" DISCLAIMER: The ILO does not take responsibility for content presented on this web portal that is presented in any language other than English, which is the language used for the initial production and peer-review of original content. Certain statistics have not been updated since the production of the 4th edition of the Encyclopaedia (1998)."
AgSafe—Coalition for Health and Safety in Agriculture. 1992. Occupational Injuries in California Agriculture 1981–1990. Berkeley, CA: University of California.
Alexandratos, N. 1995. World Agriculture: Towards 2010. An FAO Study. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Bean, TL and TS Lawrence. 1992. Vehicles on Public Highways. National Institute for Farm Safety Paper No. 92-04.
Myrtle Beach, SC: National Institute for Farm Safety.
Bonsall, JL. 1985. Measurement of occupational exposure to pesticides. In Occupational Hazards of Pesticide Use, edited by GJ Turnbull. London: Taylor and Francis.
Boxer PA, C Burnett, and N Swanson. 1995. Suicide and occupation: A review of the literature. J Occup Med 37(4):442–452.
Bringhurst, LS, RN Byrne, and J Gershon-Cohen. 1959. Respiratory disease of mushroom workers. Farmer’s lung. JAMA 171:15–18.
Brown, LR, N Lenssen, and H Kane. 1995. Vital Signs 1995: The Trends that Are Shaping Our Future. New York: WW Norton & Company.
Bull, D. 1982. A Growing Problem: Pesticides and the Third World Poor. Washington DC: Oxfam.
Campbell, WP. 1987. The Condition of Agricultural Driveline System Shielding and Its Impact on Injuries and Fatalities. MS Thesis. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University.
Chang, S. 1993. Mushroom biology: The impact on mushroom production and mushroom products. In Mushroom Biology and Mushroom Products, edited by S Chang, JA Buswell, and S Chiu. Hong Kong: Chinese University Press.
Christiani, DC. 1990. Occupational health in developing countries: Review of research needs. Am J Ind Med 17:393–401.
Connally LB, PA Schulte, RJ Alderfer, LM Goldenhar, GM Calvert, KE Davis-King, and WT Sanderson. 1996. Developing the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health’s cancer control demonstration projects for farm populations. Journal of Rural Health suppl 12(4):258–264.
Cox, A, HTM Folgering, and LJLD Van Griensven. 1988. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis caused by the spores of the Oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus. Eur Respir J 1:466–468.
—. 1989. Allergische Alveolitis verursacht durch Einatmung von Sporen des Pilzes Shii-take (Lentinus edodes). Atemwegs Lungenkr 15:233–234.
Dankelman, I and J Davidson. 1988. Women and Environment in the Third World: Alliance for the Future. London: Earthscan Publications.
Davies DR. 1995. Organophosphates, affective disorders, and suicide. Journal of Nutritional and Environmental Medicine 5:367–374.
Deere & Co. 1994. Farm and Ranch Safety Management. Moline, IL: Deere & Company.
Dufaut, A. 1988. Women carrying water: How it affects their health. Waterlines 6:23–25.
Eicher, LC. 1993. State Codes for Road Travel of Agricultural Machinery. American Society of Agricultural Engineering (ASAE) Paper No. 931513. St. Joseph, MI: ASAE.
Estlander T, L Kanerva and P Piirilä. 1996. Allergic dermatoses and respiratory diseases caused by decorative plants. Afr Newslttr Occup Health Saf 6(1):11–13.
Etherton, JR, JR Myers, RC Jensen, JC Russell, and RW Broddee. 1991. Agricultural machine-related deaths. Am J Public Health 81(6):776–768.
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. 1987. African Agriculture: The Next 25 Years. Rome: FAO.
—. 1995. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture. Rome: FAO.
—. 1997. FAOSTAT Statistics Database (http://apps.fao.org/Default.htm). Accessed 22 January.
Forget, G. 1991. Pesticides and the third world. J Toxicol Environ Health 32:11–31.
—. 1992. Occupational health and development: An overview of the situation. IDRC Reports: Perils in the Workplace 20:4–7.
Franck IM and DM Brownstone. 1987. Harvesters. New York: Facts on File Publications.
Freivalds, A. 1984. Evaluation of the lift angle in spade work. Ergonomics 27 suppl:128–133.
Gerrits, JPG and LJLD Van Griensven. 1990. New developments in indoor composting (tunnel process). Mushroom J 205:21–29.
Gite, LP. 1991. Optimum handle height for animal drawn mould board plough. Appl Ergon 22:21–28.
Gite, LP and BG Yadav. 1990. Optimum handle height for a push-pull type manually operated dryland weeder. Ergonomics 33:1487–1494.
Glascock, LA, TL Bean, RK Wood, TG Carpenter, and RG Holmes. 1993. Characteristics of SMV Accidents. American Society of Agricultural Engineering (ASAE) Paper No. 931618. St. Joseph, MI: ASAE.
Griffin, GA. 1973. Combine Harvesting. Moline, IL: Deere & Company.
Gunderson, PD. 1995. An analysis of suicides on the farm or ranch within five north central United States, 1980 to 1988. In Agricultural Health and Safety: Workplace, Environment, Sustainability, edited by HH McDuffie, JA Dosman, KM Semchuk, SA Olenchock, and A Senthilselvan. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Hanrahan, LP, HA Anderson, LK Haskins, J Olson, K Lappe, and D Reding. 1996. Wisconsin farmer cancer mortality, 1981 to 1990: Selected malignancies. Journal of Rural Health suppl 12(4):273–277.
Hausen, BM, KH Schulz, and U Noster. 1974. Allergic disease caused by the spores of an edible fungus Pleurotus florida. Mushr Sci 9:219–225.
Horner, WE, MD Ibanez, V Liengswangwong, JE Salvaggio, and SB Lehrer. 1988. Characterization of allergens from spores of the Oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus. J Allergy Clin Immunol 82:978–986.
International Labour Organization (ILO). 1994. Recent Developments in the Plantation Sector. Geneva: ILO.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO). 1985. ISO 263. Evaluation of Human Exposure to Whole-body Vibration: Part I: General Requirements. Geneva: ISO.
Jones, TH. 1978. How to Build Greenhouses, Garden Shelters, and Sheds. New York: Harper & Row.
Kelley, KA. 1996. Characteristics of flowing grain-related entrapments and suffocations with emphasis on grain transport vehicles. Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health 96(3):143–151.
Klincewicz, S, AT Fidler, G Siwinski, and A Fleeger. 1990. Health Hazard Report: Penick Corporation, Newark, New Jersey. No. HETA -87-311-2087. Cincinnati, OH: NIOSH.
Kundiev, YI. 1983. Conditions of labor in agriculture. In Occupational Diseases of Agricultural
Workers, edited by YI Kundiev and EP Krasnyu. Kiev: Zdorovye.
Loftas, T (ed.). 1995. Dimensions of Need: An Atlas of Food and Agriculture. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, Inc.
Makinen-Kiljunen, S, K Turjanmaa, T Palosuo, and T Reunala. 1992. Characterization of latex antigens and allergens in surgical gloves and natural rubber by immunoelectrophoretic methods. Journal Allergy Clin Immunol 90(2):230_235.
McDuffie, HH, JA Dosman, KM Semchuk, SA Olenchock, and A Senthilselvan (eds.). 1994. Agricultural Health and Safety: Workplace, Environment, Sustainability. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Merchant. JP, BA Boehlecke, G Taylor, and M Pickett-Harner (eds.). 1986. Occupational Respiratory Diseases. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 86-102. Washington, DC: GPO.
Meridian Research, Inc. 1994. Occupational Safety and Health Hazards in Agriculture: A Review of the Literature. Silver Spring, MD: Meridian Research.
Meyers, JR. 1997. Injuries among Farm Workers in the United States, 1993. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-115. Cincinnati, OH: NIOSH.
Meyers, JR and DL Hard. 1995. Work-related fatalities in the agricultural production and services sectors, 1980–1989. Am J Ind Med 27:51–63.
Miles, J. 1996. Personal communication.
Mines, R and PL Martin. 1986. A Profile of California Farmworkers. Giannini Information Series 86-2, Berkeley: University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources.
Mohan D and R Patel. 1992. Design of safer agricultural equipment: Application of ergonomics and epidemiology. Int J Ind Erg 10: 301–310.
Murphy, DJ and RC Williams. 1983. Safe Forage Harvesting. Agricultural Engineering Fact Sheet No. 21. State College, PA: Pennsylvania State University Cooperative Extension Service.
Murphy, DJ. 1992. Safety and Health for Production Agriculture. St. Joseph, MI: American Society of Agricultural Engineering.
Myers, ML. 1992. Sustainable Agriculture as a Strategy in Agricultural Safety. American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE) Paper No. 928510. St. Joseph, MI: ASAE.
Nag, PK and SK Chatterjeee. 1981. Physiological reactions of female workers in Indian agricultural work. Hum Factors 23:607–614.
Nag, PK and P Dutt. 1979. Effectiveness of some simple agricultural weeders with reference to physiological responses. J Hum Ergol 8:13–21.
—. 1980. Circulo-respiratory efficiency in some agricultural work. Appl Ergon 11:81–84.
Nag, PK and CK Pradhan. 1992. Ergonomics in the hoeing operation. Int J Ind Erg 10:341–350.
Nag, PK, NC Sebastian, and MG Marlankar. 1980. Occupational workload of Indian agricultural workers. Ergonomics 23:91–102.
Nag, PK, A Goswami, SP Ashtekar, and CK Pradhan. 1988. Ergonomics in sickle operation. Appl Ergon 19:233–239.
Nakazawa, T, K Kanatani and Y Umegae. 1981. Mushroom workers lung due to the inhalation of spores of Cortinus shii-take. Jpn J Chest Dis 40:934–938.
National Committee for Childhood Agricultural Injury Prevention. 1996. Children and Agriculture: Opportunities for Safety and Health. Marshfield, WI: Marshfield Clinic.
National Research Council (NRC). 1989. Alternative Agriculture. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
—. 1993. Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the Humid Tropics. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
National Safety Council (NSC). 1942. Accident Facts. Chicago, IL: NSC.
—. 1986. Grain Harvest Safety. Chicago, IL: NSC.
—. 1993. Accident Facts. Chicago, IL: NSC.
—. 1995. Accident Facts. Chicago, IL: NSC.
Nomura, S. 1993. Studies on the work load and health management in agricultural workers. Journal of Japanese Association of Rural Medicine 42:1007–1011.
Olson, J.A. 1987. Pleurotus spores as allergens. Mushr J 172:115–117.
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). 1994. Farm Employment and Economic Adjustment in OECD Countries. Paris: OECD.
Parrón, T, AF Hernández, and E Villanueva. 1996. Increased risk of suicide with exposure to pesticides in an intensive agricultural area: A 12-year retrospective study. Forensic Science International 79:53–63.
Partanen, T. 1996. Improving the work environment by means of risk surveys. Afr Newslttr Occup Health Saf 6(2):28–29.
Pearce, N and JS Reif. 1990. Epidemiologic studies of cancer in agricultural workers. Am J Ind Med 18:133–148.
Pepys, J. 1967. Hypersensitivity against inhaled organic antigens. J Roy Coll Phys London 2:42–48.
Popendorf, W and KJ Donham. 1991. Agricultural hygiene. In Patty’s Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology, 4th edition, edited by GD Clayton and FE Clayton. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Pradhan, CK, A Goswami, SK Ghosh, and PK Nag. 1986. Evaluation of working with spade in agriculture. Indian J Med Res 84:424–429.
Raffle, PAB, PH Adams, PJ Baxter, and WR Lee. 1994. Hunter’s Diseases of Occupations, 8th edition, London: Edward Arnold.
Recht, C and MF Wetterwald. 1992. Bamboos. Portland, OR: Timber Press.
Rowntree, RA. 1987. Contemplating the urban forests. In Our American Land: 1987 Yearbook of Agriculture. Washington, DC: USDA.
Rylander, R. 1986. Lung diseases caused by organic dusts in the farm environment. Am J Ind Med 10:221–227.
Sakula, A. 1967. Mushroom-worker’s lung. Brit Med J 3:708–710.
Sastre, J, MD Ibanez, M Lopez, and SB Lehrer. 1990. Respiratory and immunological reactions among Shii-take (Lentinus edodes) workers. Clin Exp Allergy 20:13–20.
Scherf, BD. 1995. World Watch List for Domestic Animal Diversity. Rome: FAO.
Sen, RN and PK Nag. 1975. Work organization of heavy load handling in India. J Hum Ergol 4:103–113.
Shutske, JM, WE Field, LD Gaultney, and SD Parsons. 1991. Agricultural machinery fire losses: A preventative approach. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 6(5):575–581.
Skillicorn, P, W Spira, and W Journet. 1993. Duckweed Aquaculture: A New Aquatic Farming System for Developing Countries. Washington, DC: World Bank.
Snyder, K and T Bobick. 1995. Safe Grain and Silage Handling. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 95-109. Cincinnati, OH: NIOSH.
Sonnenberg, ASM, PCC Van Loon, and LJLD Van Griensven. 1996. Het aantal sporen dat Pleurotus
spp. in de lucht verspreidt (with an English summary). De Champignoncultuur 40:269–272.
Steinke, WE. 1991. Farm Labor, Tractor Use, and Farm Work Injury Survey. Unpublished data. Davis, CA: University of California.
Stewart, CJ. 1974. Mushroom worker’s lung—Two outbreaks. Thorax 29:252–257.
Stolz, JL, PH Arger, and JM Benson. 1976. Mushroom worker’s lung disease. Radiology 119:61–63.
Storch, G, JG Burford, RB George, L Kaufman, and L Ajello. 1980. Acute histoplasmosis: Description of an outbreak in Northern Louisiana. Chest 77(1):38–42.
Sullivan JB, M Gonzales, GR Krieger, and CF Runge. 1992. Health-related hazards of agriculture. In Hazardous Material Toxicology: Clinical Principles of Environmental Health, edited by JB Sullivan and GR Kreiger. London: Williams & Wilkins.
Tannahill, R. 1973. Food in History. New York: Stein and Day.
Toner, M. 1996. Debugging king cotton. Atlanta Journal-Constitution 47(50):G1.
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). 1996. Urban Agriculture: Food, Jobs, and Sustainable Cities. New York: UNDP.
US Department of Agriculture (USDA). 1996. Foreign Agricultural Service Circular Series FTROP 2-96. Washington, DC: USDA.
US Department of Labor (DOL). 1968. Fair Labor Standards Act—The Hazardous Occupations Order for Agriculture. Washington, DC: US DOL.
US Department of State. 1996. International Narcotics Control Report. Washington, DC: US Department of State.
Van den Bogart, HGG. 1990. De champignonkwekerslong: een onderzoek naar voorkomen en etiologie in Nederland. PhD dissertation. Nijmegen, Netherlands: University of Nijmegen.
Van den Bogart, HGG, G Van den Ende, PGG Van Loon, and LJLD Van Griensven. 1993. Mushroom worker’s lung: serologic reactions to thermophilic actinomycetes in the air of compost tunnels. Mycopathologia 122:21–28.
Van Haaren, JPM. 1988. Occupational diseases. In The Cultivation of Mushrooms, edited by LJLD Van Griensven. Rustington, UK: Darlington Mushroom Laboratories.
Van Loon, PCC, AL Cox, OPJM Wuisman, SLGE Burgers, and LJLD Van Griensven. 1992. Mushroom worker’s lung. Detection of antibodies against shii take (Lentinus edodes) spore antigens in shii take workers. J Occup Med 34:1097–1101.
Villarejo, D. 1995. Issues for farm employees in the United States. In Agricultural Health and Safety: Workplace, Environment and Sustainability, edited by HH McDuffie, JA Dosman, KM Semchulk, SA Olenchock, and A Senthilselvan. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Viten VPh, EP Krashyyuh, and OV Ilyna. 1994. Ergonomic and health aspects of pesticide exposure in greenhouses. In Health, Safety and Ergonomic Aspects in Use of Chemicals in Agriculture and Forestry: Proceedings of the XII Joint GIGR; IAAMRH, IUFRP International Symposium, edited by Y Kundiev. Kiev: Institute for Occupational Health.
Wallerstein N and M Weinger. 1992. Health and safety education for worker empowerment. Am J Ind Med 22:619–635.
Weinger, J and M Lyons. 1992. Problem-solving in the fields: An action-oriented approach to farmworker education about pesticides. Am J Ind Med 22:677–690.
Weinger, M and N Wallerstein. 1990. Education for action: An innovative approach to training hospital employees. In Essentials of Modern Hospital Safety, edited by W Charney and J Whirmer. Chelsea, MI: Lewis Publishers.
Zejda. JE, HH McDuffie, and JA Dosman. 1993. Epidemiology of health and safety risks in agriculture and related industries: Practical applications for rural physicians. West J Med 158:56–63.