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Monday, 21 March 2011 14:59

Elementary and Secondary Schools

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Elementary and secondary schools employ many different types of personnel, including teachers, teachers’ aides, administrators, clerical personnel, maintenance personnel, cafeteria personnel, nurses and many others required to keep a school functioning. In general, school personnel face all the potential hazards found in normal indoor and office environments, including indoor air pollution, poor lighting, inadequate heating or cooling, use of office machines, slips and falls, ergonomics problems from poorly designed office furniture and fire hazards. Precautions are the standard ones developed for this type of indoor environment, although building and fire codes usually have specific requirements for schools because of the large number of children present. Other general concerns found in schools include asbestos (especially among custodial and maintenance workers), chipping lead paint, pesticides and herbicides, radon and electromagnetic fields (especially for schools built near high-voltage transmission power lines). Eye and respiratory complaints related to the painting of rooms and the tarring of school roofs while the building is occupied are also a common problem. Painting and tarring should be done when the building is not occupied.

Basic academic duties required of all teachers include: lesson preparation, which can include the development of learning strategies, copying of lecture notes and the making of visual aids such as illustrations, graphs and the like; lecturing, which requires presenting information in an organized fashion that arouses the attention and concentration of students, and can involve the use of blackboards, film projectors, overhead projectors and computers; writing, giving and grading examinations; and individual counselling of students. Most of this instruction takes place in classrooms. In addition, teachers with specialities in science, arts, vocational education, physical education and other areas will conduct much of their teaching in facilities such as laboratories, art studios, theatres, gymnasiums and the like. Teachers may also take students on class trips outside the school to locations such as museums and zoos.

Teachers also have special duties, which can include supervision of students in hallways and the cafeteria; attending meetings with administrators, parents and others; organization and supervision of after-school leisure and other activities; and other administrative duties. In addition, teachers attend conferences and other educational events in order to keep current with their field and advance their career.

There are specific hazards facing all teachers. Infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, measles and chicken pox can easily spread throughout a school. Vaccinations (both of students and teachers), tuberculosis testing and other standard public health measures are essential (see table 1). Overcrowded classrooms, classroom noise, overloaded schedules, inadequate facilities, career advancement questions, job security and general lack of control over working conditions contribute to major stress problems, absenteeism and burnout in teachers. Solutions include both institutional changes to improve working conditions and stress reduction programmes where possible. A growing problem, especially in urban environments, is violence against teachers by students and, sometimes, intruders. In the United States, many secondary-level students, especially in urban schools, carry weapons, including guns. In schools where violence is a problem, organized violence-prevention programmes are essential. Teachers’ aides face many of the same hazards.

Table 1Infectious diseases affecting day-care workers and teachers.

 Disease

 Where found

 Mode of  transmission

 Comments

 Amoebiasis

 Especially  tropics and  subtropics

 Water and food  contaminated  with infected faeces

 Use good food and water sanitation.

 Chicken pox

 Worldwide

 Generally person-  to-person direct  contact, but also  possible by  airborne respiratory  droplets

 Chicken pox is more serious in adults than  children; risk of birth defects; reportable  disease in most countries.

 Cytomegalovirus  (CMV)

 Worldwide

 Airborne  respiratory  droplets; contact  with urine, saliva or  blood

 Highly contagious; risk of birth defects.

 Erythema  infectiosum  (Parvovirus-B-  19)

 Worldwide

 Direct person-to-  person contact or  airborne  respiratory droplets

 Mildly contagious; risk to foetus during  pregnancy.

 Gastroenteritis,  bacterial  (Salmonella,  Shigella,  Campylobacter)

 Worldwide

 Person-to-person  transmission, food  or water via faecal-  oral route

 Use good food and water sanitation;  require strict handwashing procedures;  reportable disease in most countries.

 Gastroenteritis,  viral  (Rotaviruses)

 Worldwide

 Person-to-person  transmission, food  or water via faecal-  oral route; also by  inhalation of dust  containing virus

 Use good food and water sanitation.

 German  measles (rubella)

 Worldwide

 Airborne  respiratory  droplets; direct  contact with  infected people

 Risk of birth defects; all children and  employees should be vaccinated;  reportable disease in most countries.

 Giardiasis  (intestinal  parasite)

 Worldwide,  but especially  tropics  and  subtropics

 Contaminated food  and water; also  possible by person-  to-person  transmission

 Use good food and water sanitation;  reportable disease in most countries.

 Hepatitis A virus

 Worldwide,  but especially

 Mediterranean  areas and  developing  countries

 Faecal-oral  transmission,  especially  contaminated food  and water; also  possible by direct  person-to-person  contact

 Risk of spontaneous abortions and  stillbirths; use good food  and water  sanitation; reportable disease in most  countries.

 Hepatitis B virus

 Worldwide,  especially  Asia and  Africa

 Sexual contact,  contact of broken  skin or mucous  membranes with  blood or other body  fluids

 Higher incidence in institutionalized  children (e.g., developmentally disabled);  vaccination recommended in high-risk  situations; use universal precautions for  all exposures to blood and other body  fluids; reportable disease in most  countries.

 Herpes Simplex  Type I and II

 Worldwide

 Contact with mucous  membranes

 extremely contagious; common in adults  and age group 10 to 20 years.

 Human Immune  Deficiency Virus  (HIV) infection

 Worldwide

 Sexual contact,  contact of broken  skin or mucous  membranes with  blood or other body  fluids

 Leads to Acquired Immune Deficiency  Syndrome (AIDS); use universal  precautions for all exposures to blood and  body fluids (e.g., nosebleeds); anonymous  reporting of disease required in most  countries.

 Infectious  mononucleosis  Epstein-Barr  virus)

 Worldwide

 Airborne respiratory  droplets; direct  contact with saliva

 Especially common in age group 10 to 20  years.

 Influenza

 Worldwide

 Airborne respiratory  droplets

 Highly contagious; high-risk individuals  should get immunization shots.

 Measles

 Worldwide

 Airborne respiratory  droplets

 Highly contagious, but for adults mostly a  risk to non-immunized individuals working  with unvaccinated children; reportable  disease in most countries.

 Meningococcus  meningitis  bacterial)

 Mostly tropical  Africa and  Brazil

 Airborne respiratory  droplets, especially close contact

 Reportable disease in most countries.

 Mumps

 Worldwide

 Airborne respiratory  droplets and contact  with saliva

 Highly contagious; exclude infected  children; may cause infertility in adults;  outbreaks reportable in some countries.

 Mycoplasma  infections

 Worldwide

 Airborne  transmission after  close contact

 A major cause of primary atypical  pneumonia; mainly affects children aged 5  to 15 years.

 Pertussis  (whooping  cough)

 Worldwide

 Airborne respiratory  droplets

 Not as severe in adults; all children under  7 years should be immunized.

 Scabies

 Worldwide

 Direct skin-to-skin  contact

 Infectious skin disease caused by mites

 Streptococcus  infections

 Worldwide

 Direct person-to-person contact

 Strep throat, scarlet fever and community-acquired pneumonia are examples of  infections.

 Tuberculosis  (respiratory)

 Worldwide

 Airborne respiratory  droplets

 Highly infectious; tuberculosis screening  should be conducted for all day care  workers; a reportable disease in most  countries.

 

Teachers in specialized classes can have additional occupational hazards, including chemical exposures, machinery hazards, accidents, electrical hazards, excessive noise levels, radiation and fire, depending on the particular classroom. Figure 1 shows an industrial arts metal shop in a high school, and figure 2 shows a high school science lab with fume hoods and an emergency shower. Table 2 summarizes special precautions, particularly substitution of safer materials, for use in schools. Information on standard precautions can be found in the chapters relevant to the process (e.g., Entertainment and the arts and Safe handling of chemicals).

Figure 1. Industrial arts metal shop in a high school.

EDS025F1

Michael McCann

Figure 2. High school science laboratory with fume hoods and an emergency shower.

EDS025F2

Michael McCann

Table 2.  Hazards and precautions for particular classes.

 Class

 Activity/Subject

 Hazards

 Precautions

 Elementary Classes

  Science

 Animal  handling

 

 

 Plants

 

 Chemicals

 

 

 Equipment

 

 Bites and scratches, zoonoses,  parasites

 

 Allergies, poisonous plants

 

 Skin and eye problems, toxic  reactions, allergies

 

Electrical hazards, safety hazards

Allow only live, healthy animals. Handle animals with heavy gloves. Avoid animals which can carry disease-transmitting insects and parasites.

Avoid plants which are known to be poisonous or cause allergic reaction.

Avoid using toxic chemicals with children. Wear proper personal protective equipment when doing teacher demonstrations with toxic chemicals.

Follow standard electrical safety procedures. Ensure all equipment is properly guarded. Store all equipment, tools, etc., properly.

 Art

 Painting and  drawing

 

 Photography

 

 Textile and  fibre arts

 

 Printmaking

 

 

 

 Woodworking

 

 

 

 Ceramics

 

Pigments, solvents

 

Photochemicals

 

 

Dyes

 

Acids, solvents

 

Cutting tools

 

Tools

 

Glues

 

Silica, toxic metals, heat,

kiln fumes

Use only non-toxic art materials. Avoid solvents, acids, alkalis, spray cans, chemical dyes, etc.

Use only children’s paints. Do not use pastels, dry pigments.

Do not do photo processing. Send out film for developing or use Polaroid cameras or blueprint paper and sunlight.

Avoid synthetic dyes; use natural dyes such as onion skins, tea, spinach, etc.

Use water-based block printing inks.

Use linoleum cuts instead of woodcuts.

Use soft woods and hand tools only.

Use water-based glues.

Use wet clay only, and wet mop.

Paint pottery rather than using ceramic glazes. Do not fire kiln inside classroom.

 

Secondary Classes

Chemistry

 General

 

 

 

 

 

 Organic  chemistry

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Inorganic  chemistry

 

 Analytical  chemistry

 

 Storage

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Solvents

 

 

 

Peroxides and explosives

 

 

Acids and bases

 

Hydrogen sulphide

 

Incompatibilities

 

 

Flammability

All school laboratories should have the following: laboratory hood if toxic, volatile chemicals are used; eyewash fountains; emergency showers (if concentrated acids, bases or other corrosive chemicals are present); first aid kits; proper fire extinguishers; protective goggles, gloves and lab coats; proper disposal receptacles and procedures; spill control kit. Avoid carcinogens, mutagens and highly toxic chemicals like mercury, lead, cadmium, chlorine gas, etc.

 

Use only in laboratory hood.

Use least toxic solvents.

Do semi-micro- or microscale experiments.

 

Do not use explosives or chemicals such as ether, which can form explosive peroxides.

 

Avoid concentrated acids and bases when possible.

 

Do not use hydrogen sulphide. Use substitutes.

 

Avoid alphabetical storage, which can place incompatible chemicals in close proximity. Store chemicals by compatible groups.

 

Store flammable and combustible liquids in approved flammable-storage cabinets.

 Biology

 Dissection

 

 

 Anaesthetizing  insects

 

 Drawing of  blood

 

 Microscopy

 

 Culturing  bacteria

Formaldehyde

 

 

Ether, cyanide

 

HIV, Hepatitis B

 

Stains

 

Pathogens

Do not dissect specimens preserved in formaldehyde. Use smaller, freeze-dried animals, training films and videotapes, etc.

 

Use ethyl alcohol for anaesthetization of insects. Refrigerate insects for counting.

 

Avoid if possible. Use sterile lancets for blood typing under close supervision.

 

Avoid skin contact with iodine and gentian violet.

 

Use sterile technique with all bacteria, assuming there could be contamination by pathogenic bacteria.

 Physical  sciences

 Radioisotopes

 

 

 Electricity  and  magnetism

 

 Lasers

Ionizing radiation

 

 

Electrical hazards

 

 

Eye and skin damage,

electrical hazards

Use radioisotopes only in “exempt” quantities not requiring a license. Only trained teachers should use these. Develop a radiation safety programme.

 

Follow standard electrical safety procedures.

 

 

Use only low-power (Class I) lasers. Never look directly into a laser beam or pass the beam across face or body. Lasers should have a key lock.

 Earth  sciences

 Geology

 

 Water  pollution

 

 

 Atmosphere

 

 

 Volcanoes

 

 Solar  observation

Flying chips

 

Infection, toxic chemicals

 

 

Mercury manometers

 

 

Ammonium dichromate

 

Infrared radiation

Crush rocks in canvas bag to prevent flying chips. Wear protective goggles.

 

Do not take sewage samples because of infection risk. Avoid hazardous chemicals in field testing of water pollution.

 

Use oil or water manometers. If mercury manometers are used for demonstration, have mercury spill control kit.

 

Do not use ammonium dichromate and magnesium to simulate volcanoes.

 

Never view sun directly with eyes or through lenses.

 Art and  Industrial  Arts

 All

 

 

 Painting and  drawing

 

 

 Photography

 

 

 Textile and  fibre arts

General

 

 

Pigments, solvents

 

 

Photochemicals, acids,

sulphur dioxide

 

Dyes, dyeing assistants,

wax fumes

Avoid most dangerous chemicals and processes. Have proper ventilation. See also precautions under Chemistry

 

Avoid lead and cadmium pigments. Avoid oil paints unless cleanup is done with vegetable oil. Use spray fixatives outside.

 

Avoid colour processing and toning. Have dilution ventilation for darkroom. Have eyewash fountain. Use water instead of acetic acid for stop bath.

 

Use aqueous liquid dyes or mix dyes in glove box. Avoid dichromate mordants.

Do not use solvents to remove wax in batik. Have ventilation if ironing out wax.

 

 Papermaking

 

 

 

 Printmaking

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Woodworking

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Ceramics

 

 

 

 Sculpture

 

 

 

 

 Jewelry

 

Alkali, beaters

 

 

 

Solvents

 

 

 

Acids, potassium chlorate

 

 

 

Dichromates

 

 

Woods and wood dust

 

 

 

Machinery and tools

 

Noise

 

Glues

 

 

Paints and finishes

 

 

Lead, silica, toxic metals, kiln fumes

 

 

Silica, plastics resins, dust

 

 

 

 

Soldering fumes, acids

Do not boil lye. Use rotten or mulched plant materials, or recycle paper and cardboard. Use large blender instead of more dangerous industrial beaters to prepare paper pulp.

Use water-based instead of solvent-based silk screen inks. Clean intaglio press beds nd inking slabs with vegetable oil and dishwashing liquid instead of solvents.

Use cut paper stencils instead of lacquer stencils for silk screen printing.

 

Use ferric chloride to etch copper plates instead of Dutch mordant or nitric acid on zinc plates. If using nitric acid etching, have emergency shower and eyewash fountain and local exhaust ventilation.

 

Use diazo instead of dichromate photoemulsions. Use citric acid fountain solutions in lithography to replace dichromates.

 

Have dust collection system for woodworking machines. Avoid irritating and allergenic hardwoods, preserved woods (e.g., chromated copper arsenate treated).Clean up wood dust to remove fire hazards.

 

Have machine guards. Have key locks and panic button.

 

Reduce noise levels or wear hearing protectors.

 

Use water-based glues when possible. Avoid formaldehyde/resorcinol glues, solvent-based glues.

 

Use water-based paints and finishes. Use shellac based on ethyl alcohol rather than methyl alcohol.

 

Purchase wet clay. Do not use lead glazes. Buy prepared glazes rather than mixing dry glazes. Spray glazes only in spray booth. Fire kiln outside or have local exhaust ventilation. Wear infrared goggles when looking into hot kiln.

 

Use only hand tools for stone sculpture to reduce dust levels. Do not use sandstone, granite or soapstone, which might contain silica or asbestos. Do not use highly toxic polyester, epoxy or polyurethane resins. Have ventilation if heating plastics to remove decomposition products. Wet mop or vacuum dusts.

Avoid cadmium silver solders and fluoride fluxes. Use sodium hydrogen sulphate rather than sulphuric acid for pickling. Have local exhaust ventilation.

 

 Enameling

 

 

 Lost wax  casting

 

 

 

 Stained glass

 

 

 Welding

 

 

 

 Commercial  art

Lead, burns, infrared

radiation

 

Metal fumes, silica,

infrared radiation, heat

 

 

Lead, acid fluxes

 

 

Metal fumes, ozone, nitrogen

dioxide, electrical and fire

hazards

 

Solvents, photochemicals,

video display terminals

Use only lead-free enamels. Ventilate enameling kiln. Have heat-protective gloves and clothing, and infrared goggles.

 

Use 50/50 30-mesh sand/plaster instead of cristobalite investments. Have local exhaust ventilation for wax burnout kiln and casting operation. Wear heat-protective clothing and gloves.

 

Use copper foil technique rather than lead came. Use lead- and antimony-free solders. Avoid lead glass paints. Use acid- and rosin-free soldering fluxes.

 

Do not weld metals coated with zinc, lead paints, or alloys with hazardous metals (nickel, chromium, etc.). Weld only metals of known composition.

 

 

Use double-sided tape instead of rubber cement. Use heptane-based, not hexane rubber cements. Have spray booths for air brushing. Use water-based or alcohol-based permanent markers instead of xylene types.

See Photography section for photoprocesses.

Have proper ergonomic chairs, lighting, etc., for computers.

 Performing  Arts

 Theatre

 

 

 

 

 Dance

 

 

 

 Music

Solvents, paints, welding

fumes, isocyanates, safety,

fire

 

 

Acute injuries

Repetitive strain injuries

 

 

Musculoskeletal injuries

(e.g., carpal tunnel syndrome)

 

Noise

 

 

 

Vocal strain

Use water-based paints and dyes. Do not use polyurethane spray foams.

Separate welding from other areas. Have safe rigging procedures. Avoid pyrotechnics, firearms, fog and smoke, and other hazardous special effects.

Fireproof all stage scenery. Mark all trap doors, pits and elevations.

 

Have a proper dance floor. Avoid full schedules after period of inactivity. Assure proper warm-up before and cool-down after dance activity. Allow sufficient recovery time after injuries.

 

Use proper sized instruments. Have adequate instrument supports. Allow sufficient recovery time after injuries.

 

Keep sound levels at acceptable levels. Wear musician’s ear plugs if needed.

Position speakers to minimize noise levels. Use sound-absorbing materials on walls.

Assure adequate warm-up. Provide proper vocal training and conditioning.

 Automotive  Mechanics

 Brake drums

 

 Degreasing

 

 Car motors

 

 Welding

 

 Painting

Asbestos

 

Solvents

 

Carbon monoxide

 

 

 

Solvents, pigments

Do not clean brake drums unless approved equipment is used.

 

Use water-based detergents. Use parts cleaner

 

Have tailpipe exhaust.

 

See above.

 

Spray paint only in spray booth, or outdoors with respiratory protection.

 

 Home  Economics

 Food and  nutrition

Electrical hazards

 

Knives and other sharp utensils

 

Fire and burns

 

 

Cleaning products

Follow standard electrical safety rules.

 

Always cut away from body. Keep knives sharpened.

 

 

Have stove hoods with grease filters that exhaust to outside. Wear protective gloves with hot objects.

 

Wear goggles, gloves and apron with acidic or basic cleaning products.

 

Teachers in special education programmes can sometimes be at greater risk. Examples of hazards include violence from emotionally disturbed students and transmission of infections such as hepatitis A, B and C from institutionalized, developmentally disabled students (Clemens et al. 1992).

 


Preschool Programmes 

Child-care, which involves the physical care and often education of young children, takes many forms in different parts of the world. In many countries where extended families are common, grandparents and other female relatives care for young children when the mother has to work. In countries where the nuclear family and/or single parents predominate and the mother is working, the care of healthy children below school age often occurs in private or public day-care centres or nursery schools outside the home. In many countries - for example, Sweden - these child-care facilities are operated by municipalities. In the United States, most child-care facilities are private, although they are usually regulated by local health departments. An exception is the Head Start Program for preschool children, which is funded by the government. 

Staffing of child-care facilities usually depends on the number of children involved and the nature of the facility. For small numbers of children (usually less than 12), the child-care facility might be a home where the children include the preschool children of the caregiver. The staff can include one or more qualified adult assistants to meet staff-to-child ratio requirements. Larger, more formal child-care facilities include day-care centres and nursery schools. The staff members for these are usually required to have more education and can include a qualified director, trained teachers, nursing staff under the supervision of a physician, kitchen staff (nutrition specialists, food service managers and cooks) and other personnel, such as transportation staff and maintenance staff. The premises of the day-care centre should have such amenities as an outdoor play area, cloakroom, reception area, indoor classroom and play area, kitchen, sanitary facilities, administrative rooms, laundry room and so on.

Staff duties include supervision of children in all their activities, changing diapers of infants, emotional nurturing of the children, teaching, food preparation and service, recognition of signs of illness and/or safety hazards and many other functions. 

Day-care workers face many of the same hazards found in normal indoor environments, including indoor air pollution, poor lighting, inadequate temperature control, slips and falls and fire hazards. (See the article “Elementary and Secondary Schools”.) Stress (often resulting in burnout) and infections, however, are the major hazards for day-care workers. The lifting and carrying of children and exposure to possibly hazardous art supplies are other hazards.

Stress

Causes of stress in day-care workers include: high responsibility for the welfare of children without adequate pay and recognition; a perception of being unskilled even though many day-care workers have above-average education; image problems due to highly publicized incidents of day-care workers mistreating and abusing children, which have resulted in innocent day-care workers being fingerprinted and treated as potential criminals; and poor working conditions. The latter include low staff-to-child ratios, continual noise, lack of adequate time and facilities for meals and breaks separate from the children and inadequate mechanisms for parent-worker interaction, which can result in unnecessary and possibly unfair pressure and criticism from parents. 

Preventive measures to reduce stress in day-care workers include: higher wages and better benefits; higher staff-to-child ratios to allow job rotation, rest breaks, sick leave and better performance, with resulting increase in job satisfaction; establishing formal mechanisms for parent-worker communications and cooperation (possibly including a parent-workers health and safety committee); and improved working conditions, such as adult-size chairs, regular “quiet” times, a separate workers’ break area and so on.

Infections

Infectious diseases, such as diarrhoeal diseases, streptococcal and meningococcal infections, rubella, cytomegalovirus and respiratory infections, are major occupational hazards of day-care workers (see table 1). A study of day-care workers in Belgium found an increased risk of hepatitis A (Abdo and Chriske 1990). Up to 30% of the 25,000 cases of hepatitis A reported annually in the United States have been linked to day-care centres. Some organisms causing diarrhoeal diseases, such as Giardia lamblia, which causes giardiasis, are extremely infectious. Outbreaks can occur in day-care centres serving affluent populations as well as those serving poor areas (Polis et al. 1986). Some infections - for example, German measles and cytomegalovirus - can be especially hazardous for pregnant women, or women planning to have children, because of the risk of birth defects caused by the virus.

Sick children can spread diseases, as can children who have no overt symptoms but are carrying an illness. The most common routes of exposure are faecal-oral and respiratory. Young children usually have poor personal hygiene habits. Hand-to-mouth and toy-to-mouth contact are common. Handling contaminated toys and food is one type of entry route. Some organisms can live on inanimate objects for extended periods ranging from hours to weeks. Food can also be a vector if the food handler has contaminated hands or is ill. Inhalation of airborne respiratory droplets due to sneezing and coughing without protection such as tissues can result in transmission of infections. Such air-borne aerosols can remain suspended in the air for hours.

Day care employees working with children under the age of three years, especially if the children are not toilet-trained, are at greatest risk, particularly when changing and handling soiled diapers which are contaminated by disease-bearing organisms.

Precautions include: convenient facilities for handwashing; regular handwashing by children and staff members; changing diapers in designated areas which are regularly disinfected; disposal of soiled diapers in closed, plastic-lined receptacles which are emptied frequently; separating food preparation areas from other areas; frequent washing of toys, play areas, blankets and other items that could become contaminated; good ventilation; adequate staff-to-child ratios to allow proper implementation of a hygiene programme; a policy of excluding, isolating or restricting sick children, depending on the illness; and adequate sick-leave policies to allow sick day-care workers to stay home.

Adapted from Women’s Occupational Health Resource Center 1987


 

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Contents

Preface
Part I. The Body
Part II. Health Care
Part III. Management & Policy
Part IV. Tools and Approaches
Part V. Psychosocial and Organizational Factors
Part VI. General Hazards
Part VII. The Environment
Part VIII. Accidents and Safety Management
Part IX. Chemicals
Part X. Industries Based on Biological Resources
Part XI. Industries Based on Natural Resources
Part XII. Chemical Industries
Part XIII. Manufacturing Industries
Part XIV. Textile and Apparel Industries
Part XV. Transport Industries
Part XVI. Construction
Part XVII. Services and Trade
Education and Training Services
Resources
Emergency and Security Services
Entertainment and the Arts
Health Care Facilities and Services
Hotels and Restaurants
Office and Retail Trades
Personal and Community Services
Public and Government Services
Transport Industry and Warehousing
Part XVIII. Guides

Education and Training Services Additional Resources

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Education and Training Services References

Abdo, R and H Chriske. 1990. HAV-Infektionsrisiken im Krankenhaus, Altenheim und Kindertagesstätten. In Arbeitsmedizin im Gesundheitsdienst, Bd. V, edited by F Hofmann and U Stößel. Stuttgart: Gentner Verlag.

Anderson, HA, LP Hanrahan, DN Higgins, and PG Sarow. 1992. A radiographic survey of public school building maintenance and custodial employees. Environ Res 59:159–66.

Clemens, R, F Hofmann, H Berthold, G Steinert et al. 1992. Prävalenz von Hepatitis A, B und C bei ewohern einer Einrichtung für geistig Behinderte. Sozialpädiatrie 14:357–364.

Herloff, B and B Jarvholm. 1989. Teachers, stress, and mortality. Lancet 1:159–160.

Lee, RJ, DR Van Orden, M Corn, and KS Crump. 1992. Exposure to airborne asbestos in buildings. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 16: 93-107.

Morton, WE. 1995. Major differences in breast cancer risks among occupations. J Occup Med 37:328–335.

National Research Council. 1993. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Orloske, AJ and JS Leddo. 1981. Environmental effects on children’s hearing: How can school systems cope. J Sch Health 51:12–14.

Polis, M et al. 1986. Transmission of Giardia lamblia from a day care center to a community. Am J Public Hlth 76:1,142–1,144.

Qualley, CA. 1986. Safety in the Artroom. Worcester, MA: Davis Publications.

Regents Advisory Committee on Environmental Quality in Schools. 1994. Report to the New York State Board of Regents on the Environmental Quality of Schools. Albany: University of the State of New York, State Education Department.

Rosenman, KD. 1994. Causes of mortality in primary and secondary school teachers. Am J Indust Med 25:749–58.

Rossol, M. 1990. The Artist’s Complete Health and Safety Guide. New York: Allworth Press.

Rubin, CH, CA Burnett, WE Halperin, and PJ Seligman. 1993. Occupation as a risk identifier for breast cancer. Am J Public Health 83:1,311–1,315.

Savitz, DA. 1993. Overview of epidemiologic research on electric and magnetic fields and cancer. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 54:197–204.

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