" DISCLAIMER: The ILO does not take responsibility for content presented on this web portal that is presented in any language other than English, which is the language used for the initial production and peer-review of original content. Certain statistics have not been updated since the production of the 4th edition of the Encyclopaedia (1998)."

Thursday, 10 March 2011 15:43

Ginseng, Mint and Other Herbs

Written by
Rate this item
(0 votes)

There is no standard definition for the term herb, and the distinction between the herbs and spice plants is unclear. This article provides an overview of general aspects of some herbs. There are more than 200 herbs, which we are here considering to be those plants originally grown mainly in temperate or Mediterranean climates for their leaves, stems and flowering tops. The primary use for herbs is to flavour foods. Important culinary herbs include basil, bay or laurel leaf, celery seed, chervil, dill, marjoram, mint, oregano, parsley, rosemary, sage, savory, tarragon and thyme. The major demand for culinary herbs comes from the retail sector, followed by the food processing and food service sectors. The United States is by far the major consumer of culinary herbs, followed by the United Kingdom, Italy, Canada, France and Japan. Herbs are also used in cosmetics and pharmaceutical products to impart desirable flavours and odours. Herbs are used medicinally by the pharmaceutical industry and in the practice of herbal medicine.


Ginseng root is used in the practice of herbal medicine. China, the Republic of Korea and the United States are major producers. In China, most operations have historically been plantations owned and run by the government. In the Republic of Korea, the industry is made up of more than 20,000 family operations, most of which are smallholdings, family operations that plant less than an acre each year. In the United States, the largest proportion of producers work on smallholdings and plant less than two acres per year. However, the largest proportion of the US crop is produced by a minority of growers with a hired workforce and mechanization that allows them to plant as much as 60 acres per year. Ginseng is usually grown in open field plots covered by artificial shade structures that simulate the effects of the forest canopy.

Ginseng is also grown in intensively cultivated forest plots. A few per cent of the world’s production (and most organic ginseng) is gathered by wild collectors. The roots take 5 to 9 years to reach marketable size. In the United States, bed preparation for either forest plot or open field methods is typically accomplished by a tractor-towed plow. Some hand labour may be required to clear ditches and give the beds their final shape. Mechanized planters pulled behind a tractor are often used for seeding, although the more labour-intensive practice of transplanting nursery seedlings into beds is common in the Republic of Korea and China. Constructing the 7- to 8-foot-high pole and wood lath or cloth shade structures over open field plots is labour intensive and involves considerable lifting and overhead work. In Asia, locally available woods and thatch or woven reeds are used in the shade structures. In mechanized operations in the United States, mulching the plants is accomplished with straw shredders which are adapted from machines used in the strawberry industry and pulled behind a tractor.

Depending on the adequacy and condition of machine guarding, contact with the tractor PTO shaft, the straw shredder’s intake or other moving machinery parts can present a risk of entanglement injury. For each year until harvest, three hand weedings are required, which involve crawling, bending and stooping to work at crop level and which place high demands on the musculoskeletal system. Weeding, especially for the first- and second-year plants, is intensive work. One acre of field-grown ginseng may require more than 3,000 total hours of weeding over the 5 to 9 years preceding harvest. New chemical and non-chemical weed control methods, including better mulching, may be able to reduce the musculoskeletal demands posed by weeding. New tools and mechanization also hold promise for reducing the demands of weeding work. In Wisconsin, US, some herb growers are testing an adapted pedal cycle that allows weeding in a seated posture.

Artificial shade creates an especially humid environment susceptible to fungus and mould infestation. Fungicides are routinely applied at least monthly in the United States with tractor-towed application machinery or backpack garden sprayers. Insecticides are also spray applied as needed, and rodenticides put out. The use of lower-toxicity chemicals, improvements in application machinery and alternative pest management practices are strategies for reducing the repeated, low-dose pesticide exposures experienced by employees.

When the roots are ready for harvest, the shade structures are disassembled and stored. Mechanized operations utilize digging machinery adapted from the potato industry which is towed behind a tractor. Here again, inadequate machine guarding of the tractor PTO and moving machinery parts may present a risk of entanglement injuries. Picking, the last step in harvesting, involves hand labour and bending and stooping to gather roots from the soil surface.

On smaller holdings in the United States, China and the Republic of Korea, most or all of the steps in the production process are typically done by hand.

Mint and Other Herbs

There is considerable diversity in herb production methods, geographical locations, work methods and hazards. Herbs can be collected in the wild or grown under cultivation. Cultivated plant production has the advantages of greater efficiency, more consistent quality and timing of the harvest, and the potential for mechanization. Much of the mint and other herb production in the United States is highly mechanized. Soil preparation, planting, cultivation, pest control and harvesting are all done from the seat of a tractor with towed machinery.

Potential hazards resemble those in other mechanized crop production and include motor vehicle collisions on public roads, traumatic injuries involving tractors and machinery and agricultural chemical poisonings and burns.

More labour-intensive cultivation methods are typical in Asia, North Africa, the Mediterranean and other areas (e.g., mint production in China, India, the Philippines and Egypt). Plots are ploughed, often with animals, and then beds are prepared and fertilized by hand. Depending on the climate, a network of irrigation trenches is excavated. Depending on the type of herb produced, seeds, cuttings, seedlings or rhizome portions are planted. Periodic weeding is especially labour intensive and the day-long shifts of stooping, bending and pulling place high demands on the musculoskeletal system. Despite extensive use of manual labour, weed control in herb cultivation is sometimes inadequate. For a few crops, chemical weeding with herbicides, sometimes followed by manual weeding, is used, but herbicide use is not widespread since herb crops are often herbicide sensitive. Mulching crops can reduce weeding labour needs as well as conserve soil and soil moisture. Mulching also generally aids plant growth and yield, since mulch adds organic matter to soils as it decomposes.

Aside from weeding, labour-intensive soil preparation methods, planting, construction of shade or support structures, harvesting and other operations can also result in high musculoskeletal demands for prolonged periods. Modifications in production methods, specialized hand tools and techniques, and mechanization are possible directions to explore for reducing musculoskeletal and labour demands.

The potential for pesticide and other agricultural chemical burns and poisonings can be a concern on labour-intensive operations since backpack sprayers and other manual application methods may not prevent adverse exposures via the skin, mucous membranes or breathing air. Work in greenhouse production poses special hazards due to the confined breathing atmosphere. Substituting lower toxicity chemicals and alternative pest management strategies, improving application equipment and application practices, and making better PPE available may be ways to reduce risks.

The extraction of volatile oils from the harvested crop is common for certain herbs (e.g., mint stills). Cut and chopped plant material is loaded into an enclosed wagon or other structure. Boilers produce live steam which is forced into the sealed structure through low-pressure hoses, and the oil is floated and extracted from the resulting vapour.

Possible hazards associated with the process include burns from live steam and, less frequently, boiler explosions. Preventive measures include regular inspections of boilers and live steam lines to ensure structural integrity.

Herb production with low levels of mechanization may require prolonged close contact with plant surfaces and oils and, less often, associated dusts. Some reports are available in the medical literature of sensitization reactions, occupational dermatitis, occupational asthma and other respiratory and immunological problems associated with a number of herbs and spices. The available literature is small and may reflect underreporting rather than a low likelihood of health problems.

Occupational dermatitis has been associated with mint, laurel, parsley, rosemary and thyme, as well as cinnamon, chicory, cloves, garlic, nutmeg and vanilla. Occupational asthma or respiratory symptoms have been associated with dust from Brazilian ginseng and parsley as well as black pepper, cinnamon, cloves, coriander, garlic, ginger, paprika and red chillies (capsaicin), along with bacteria and endotoxins in dusts from grains and herbs. However, most cases have occurred in the processing industry, and only a few of these reports have described problems arising directly from exposures incurred in herb cultivation work (e.g., dermatitis after parsley picking, asthma after chicory root handling, immunologic reactivity after greenhouse work with paprika plants). In most reports, a proportion of the workforce develops problems while other employees are less affected or asymptomatic.

Processing Industry

The herb and spice crop processing industry represents a higher order of magnitude exposure to certain hazards than herb crop cultivation. For example, the grinding, crushing and mixing of leaves, seeds and other plant materials can involve work in noisy, extremely dusty conditions. Hazards in herb processing operations include hearing loss, traumatic injuries from inadequately guarded moving machinery parts, dust exposures in breathing air, and dust explosions. Closed processing systems or enclosures for machinery can reduce noise. Feed openings of grinding machines should not permit the entry of hands or fingers.

Health conditions including skin diseases, irritation of the eyes, mouth and gastrointestinal tract, and respiratory and immunological problems have been linked to dusts, fungi and other air contaminants. Self selection based on ability to tolerate health effects has been noted in spice grinders, usually within the first 2 weeks of work. Segregation of the process, effective local exhaust ventilation, improved dust collection, regular mopping and vacuuming of work areas, and personal protective equipment can help reduce risks from dust explosions and contaminants in breathing air.



Read 2654 times Last modified on Tuesday, 28 June 2011 08:13
More in this category: « Tobacco Cultivation Mushrooms »


Part I. The Body
Part II. Health Care
Part III. Management & Policy
Part IV. Tools and Approaches
Part V. Psychosocial and Organizational Factors
Part VI. General Hazards
Part VII. The Environment
Part VIII. Accidents and Safety Management
Part IX. Chemicals
Part X. Industries Based on Biological Resources
Agriculture and Natural Resources Based Industries
Farming Systems
Food and Fibre Crops
Tree, Bramble and Vine Crops
Specialty Crops
Beverage Crops
Health and Environmental Issues
Beverage Industry
Food Industry
Livestock Rearing
Paper and Pulp Industry
Part XI. Industries Based on Natural Resources
Part XII. Chemical Industries
Part XIII. Manufacturing Industries
Part XIV. Textile and Apparel Industries
Part XV. Transport Industries
Part XVI. Construction
Part XVII. Services and Trade
Part XVIII. Guides

Agriculture and Natural Resources Based Industries Additional Resources

Click the Button below to view additional resources for this topic.


Agriculture and Natural Resources Based Industries References

AgSafe—Coalition for Health and Safety in Agriculture. 1992. Occupational Injuries in California Agriculture 1981–1990. Berkeley, CA: University of California.

Alexandratos, N. 1995. World Agriculture: Towards 2010. An FAO Study. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Bean, TL and TS Lawrence. 1992. Vehicles on Public Highways. National Institute for Farm Safety Paper No. 92-04.
Myrtle Beach, SC: National Institute for Farm Safety.

Bonsall, JL. 1985. Measurement of occupational exposure to pesticides. In Occupational Hazards of Pesticide Use, edited by GJ Turnbull. London: Taylor and Francis.

Boxer PA, C Burnett, and N Swanson. 1995. Suicide and occupation: A review of the literature. J Occup Med 37(4):442–452.

Bringhurst, LS, RN Byrne, and J Gershon-Cohen. 1959. Respiratory disease of mushroom workers. Farmer’s lung. JAMA 171:15–18.

Brown, LR, N Lenssen, and H Kane. 1995. Vital Signs 1995: The Trends that Are Shaping Our Future. New York: WW Norton & Company.

Bull, D. 1982. A Growing Problem: Pesticides and the Third World Poor. Washington DC: Oxfam.

Campbell, WP. 1987. The Condition of Agricultural Driveline System Shielding and Its Impact on Injuries and Fatalities. MS Thesis. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University.

Chang, S. 1993. Mushroom biology: The impact on mushroom production and mushroom products. In Mushroom Biology and Mushroom Products, edited by S Chang, JA Buswell, and S Chiu. Hong Kong: Chinese University Press.

Christiani, DC. 1990. Occupational health in developing countries: Review of research needs. Am J Ind Med 17:393–401.

Connally LB, PA Schulte, RJ Alderfer, LM Goldenhar, GM Calvert, KE Davis-King, and WT Sanderson. 1996. Developing the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health’s cancer control demonstration projects for farm populations. Journal of Rural Health suppl 12(4):258–264.

Cox, A, HTM Folgering, and LJLD Van Griensven. 1988. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis caused by the spores of the Oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus. Eur Respir J 1:466–468.

—. 1989. Allergische Alveolitis verursacht durch Einatmung von Sporen des Pilzes Shii-take (Lentinus edodes). Atemwegs Lungenkr 15:233–234.

Dankelman, I and J Davidson. 1988. Women and Environment in the Third World: Alliance for the Future. London: Earthscan Publications.

Davies DR. 1995. Organophosphates, affective disorders, and suicide. Journal of Nutritional and Environmental Medicine 5:367–374.

Deere & Co. 1994. Farm and Ranch Safety Management. Moline, IL: Deere & Company.

Dufaut, A. 1988. Women carrying water: How it affects their health. Waterlines 6:23–25.

Eicher, LC. 1993. State Codes for Road Travel of Agricultural Machinery. American Society of Agricultural Engineering (ASAE) Paper No. 931513. St. Joseph, MI: ASAE.

Estlander T, L Kanerva and P Piirilä. 1996. Allergic dermatoses and respiratory diseases caused by decorative plants. Afr Newslttr Occup Health Saf 6(1):11–13.

Etherton, JR, JR Myers, RC Jensen, JC Russell, and RW Broddee. 1991. Agricultural machine-related deaths. Am J Public Health 81(6):776–768.

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. 1987. African Agriculture: The Next 25 Years. Rome: FAO.

—. 1995. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture. Rome: FAO.

—. 1997. FAOSTAT Statistics Database (http://apps.fao.org/Default.htm). Accessed 22 January.

Forget, G. 1991. Pesticides and the third world. J Toxicol Environ Health 32:11–31.

—. 1992. Occupational health and development: An overview of the situation. IDRC Reports: Perils in the Workplace 20:4–7.

Franck IM and DM Brownstone. 1987. Harvesters. New York: Facts on File Publications.

Freivalds, A. 1984. Evaluation of the lift angle in spade work. Ergonomics 27 suppl:128–133.

Gerrits, JPG and LJLD Van Griensven. 1990. New developments in indoor composting (tunnel process). Mushroom J 205:21–29.

Gite, LP. 1991. Optimum handle height for animal drawn mould board plough. Appl Ergon 22:21–28.

Gite, LP and BG Yadav. 1990. Optimum handle height for a push-pull type manually operated dryland weeder. Ergonomics 33:1487–1494.

Glascock, LA, TL Bean, RK Wood, TG Carpenter, and RG Holmes. 1993. Characteristics of SMV Accidents. American Society of Agricultural Engineering (ASAE) Paper No. 931618. St. Joseph, MI: ASAE.

Griffin, GA. 1973. Combine Harvesting. Moline, IL: Deere & Company.

Gunderson, PD. 1995. An analysis of suicides on the farm or ranch within five north central United States, 1980 to 1988. In Agricultural Health and Safety: Workplace, Environment, Sustainability, edited by HH McDuffie, JA Dosman, KM Semchuk, SA Olenchock, and A Senthilselvan. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Hanrahan, LP, HA Anderson, LK Haskins, J Olson, K Lappe, and D Reding. 1996. Wisconsin farmer cancer mortality, 1981 to 1990: Selected malignancies. Journal of Rural Health suppl 12(4):273–277.

Hausen, BM, KH Schulz, and U Noster. 1974. Allergic disease caused by the spores of an edible fungus Pleurotus florida. Mushr Sci 9:219–225.

Horner, WE, MD Ibanez, V Liengswangwong, JE Salvaggio, and SB Lehrer. 1988. Characterization of allergens from spores of the Oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus. J Allergy Clin Immunol 82:978–986.

International Labour Organization (ILO). 1994. Recent Developments in the Plantation Sector. Geneva: ILO.

International Organization for Standardization (ISO). 1985. ISO 263. Evaluation of Human Exposure to Whole-body Vibration: Part I: General Requirements. Geneva: ISO.

Jones, TH. 1978. How to Build Greenhouses, Garden Shelters, and Sheds. New York: Harper & Row.

Kelley, KA. 1996. Characteristics of flowing grain-related entrapments and suffocations with emphasis on grain transport vehicles. Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health 96(3):143–151.

Klincewicz, S, AT Fidler, G Siwinski, and A Fleeger. 1990. Health Hazard Report: Penick Corporation, Newark, New Jersey. No. HETA -87-311-2087. Cincinnati, OH: NIOSH.

Kundiev, YI. 1983. Conditions of labor in agriculture. In Occupational Diseases of Agricultural
Workers, edited by YI Kundiev and EP Krasnyu. Kiev: Zdorovye.

Loftas, T (ed.). 1995. Dimensions of Need: An Atlas of Food and Agriculture. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, Inc.

Makinen-Kiljunen, S, K Turjanmaa, T Palosuo, and T Reunala. 1992. Characterization of latex antigens and allergens in surgical gloves and natural rubber by immunoelectrophoretic methods. Journal Allergy Clin Immunol 90(2):230_235.

McDuffie, HH, JA Dosman, KM Semchuk, SA Olenchock, and A Senthilselvan (eds.). 1994. Agricultural Health and Safety: Workplace, Environment, Sustainability. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Merchant. JP, BA Boehlecke, G Taylor, and M Pickett-Harner (eds.). 1986. Occupational Respiratory Diseases. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 86-102. Washington, DC: GPO.

Meridian Research, Inc. 1994. Occupational Safety and Health Hazards in Agriculture: A Review of the Literature. Silver Spring, MD: Meridian Research.

Meyers, JR. 1997. Injuries among Farm Workers in the United States, 1993. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-115. Cincinnati, OH: NIOSH.

Meyers, JR and DL Hard. 1995. Work-related fatalities in the agricultural production and services sectors, 1980–1989. Am J Ind Med 27:51–63.

Miles, J. 1996. Personal communication.

Mines, R and PL Martin. 1986. A Profile of California Farmworkers. Giannini Information Series 86-2, Berkeley: University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources.

Mohan D and R Patel. 1992. Design of safer agricultural equipment: Application of ergonomics and epidemiology. Int J Ind Erg 10: 301–310.

Murphy, DJ and RC Williams. 1983. Safe Forage Harvesting. Agricultural Engineering Fact Sheet No. 21. State College, PA: Pennsylvania State University Cooperative Extension Service.

Murphy, DJ. 1992. Safety and Health for Production Agriculture. St. Joseph, MI: American Society of Agricultural Engineering.

Myers, ML. 1992. Sustainable Agriculture as a Strategy in Agricultural Safety. American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE) Paper No. 928510. St. Joseph, MI: ASAE.

Nag, PK and SK Chatterjeee. 1981. Physiological reactions of female workers in Indian agricultural work. Hum Factors 23:607–614.

Nag, PK and P Dutt. 1979. Effectiveness of some simple agricultural weeders with reference to physiological responses. J Hum Ergol 8:13–21.

—. 1980. Circulo-respiratory efficiency in some agricultural work. Appl Ergon 11:81–84.

Nag, PK and CK Pradhan. 1992. Ergonomics in the hoeing operation. Int J Ind Erg 10:341–350.

Nag, PK, NC Sebastian, and MG Marlankar. 1980. Occupational workload of Indian agricultural workers. Ergonomics 23:91–102.

Nag, PK, A Goswami, SP Ashtekar, and CK Pradhan. 1988. Ergonomics in sickle operation. Appl Ergon 19:233–239.

Nakazawa, T, K Kanatani and Y Umegae. 1981. Mushroom workers lung due to the inhalation of spores of Cortinus shii-take. Jpn J Chest Dis 40:934–938.

National Committee for Childhood Agricultural Injury Prevention. 1996. Children and Agriculture: Opportunities for Safety and Health. Marshfield, WI: Marshfield Clinic.

National Research Council (NRC). 1989. Alternative Agriculture. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

—. 1993. Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the Humid Tropics. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

National Safety Council (NSC). 1942. Accident Facts. Chicago, IL: NSC.

—. 1986. Grain Harvest Safety. Chicago, IL: NSC.

—. 1993. Accident Facts. Chicago, IL: NSC.

—. 1995. Accident Facts. Chicago, IL: NSC.

Nomura, S. 1993. Studies on the work load and health management in agricultural workers. Journal of Japanese Association of Rural Medicine 42:1007–1011.

Olson, J.A. 1987. Pleurotus spores as allergens. Mushr J 172:115–117.

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). 1994. Farm Employment and Economic Adjustment in OECD Countries. Paris: OECD.

Parrón, T, AF Hernández, and E Villanueva. 1996. Increased risk of suicide with exposure to pesticides in an intensive agricultural area: A 12-year retrospective study. Forensic Science International 79:53–63.

Partanen, T. 1996. Improving the work environment by means of risk surveys. Afr Newslttr Occup Health Saf 6(2):28–29.

Pearce, N and JS Reif. 1990. Epidemiologic studies of cancer in agricultural workers. Am J Ind Med 18:133–148.

Pepys, J. 1967. Hypersensitivity against inhaled organic antigens. J Roy Coll Phys London 2:42–48.

Popendorf, W and KJ Donham. 1991. Agricultural hygiene. In Patty’s Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology, 4th edition, edited by GD Clayton and FE Clayton. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Pradhan, CK, A Goswami, SK Ghosh, and PK Nag. 1986. Evaluation of working with spade in agriculture. Indian J Med Res 84:424–429.

Raffle, PAB, PH Adams, PJ Baxter, and WR Lee. 1994. Hunter’s Diseases of Occupations, 8th edition, London: Edward Arnold.

Recht, C and MF Wetterwald. 1992. Bamboos. Portland, OR: Timber Press.

Rowntree, RA. 1987. Contemplating the urban forests. In Our American Land: 1987 Yearbook of Agriculture. Washington, DC: USDA.

Rylander, R. 1986. Lung diseases caused by organic dusts in the farm environment. Am J Ind Med 10:221–227.

Sakula, A. 1967. Mushroom-worker’s lung. Brit Med J 3:708–710.

Sastre, J, MD Ibanez, M Lopez, and SB Lehrer. 1990. Respiratory and immunological reactions among Shii-take (Lentinus edodes) workers. Clin Exp Allergy 20:13–20.

Scherf, BD. 1995. World Watch List for Domestic Animal Diversity. Rome: FAO.

Sen, RN and PK Nag. 1975. Work organization of heavy load handling in India. J Hum Ergol 4:103–113.

Shutske, JM, WE Field, LD Gaultney, and SD Parsons. 1991. Agricultural machinery fire losses: A preventative approach. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 6(5):575–581.

Skillicorn, P, W Spira, and W Journet. 1993. Duckweed Aquaculture: A New Aquatic Farming System for Developing Countries. Washington, DC: World Bank.

Snyder, K and T Bobick. 1995. Safe Grain and Silage Handling. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 95-109. Cincinnati, OH: NIOSH.

Sonnenberg, ASM, PCC Van Loon, and LJLD Van Griensven. 1996. Het aantal sporen dat Pleurotus
spp. in de lucht verspreidt (with an English summary). De Champignoncultuur 40:269–272.

Steinke, WE. 1991. Farm Labor, Tractor Use, and Farm Work Injury Survey. Unpublished data. Davis, CA: University of California.

Stewart, CJ. 1974. Mushroom worker’s lung—Two outbreaks. Thorax 29:252–257.

Stolz, JL, PH Arger, and JM Benson. 1976. Mushroom worker’s lung disease. Radiology 119:61–63.

Storch, G, JG Burford, RB George, L Kaufman, and L Ajello. 1980. Acute histoplasmosis: Description of an outbreak in Northern Louisiana. Chest 77(1):38–42.

Sullivan JB, M Gonzales, GR Krieger, and CF Runge. 1992. Health-related hazards of agriculture. In Hazardous Material Toxicology: Clinical Principles of Environmental Health, edited by JB Sullivan and GR Kreiger. London: Williams & Wilkins.

Tannahill, R. 1973. Food in History. New York: Stein and Day.

Toner, M. 1996. Debugging king cotton. Atlanta Journal-Constitution 47(50):G1.

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). 1996. Urban Agriculture: Food, Jobs, and Sustainable Cities. New York: UNDP.

US Department of Agriculture (USDA). 1996. Foreign Agricultural Service Circular Series FTROP 2-96. Washington, DC: USDA.

US Department of Labor (DOL). 1968. Fair Labor Standards Act—The Hazardous Occupations Order for Agriculture. Washington, DC: US DOL.

US Department of State. 1996. International Narcotics Control Report. Washington, DC: US Department of State.

Van den Bogart, HGG. 1990. De champignonkwekerslong: een onderzoek naar voorkomen en etiologie in Nederland. PhD dissertation. Nijmegen, Netherlands: University of Nijmegen.

Van den Bogart, HGG, G Van den Ende, PGG Van Loon, and LJLD Van Griensven. 1993. Mushroom worker’s lung: serologic reactions to thermophilic actinomycetes in the air of compost tunnels. Mycopathologia 122:21–28.

Van Haaren, JPM. 1988. Occupational diseases. In The Cultivation of Mushrooms, edited by LJLD Van Griensven. Rustington, UK: Darlington Mushroom Laboratories.

Van Loon, PCC, AL Cox, OPJM Wuisman, SLGE Burgers, and LJLD Van Griensven. 1992. Mushroom worker’s lung. Detection of antibodies against shii take (Lentinus edodes) spore antigens in shii take workers. J Occup Med 34:1097–1101.

Villarejo, D. 1995. Issues for farm employees in the United States. In Agricultural Health and Safety: Workplace, Environment and Sustainability, edited by HH McDuffie, JA Dosman, KM Semchulk, SA Olenchock, and A Senthilselvan. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Viten VPh, EP Krashyyuh, and OV Ilyna. 1994. Ergonomic and health aspects of pesticide exposure in greenhouses. In Health, Safety and Ergonomic Aspects in Use of Chemicals in Agriculture and Forestry: Proceedings of the XII Joint GIGR; IAAMRH, IUFRP International Symposium, edited by Y Kundiev. Kiev: Institute for Occupational Health.

Wallerstein N and M Weinger. 1992. Health and safety education for worker empowerment. Am J Ind Med 22:619–635.

Weinger, J and M Lyons. 1992. Problem-solving in the fields: An action-oriented approach to farmworker education about pesticides. Am J Ind Med 22:677–690.

Weinger, M and N Wallerstein. 1990. Education for action: An innovative approach to training hospital employees. In Essentials of Modern Hospital Safety, edited by W Charney and J Whirmer. Chelsea, MI: Lewis Publishers.

Zejda. JE, HH McDuffie, and JA Dosman. 1993. Epidemiology of health and safety risks in agriculture and related industries: Practical applications for rural physicians. West J Med 158:56–63.