII. Guides

Agriculture and Natural Resources Based Industries Additional Resources

Click the Button below to view additional resources for this topic.


Agriculture and Natural Resources Based Industries References

AgSafe—Coalition for Health and Safety in Agriculture. 1992. Occupational Injuries in California Agriculture 1981–1990. Berkeley, CA: University of California.

Alexandratos, N. 1995. World Agriculture: Towards 2010. An FAO Study. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Bean, TL and TS Lawrence. 1992. Vehicles on Public Highways. National Institute for Farm Safety Paper No. 92-04.
Myrtle Beach, SC: National Institute for Farm Safety.

Bonsall, JL. 1985. Measurement of occupational exposure to pesticides. In Occupational Hazards of Pesticide Use, edited by GJ Turnbull. London: Taylor and Francis.

Boxer PA, C Burnett, and N Swanson. 1995. Suicide and occupation: A review of the literature. J Occup Med 37(4):442–452.

Bringhurst, LS, RN Byrne, and J Gershon-Cohen. 1959. Respiratory disease of mushroom workers. Farmer’s lung. JAMA 171:15–18.

Brown, LR, N Lenssen, and H Kane. 1995. Vital Signs 1995: The Trends that Are Shaping Our Future. New York: WW Norton & Company.

Bull, D. 1982. A Growing Problem: Pesticides and the Third World Poor. Washington DC: Oxfam.

Campbell, WP. 1987. The Condition of Agricultural Driveline System Shielding and Its Impact on Injuries and Fatalities. MS Thesis. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University.

Chang, S. 1993. Mushroom biology: The impact on mushroom production and mushroom products. In Mushroom Biology and Mushroom Products, edited by S Chang, JA Buswell, and S Chiu. Hong Kong: Chinese University Press.

Christiani, DC. 1990. Occupational health in developing countries: Review of research needs. Am J Ind Med 17:393–401.

Connally LB, PA Schulte, RJ Alderfer, LM Goldenhar, GM Calvert, KE Davis-King, and WT Sanderson. 1996. Developing the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health’s cancer control demonstration projects for farm populations. Journal of Rural Health suppl 12(4):258–264.

Cox, A, HTM Folgering, and LJLD Van Griensven. 1988. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis caused by the spores of the Oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus. Eur Respir J 1:466–468.

—. 1989. Allergische Alveolitis verursacht durch Einatmung von Sporen des Pilzes Shii-take (Lentinus edodes). Atemwegs Lungenkr 15:233–234.

Dankelman, I and J Davidson. 1988. Women and Environment in the Third World: Alliance for the Future. London: Earthscan Publications.

Davies DR. 1995. Organophosphates, affective disorders, and suicide. Journal of Nutritional and Environmental Medicine 5:367–374.

Deere & Co. 1994. Farm and Ranch Safety Management. Moline, IL: Deere & Company.

Dufaut, A. 1988. Women carrying water: How it affects their health. Waterlines 6:23–25.

Eicher, LC. 1993. State Codes for Road Travel of Agricultural Machinery. American Society of Agricultural Engineering (ASAE) Paper No. 931513. St. Joseph, MI: ASAE.

Estlander T, L Kanerva and P Piirilä. 1996. Allergic dermatoses and respiratory diseases caused by decorative plants. Afr Newslttr Occup Health Saf 6(1):11–13.

Etherton, JR, JR Myers, RC Jensen, JC Russell, and RW Broddee. 1991. Agricultural machine-related deaths. Am J Public Health 81(6):776–768.

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. 1987. African Agriculture: The Next 25 Years. Rome: FAO.

—. 1995. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture. Rome: FAO.

—. 1997. FAOSTAT Statistics Database (http://apps.fao.org/Default.htm). Accessed 22 January.

Forget, G. 1991. Pesticides and the third world. J Toxicol Environ Health 32:11–31.

—. 1992. Occupational health and development: An overview of the situation. IDRC Reports: Perils in the Workplace 20:4–7.

Franck IM and DM Brownstone. 1987. Harvesters. New York: Facts on File Publications.

Freivalds, A. 1984. Evaluation of the lift angle in spade work. Ergonomics 27 suppl:128–133.

Gerrits, JPG and LJLD Van Griensven. 1990. New developments in indoor composting (tunnel process). Mushroom J 205:21–29.

Gite, LP. 1991. Optimum handle height for animal drawn mould board plough. Appl Ergon 22:21–28.

Gite, LP and BG Yadav. 1990. Optimum handle height for a push-pull type manually operated dryland weeder. Ergonomics 33:1487–1494.

Glascock, LA, TL Bean, RK Wood, TG Carpenter, and RG Holmes. 1993. Characteristics of SMV Accidents. American Society of Agricultural Engineering (ASAE) Paper No. 931618. St. Joseph, MI: ASAE.

Griffin, GA. 1973. Combine Harvesting. Moline, IL: Deere & Company.

Gunderson, PD. 1995. An analysis of suicides on the farm or ranch within five north central United States, 1980 to 1988. In Agricultural Health and Safety: Workplace, Environment, Sustainability, edited by HH McDuffie, JA Dosman, KM Semchuk, SA Olenchock, and A Senthilselvan. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Hanrahan, LP, HA Anderson, LK Haskins, J Olson, K Lappe, and D Reding. 1996. Wisconsin farmer cancer mortality, 1981 to 1990: Selected malignancies. Journal of Rural Health suppl 12(4):273–277.

Hausen, BM, KH Schulz, and U Noster. 1974. Allergic disease caused by the spores of an edible fungus Pleurotus florida. Mushr Sci 9:219–225.

Horner, WE, MD Ibanez, V Liengswangwong, JE Salvaggio, and SB Lehrer. 1988. Characterization of allergens from spores of the Oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus. J Allergy Clin Immunol 82:978–986.

International Labour Organization (ILO). 1994. Recent Developments in the Plantation Sector. Geneva: ILO.

International Organization for Standardization (ISO). 1985. ISO 263. Evaluation of Human Exposure to Whole-body Vibration: Part I: General Requirements. Geneva: ISO.

Jones, TH. 1978. How to Build Greenhouses, Garden Shelters, and Sheds. New York: Harper & Row.

Kelley, KA. 1996. Characteristics of flowing grain-related entrapments and suffocations with emphasis on grain transport vehicles. Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health 96(3):143–151.

Klincewicz, S, AT Fidler, G Siwinski, and A Fleeger. 1990. Health Hazard Report: Penick Corporation, Newark, New Jersey. No. HETA -87-311-2087. Cincinnati, OH: NIOSH.

Kundiev, YI. 1983. Conditions of labor in agriculture. In Occupational Diseases of Agricultural
Workers, edited by YI Kundiev and EP Krasnyu. Kiev: Zdorovye.

Loftas, T (ed.). 1995. Dimensions of Need: An Atlas of Food and Agriculture. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, Inc.

Makinen-Kiljunen, S, K Turjanmaa, T Palosuo, and T Reunala. 1992. Characterization of latex antigens and allergens in surgical gloves and natural rubber by immunoelectrophoretic methods. Journal Allergy Clin Immunol 90(2):230_235.

McDuffie, HH, JA Dosman, KM Semchuk, SA Olenchock, and A Senthilselvan (eds.). 1994. Agricultural Health and Safety: Workplace, Environment, Sustainability. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Merchant. JP, BA Boehlecke, G Taylor, and M Pickett-Harner (eds.). 1986. Occupational Respiratory Diseases. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 86-102. Washington, DC: GPO.

Meridian Research, Inc. 1994. Occupational Safety and Health Hazards in Agriculture: A Review of the Literature. Silver Spring, MD: Meridian Research.

Meyers, JR. 1997. Injuries among Farm Workers in the United States, 1993. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-115. Cincinnati, OH: NIOSH.

Meyers, JR and DL Hard. 1995. Work-related fatalities in the agricultural production and services sectors, 1980–1989. Am J Ind Med 27:51–63.

Miles, J. 1996. Personal communication.

Mines, R and PL Martin. 1986. A Profile of California Farmworkers. Giannini Information Series 86-2, Berkeley: University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources.

Mohan D and R Patel. 1992. Design of safer agricultural equipment: Application of ergonomics and epidemiology. Int J Ind Erg 10: 301–310.

Murphy, DJ and RC Williams. 1983. Safe Forage Harvesting. Agricultural Engineering Fact Sheet No. 21. State College, PA: Pennsylvania State University Cooperative Extension Service.

Murphy, DJ. 1992. Safety and Health for Production Agriculture. St. Joseph, MI: American Society of Agricultural Engineering.

Myers, ML. 1992. Sustainable Agriculture as a Strategy in Agricultural Safety. American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE) Paper No. 928510. St. Joseph, MI: ASAE.

Nag, PK and SK Chatterjeee. 1981. Physiological reactions of female workers in Indian agricultural work. Hum Factors 23:607–614.

Nag, PK and P Dutt. 1979. Effectiveness of some simple agricultural weeders with reference to physiological responses. J Hum Ergol 8:13–21.

—. 1980. Circulo-respiratory efficiency in some agricultural work. Appl Ergon 11:81–84.

Nag, PK and CK Pradhan. 1992. Ergonomics in the hoeing operation. Int J Ind Erg 10:341–350.

Nag, PK, NC Sebastian, and MG Marlankar. 1980. Occupational workload of Indian agricultural workers. Ergonomics 23:91–102.

Nag, PK, A Goswami, SP Ashtekar, and CK Pradhan. 1988. Ergonomics in sickle operation. Appl Ergon 19:233–239.

Nakazawa, T, K Kanatani and Y Umegae. 1981. Mushroom workers lung due to the inhalation of spores of Cortinus shii-take. Jpn J Chest Dis 40:934–938.

National Committee for Childhood Agricultural Injury Prevention. 1996. Children and Agriculture: Opportunities for Safety and Health. Marshfield, WI: Marshfield Clinic.

National Research Council (NRC). 1989. Alternative Agriculture. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

—. 1993. Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the Humid Tropics. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

National Safety Council (NSC). 1942. Accident Facts. Chicago, IL: NSC.

—. 1986. Grain Harvest Safety. Chicago, IL: NSC.

—. 1993. Accident Facts. Chicago, IL: NSC.

—. 1995. Accident Facts. Chicago, IL: NSC.

Nomura, S. 1993. Studies on the work load and health management in agricultural workers. Journal of Japanese Association of Rural Medicine 42:1007–1011.

Olson, J.A. 1987. Pleurotus spores as allergens. Mushr J 172:115–117.

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). 1994. Farm Employment and Economic Adjustment in OECD Countries. Paris: OECD.

Parrón, T, AF Hernández, and E Villanueva. 1996. Increased risk of suicide with exposure to pesticides in an intensive agricultural area: A 12-year retrospective study. Forensic Science International 79:53–63.

Partanen, T. 1996. Improving the work environment by means of risk surveys. Afr Newslttr Occup Health Saf 6(2):28–29.

Pearce, N and JS Reif. 1990. Epidemiologic studies of cancer in agricultural workers. Am J Ind Med 18:133–148.

Pepys, J. 1967. Hypersensitivity against inhaled organic antigens. J Roy Coll Phys London 2:42–48.

Popendorf, W and KJ Donham. 1991. Agricultural hygiene. In Patty’s Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology, 4th edition, edited by GD Clayton and FE Clayton. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Pradhan, CK, A Goswami, SK Ghosh, and PK Nag. 1986. Evaluation of working with spade in agriculture. Indian J Med Res 84:424–429.

Raffle, PAB, PH Adams, PJ Baxter, and WR Lee. 1994. Hunter’s Diseases of Occupations, 8th edition, London: Edward Arnold.

Recht, C and MF Wetterwald. 1992. Bamboos. Portland, OR: Timber Press.

Rowntree, RA. 1987. Contemplating the urban forests. In Our American Land: 1987 Yearbook of Agriculture. Washington, DC: USDA.

Rylander, R. 1986. Lung diseases caused by organic dusts in the farm environment. Am J Ind Med 10:221–227.

Sakula, A. 1967. Mushroom-worker’s lung. Brit Med J 3:708–710.

Sastre, J, MD Ibanez, M Lopez, and SB Lehrer. 1990. Respiratory and immunological reactions among Shii-take (Lentinus edodes) workers. Clin Exp Allergy 20:13–20.

Scherf, BD. 1995. World Watch List for Domestic Animal Diversity. Rome: FAO.

Sen, RN and PK Nag. 1975. Work organization of heavy load handling in India. J Hum Ergol 4:103–113.

Shutske, JM, WE Field, LD Gaultney, and SD Parsons. 1991. Agricultural machinery fire losses: A preventative approach. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 6(5):575–581.

Skillicorn, P, W Spira, and W Journet. 1993. Duckweed Aquaculture: A New Aquatic Farming System for Developing Countries. Washington, DC: World Bank.

Snyder, K and T Bobick. 1995. Safe Grain and Silage Handling. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 95-109. Cincinnati, OH: NIOSH.

Sonnenberg, ASM, PCC Van Loon, and LJLD Van Griensven. 1996. Het aantal sporen dat Pleurotus
spp. in de lucht verspreidt (with an English summary). De Champignoncultuur 40:269–272.

Steinke, WE. 1991. Farm Labor, Tractor Use, and Farm Work Injury Survey. Unpublished data. Davis, CA: University of California.

Stewart, CJ. 1974. Mushroom worker’s lung—Two outbreaks. Thorax 29:252–257.

Stolz, JL, PH Arger, and JM Benson. 1976. Mushroom worker’s lung disease. Radiology 119:61–63.

Storch, G, JG Burford, RB George, L Kaufman, and L Ajello. 1980. Acute histoplasmosis: Description of an outbreak in Northern Louisiana. Chest 77(1):38–42.

Sullivan JB, M Gonzales, GR Krieger, and CF Runge. 1992. Health-related hazards of agriculture. In Hazardous Material Toxicology: Clinical Principles of Environmental Health, edited by JB Sullivan and GR Kreiger. London: Williams & Wilkins.

Tannahill, R. 1973. Food in History. New York: Stein and Day.

Toner, M. 1996. Debugging king cotton. Atlanta Journal-Constitution 47(50):G1.

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). 1996. Urban Agriculture: Food, Jobs, and Sustainable Cities. New York: UNDP.

US Department of Agriculture (USDA). 1996. Foreign Agricultural Service Circular Series FTROP 2-96. Washington, DC: USDA.

US Department of Labor (DOL). 1968. Fair Labor Standards Act—The Hazardous Occupations Order for Agriculture. Washington, DC: US DOL.

US Department of State. 1996. International Narcotics Control Report. Washington, DC: US Department of State.

Van den Bogart, HGG. 1990. De champignonkwekerslong: een onderzoek naar voorkomen en etiologie in Nederland. PhD dissertation. Nijmegen, Netherlands: University of Nijmegen.

Van den Bogart, HGG, G Van den Ende, PGG Van Loon, and LJLD Van Griensven. 1993. Mushroom worker’s lung: serologic reactions to thermophilic actinomycetes in the air of compost tunnels. Mycopathologia 122:21–28.

Van Haaren, JPM. 1988. Occupational diseases. In The Cultivation of Mushrooms, edited by LJLD Van Griensven. Rustington, UK: Darlington Mushroom Laboratories.

Van Loon, PCC, AL Cox, OPJM Wuisman, SLGE Burgers, and LJLD Van Griensven. 1992. Mushroom worker’s lung. Detection of antibodies against shii take (Lentinus edodes) spore antigens in shii take workers. J Occup Med 34:1097–1101.

Villarejo, D. 1995. Issues for farm employees in the United States. In Agricultural Health and Safety: Workplace, Environment and Sustainability, edited by HH McDuffie, JA Dosman, KM Semchulk, SA Olenchock, and A Senthilselvan. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Viten VPh, EP Krashyyuh, and OV Ilyna. 1994. Ergonomic and health aspects of pesticide exposure in greenhouses. In Health, Safety and Ergonomic Aspects in Use of Chemicals in Agriculture and Forestry: Proceedings of the XII Joint GIGR; IAAMRH, IUFRP International Symposium, edited by Y Kundiev. Kiev: Institute for Occupational Health.

Wallerstein N and M Weinger. 1992. Health and safety education for worker empowerment. Am J Ind Med 22:619–635.

Weinger, J and M Lyons. 1992. Problem-solving in the fields: An action-oriented approach to farmworker education about pesticides. Am J Ind Med 22:677–690.

Weinger, M and N Wallerstein. 1990. Education for action: An innovative approach to training hospital employees. In Essentials of Modern Hospital Safety, edited by W Charney and J Whirmer. Chelsea, MI: Lewis Publishers.

Zejda. JE, HH McDuffie, and JA Dosman. 1993. Epidemiology of health and safety risks in agriculture and related industries: Practical applications for rural physicians. West J Med 158:56–63.