" DISCLAIMER: The ILO does not take responsibility for content presented on this web portal that is presented in any language other than English, which is the language used for the initial production and peer-review of original content. Certain statistics have not been updated since the production of the 4th edition of the Encyclopaedia (1998)."

Thursday, 24 March 2011 15:52

Dancers

Written by
Rate this item
(0 votes)

Dance involves patterned and rhythmic body movements, usually performed to music, that serve as a form of expression or communication. There are many different types of dances, including ceremonial, folk, ballroom, classical ballet, modern dance, jazz, flamenco, tap and so forth. Each of these has its unique movements and physical demands. Audiences associate dance with grace and enjoyment, yet very few people regard dance as one of the most demanding and strenuous athletic activities. Sixty-five to 80% of dance-related injuries are in the lower limbs, out of which about 50% are in the foot and ankle (Arheim 1986). Most of the injuries are due to over-use (about 70%) and the rest are of the acute type (ankle sprain, fractures and so on).

Dance medicine is a multidisciplinary profession because causes of injuries are multifactorial and hence treatment should be comprehensive and take into consideration the specific needs of dancers as artists. The goal of the treatment should be to prevent potentially dangerous specific stresses, allowing the dancer to keep active, acquiring and perfecting physical creativity and psychological well-being.

Training should preferably start at an early age in order to develop strength and flexibility. However, incorrect training results in injury to young dancers. Proper technique is the main concern, as incorrect posture and other bad dancing habits and methods will cause permanent deformities and over-use injuries (Hardaker 1987). One of the most basic movements is the turn-out—opening of the lower limbs outwards. This should take place in the hip joints; if it is forced more than the anatomic external rotation these joints will allow, compensations occur. The most common compensations are rolling-in of the feet, internal flexing of the knees and hyperlordosis of the lower back. These positions contribute to deformities such as hallux valgus (displacement of the great toe towards the other toes). Inflammations of tendons such as the flexor hallucis longus (the tendon for the great toe) and others may also result (Hamilton 1988; Sammarco 1982).

Being cognizant of individual anatomic differences in addition to the unusual biomechanical loads, such as in point position (standing on the tip of the toes), allows one to take actions to prevent some of these undesired outcomes (Teitz, Harrington and Wiley 1985).

The environment of dancers has great influence on their well-being. A proper floor should be resilient and absorb shock to prevent cumulative trauma to the feet, legs and spine (Seals 1987). Temperature and humidity also influence performance. Diet is a major issue as dancers are always under pressure to keep slim and look light and pleasing (Calabrese, Kirkendal and Floyd 1983). Psychological maladjustment may lead to anorexia or bulimia.

Psychological stress may contribute to some hormonal disturbances, which may present as amenorrhoea. The incidence of stress fractures and osteoporosis may increase in hormonally imbalanced dancers (Warren, Brooks-Gunn and Hamilton 1986). Emotional stress due to competition between peers, and direct pressure from choreographers, teachers and directors may enhance psychological problems (Schnitt and Schnitt 1987).

A good screening method for both students and professional dancers should detect psychological and physical risk factors and avoid problems.

Any change in activity levels (whether return from a holiday, sickness or pregnancy), intensity of work (rehearsals before a premiere tour), choreographer, style or technique, or environment (such as floors, stages or even type of dance shoes) makes the dancer more vulnerable.

 

Back

Read 1715 times Last modified on Wednesday, 29 June 2011 10:57

Contents

Preface
Part I. The Body
Part II. Health Care
Part III. Management & Policy
Part IV. Tools and Approaches
Part V. Psychosocial and Organizational Factors
Part VI. General Hazards
Part VII. The Environment
Part VIII. Accidents and Safety Management
Part IX. Chemicals
Part X. Industries Based on Biological Resources
Part XI. Industries Based on Natural Resources
Part XII. Chemical Industries
Part XIII. Manufacturing Industries
Part XIV. Textile and Apparel Industries
Part XV. Transport Industries
Part XVI. Construction
Part XVII. Services and Trade
Education and Training Services
Emergency and Security Services
Entertainment and the Arts
Arts and Crafts
Performing and Media Arts
Entertainment
Entertainment and the Arts Resources
Health Care Facilities and Services
Hotels and Restaurants
Office and Retail Trades
Personal and Community Services
Public and Government Services
Transport Industry and Warehousing
Part XVIII. Guides

Entertainment and the Arts Additional Resources

Click the Button below to view additional resources for this topic.

button

Entertainment and the Arts References

American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons. 1991. Protective equipment. In Athletic Training and Sports Medicine. Park Ridge, IL: APOS.

Arheim, DD. 1986. Dance Injuries: Their Prevention and Care. St. Louis, MO: CV Mosby Co.

Armstrong, RA, P Neill, and R Mossop. 1988. Asthma induced by ivory dust: A new occupational cause. Thorax 43(9):737-738.

Axelsson, A and F Lindgren. 1981. Hearing in classical musicians. Acta Oto-Larynogologica 92 Suppl. 377:3-74.

Babin, A 1996. Orchestra pit sound level measurements in Broadway shows. Presented at the 26th Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association. New York, 20 November.

Baker, EL, WA Peterson, JL Holtz, C Coleman, and PJ Landrigan. 1979. Subacute cadmium intoxication in jewellery workers: an evaluation of diagnostic procedures. Arch Environ Health 34:173-177.

Balafrej, A, J Bellakhdar, M El Haitem, and H Khadri. 1984. Paralysis due to glue in young apprentice shoemakers in the medina of Fez. Rev Pediatrie 20(1):43-47.

Ballesteros, M, CMA Zuniga, and OA Cardenas. 1983. Lead concentrations in the blood of children from pottery-making families exposed to lead salts in a Mexican village. B Pan Am Health Organ 17(1):35-41.

Bastian, RW. 1993. Benign mucosal and saccular disorders; benign laryngeal tumors. In Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, edited by CW Cumming. St. Louis, MO: CV Mosby Co.

—. 1996. Vocal fold microsurgery in singers. Journal of Voice 10(4):389-404

Bastian, R, A Keidar, and K Verdolini-Marston. 1990. Simple vocal tasks for detecting vocal fold swelling. Journal of Voice 4(2):172-183.

Bowling, A. 1989. Injuries to dancers: Prevalence, treatment and perception of causes. British Medical Journal 6675:731-734.

Bruno, PJ, WN Scott, and G Huie. 1995. Basketball. In The Team Physicians’s Handbook, edited by MB Mellion, WM Walsh and GL Shelton. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby Yearbook.

Burr, GA, TJ Van Gilder, DB Trout, TG Wilcox, and R Friscoll. 1994. Health Hazard Evaluation Report: Actors’ Equity Association/The League of American Theaters and Producers, Inc. Doc. HETA 90-355-2449. Cincinnati, OH: US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.

Calabrese, LH, DT Kirkendal, and M Floyd. 1983. Menstrual abnormalities, nutritional patterns and body composition in female classical ballet dancers. Phys Sports Med 11:86-98.

Cardullo, AC, AM Ruszkowski, and VA DeLeo. 1989. Allergic contact dermatitis resulting from sensitivity to citrus peel, geriniol, and citral. J Am Acad Dermatol 21(2):395-397.

Carlson, T. 1989. Lights! Camera! Tragedy. TV Guide (26 August):8-11.

Chasin, M and JP Chong. 1992. A clinically efficient hearing protection program for musicians. Med Prob Perform Artists 7(2):40-43.

—. 1995. Four environmental techniques to reduce the effect of music exposure on hearing. Med Prob Perform Artists 10(2):66-69.

Chaterjee, M. 1990. Ready-made garment workers in Ahmedabad. B Occup Health Safety 19:2-5.

Clare, PR. 1990. Football. In The Team Physicians’s Handbook, edited by MB Mellion, WM Walsh, and GL Shelton. St. Louis, MO: CV Mosby Co.

Cornell, C. 1988. Potters, lead and health—Occupational safety in a Mexican village (meeting abstract). Abstr Pap Am Chem S 196:14.

Council on Scientific Affairs of the American Medical Association. 1983. Brain injury in boxing. JAMA 249:254-257.

Das, PK, KP Shukla, and FG Ory. 1992. An occupational health programme for adults and children in the carpet weaving industry, Mirzapur, India: A case study in the informal sector. Soc Sci Med 35(10):1293-1302.

Delacoste, F and P Alexander. 1987. Sex Work: Writings by Women in the Sex Industry. San Francisco, CA: Cleis Press.

Depue, RH and BT Kagey. 1985. A proportionate mortality study of the acting profession. Am J Ind Med 8:57-66.

Dominguez, R, JR DeJuanes Paardo, M Garcia Padros, and F Rodriguez Artalejo. 1987. Antitetanic vaccination in a high-risk population. Med Segur Trab 34:50-56.

Driscoll, RJ, WJ Mulligan, D Schultz, and A Candelaria. 1988. Malignant mesothelioma: a cluster in a Native American population. New Engl J Med 318:1437-1438.

Estébanez, P, K Fitch, and Nájera 1993. HIV and female sex workers. Bull WHO 71(3/4):397-412.

Evans, RW, RI Evans, S Carjaval, and S Perry. 1996. A survey of injuries among Broadway performers. Am J Public Health 86:77-80.

Feder, RJ. 1984. The professional voice and airline flight. Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, 92(3):251-254.

Feldman, R and T Sedman. 1975. Hobbyists working with lead. New Engl J Med 292:929.

Fishbein, M. 1988. Medical problems among ICSOM musicians. Med Prob Perform Artists 3:1-14.

Fisher, AA. 1976. “Blackjack disease” and other chromate puzzles. Cutis 18(1):21-22.

Frye, HJH. 1986. Incidence of overuse syndrome in the symphony orchestra. Med Prob Perform Artists 1:51-55.

Garrick, JM. 1977. The frequency of injury, mechanism of injury and epidemiology of ankle sprains. Am J Sports Med 5:241-242.

Griffin, R, KD Peterson, J Halseth, and B Reynolds. 1989. Radiographic study of elbow injuries in professional rodeo cowboys. Phys Sports Med 17:85-96.

Hamilton, LH and WG Hamilton. 1991. Classical ballet: Balancing the costs of artistry and athleticism. Med Prob Perform Artists 6:39-44.

Hamilton, WG. 1988. Foot and ankle injuries in dancers. In Sports Clinics of North America, edited by L Yokum. Philadelphia, PA: Williams and Wilkins.

Hardaker, WTJ. 1987. Medical considerations in dance training for children. Am Fam Phys 35(5):93-99.

Henao, S. 1994. Health Conditions of Latin American Workers. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association.

Huie, G and EB Hershman. 1994. The team clinician’s bag. Am Acad Phys Asst 7:403-405.

Huie, G and WN Scott. 1995. Assessment of ankle sprains in athletes. Phys Assist J 19(10):23-24.

Kipen, HM and Y Lerman. 1986. Respiratory abnormalities among photographic developers: A report of 3 cases. Am J Ind Med 9:341-347.

Knishkowy, B and EL Baker. 1986. Transmission of occupational disease to family contacts. Am J Ind Med 9:543-550.

Koplan, JP, AV Wells, HJP Diggory, EL Baker, and J Liddle. 1977. Lead absorption in a community of potters in Barbados. Int J Epidemiol 6:225-229.

Malhotra, HL. 1984. Fire safety in assembly buildings. Fire Safety J 7(3):285-291.

Maloy, E. 1978. Projection booth safety: New findings and new dangers. Int Assoc Electr Inspect News 50(4):20-21.

McCann, M. 1989. 5 dead in movie heliocopter crash. Art Hazards News 12:1.

—. 1991. Lights! Camera! Safety! A Health and Safety Manual for Motion Picture and Television Production. New York: Center for Safety in the Arts.

—. 1992a. Artist Beware. New York: Lyons and Burford.

—. 1992b. Art Safety Procedures: A Health and Safety Manual for Art Schools and Art Departments. New York: Center for Safety in the Arts.

—. 1996. Hazards in cottage industries in developing countries. Am J Ind Med 30:125-129.

McCann, M, N Hall, R Klarnet, and PA Peltz. 1986. Reproductive hazards in the arts and crafts. Presented at the Annual Conference of the Society for Occupational and Environmental Health Conference on Reproductive Hazards in the Environment and Workplace, Bethesda, MD, 26 April.

Miller, AB, DT Silverman, and A Blair. 1986. Cancer risk among artistic painters. Am J Ind Med 9:281-287.

MMWR. 1982. Chromium sensitization in an artist’s workshop. Morb Mort Weekly Rep 31:111.

—. 1996. Bull riding-related brain and spinal cord injuries—Louisiana, 1994-1995. Morb and Mort Weekly Rep 45:3-5.

Monk, TH. 1994. Circadian rhythms in subjective activation, mood, and performance efficiency. In Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine, 2nd edition, edited by M. Kryger and WC. Roth. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders.

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). 1991. Environmental Tobacco Smoke in the Workplace: NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin 54. Cincinnati, OH: NIOSH.

Norris, RN. 1990. Physical disorders of visual artists. Art Hazards News 13(2):1.

Nubé, J. 1995. Beta Blockers and Performing Musicians. Doctoral thesis. Amsterdam: University of Amsterdam.

O’Donoghue, DH. 1950. Surgical treatment of fresh injuries to major ligaments of the knee. J Bone Joint Surg 32:721-738.

Olkinuora, M. 1984. Alcoholism and occupation. Scand J Work Environ Health 10(6):511-515.

—. 1976. Injuries to the knee. In Treatment of Injuries to Athletes, edited by DH O’Donoghue. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders.

Pan American Health Organization, (PAHO). 1994. Health Conditions in the Americas. Vol. 1. Washington, DC: PAHO.

Pheterson, G. 1989. The Vindication of the Rights of Whores. Seattle, WA: Seal Press.

Prockup, L. 1978. Neuropathy in an artist. Hosp Pract (November):89.

Qualley, CA. 1986. Safety in the Artroom. Worcester, MA: Davis Publications.

Ramakrishna, RS, P Muthuthamby, RR Brooks, and DE Ryan. 1982. Blood lead levels in Sri Lankan families recovering gold and silver from jewellers’ waste. Arch Environ Health 37(2):118-120.

Ramazzini, B. 1713. De morbis artificum (Diseases of Workers). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Rastogi, SK, BN Gupta, H Chandra, N Mathur, PN Mahendra, and T Husain. 1991. A study of the prevalence of respiratory morbidity among agate workers. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 63(1):21-26.

Rossol, M. 1994. The Artist’s Complete Health and Safety Guide. New York: Allworth Press.

Sachare, A.(ed.). 1994a. Rule #2. Section IIC. In The Official NBA Basketball Encyclopedia. New York: Villard Books.

—. 1994b. Basic Principle P: Guidelines for infection control. In The Official NBA Basketball Encyclopedia. New York: Villard Books.

Sammarco, GJ. 1982. The foot and ankle in classical ballet and modern dance. In Disorders of the Foot, edited by MH Jahss. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders.

Sataloff, RT. 1991. Professional Voice: The Science and Art of Clinical Care. New York: Raven Press.

—. 1995. Medications and their effect on the voice. Journal of Singing 52(1):47-52.

—. 1996. Pollution: Consequences for singers. Journal of Singing 52(3):59-64.

Schall, EL, CH Powell, GA Gellin, and MM Key. 1969. Hazards to go-go dancers to exposures to “black” light from fluorescent bulbs. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 30:413-416.

Schnitt, JM and D Schnitt. 1987. Psychological aspects of dance. In The Science of Dance Training, edited by P Clarkson and M Skrinar. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Press.

Seals, J. 1987. Dance surfaces. In Dance Medicine: A Comprehensive Guide, edited by A Ryan and RE Stephens. Chicago, IL: Pluribus Press.

Sofue, I, Y Yamamura, K Ando, M Iida, and T Takayanagi. 1968. N-hexane polyneuropathy. Clin Neurol 8:393-403.

Stewart, R and C Hake. 1976. Paint remover hazard. JAMA 235:398.

Tan, TC, HC Tsang, and LL Wong. 1990. Noise surveys in discotheques in Hong Kong. Ind Health 28(1):37-40.

Teitz, C, RM Harrington, and H Wiley. 1985. Pressure on the foot in point shoes. Foot Ankle 5:216-221.

VanderGriend, RA, FH Savoie, and JL Hughes. 1991. Fracture of the ankle. In Rockwood and Green’s Fractures in Adults, edited by CA Rockwood, DP Green, and RW Bucholz. Philadelphia, PA: JB Lippincott Co.

Warren, M, J Brooks-Gunn, and L Hamilton. 1986. Scoliosis and fracture in young ballet dancers: Relationship to delayed menarcheal age and amenorrhea. New Engl J Med 314:1338-1353.

World Health Organization (WHO). 1976. Meeting on Organization of Health Care in Small Industries. Geneva: WHO.

Zeitels, S. 1995. Premalignant epithelium and microinvasive cancer of the vocal fold: the evolution of phonomicrosurgical management. Laryngoscope 105(3):1-51.