" DISCLAIMER: The ILO does not take responsibility for content presented on this web portal that is presented in any language other than English, which is the language used for the initial production and peer-review of original content. Certain statistics have not been updated since the production of the 4th edition of the Encyclopaedia (1998)."


Part I. The Body
Cardiovascular System
Digestive System
Mental Health
Musculoskeletal System
Nervous System
Renal-Urinary System
Reproductive System
Respiratory System
Sensory Systems
Skin Diseases
Systematic Conditions
Part II. Health Care
Part III. Management & Policy
Part IV. Tools and Approaches
Part V. Psychosocial and Organizational Factors
Part VI. General Hazards
Part VII. The Environment
Part VIII. Accidents and Safety Management
Part IX. Chemicals
Part X. Industries Based on Biological Resources
Part XI. Industries Based on Natural Resources
Part XII. Chemical Industries
Part XIII. Manufacturing Industries
Part XIV. Textile and Apparel Industries
Part XV. Transport Industries
Part XVI. Construction
Part XVII. Services and Trade
Part XVIII. Guides

Systemic Conditions References

American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Airconditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). 1989. Standard 62-89: Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality. Atlanta: ASHRAE.

American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). 1984. Standard Test Method for the Estimation of Sensory Irritancy of Airborne Chemicals. Philadelphia: ASTM.

Anon. 1990. Environmental controls and lung disease. (Erratum in Am Rev Respir Dis 143(3):688, 1991 Am Rev Respir Dis 142:915-939.

Ashford, NA and CS Miller. 1991. Chemical Exposures: Low Levels and High Stakes. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Bascom, R. 1992. Multiple chemical sensitivity: A respiratory disorder? Toxicol Ind Health 8:221-228.

Bell, I. 1982. Clinical Ecology. Colinas, Calif.: Common Knowledge Press.

Black, DW, A Ruth, and RB Goldstein. 1990. Environmental illness: A controlled study of 26 subjects with 20th century disease. J Am Med Assoc 264:3166-3170.

Bolle-Wilson, K, RJ Wilson, and ML Bleecker. 1988. Conditioning of physical symptoms after neurotoxic exposure. J Occup Med 30:684-686.

Brodsky, CM. 1983. Psychological factors contributing to somatoform diseases attributed to the workplace. The case of intoxication. J Occup Med 25:459-464.

Brown, SK, MR Sim, MJ Abramson, and CN Gray. 1994. Concentrations of VOC in indoor air. Indoor Air 2:123-134.

Buchwald, D and D Garrity. 1994. Comparison of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, and multiple chemical sensitivities. Arch Int Med 154:2049-2053.

Cullen, MR. 1987. The worker with multiple chemical sensitivities: An overview. In Workers with Multiple Chemical Sensitivities, edited by M Cullen. Philadelphia: Hanley & Belfus.

—. 1994. Multiple chemical sensitivities: Is there evidence of extreme vulnerability of the brain to environmental chemicals? In The Vulnerable Brain and Environmental Risks, Vol. 3, edited by RL Isaacson and KIF Jensen. New York: Plenum.

Cullen, MR, PE Pace, and CA Redlich. 1992. The experience of the Yale Occupational and Environmental Medicine Clinics with MCS, 1986-1989. Toxicol Ind Health 8:15-19.

Fiedler, NL, H Kipen, J De Luca, K Kelly-McNeil, and B Natelson. 1996. A controlled comparison of multiple chemical sensitivities and chronic fatigue syndrome. Psychosom Med 58:38-49.

Hodgson, MJ. 1992. A series of field studies on the sick-building syndrome. Ann NY Acad Sci 641:21-36.

Hodgson, MJ, H Levin, and P Wolkoff. 1994. Volatile organic compounds and indoor air (review).  J Allergy Clin Immunol 94:296-303.

Kipen, HM, K Hallman, N Kelly-McNeil, and N Fiedler. 1995. Measuring chemical sensitivity prevalence. Am J Public Health 85(4):574-577.

Levin, AS and VS Byers. 1987. Environmental illness: A disorder of immune regulation. State Art Rev Occup Med 2:669-682.

Lewis, BM. 1987. Workers with multiple chemical sensitivities: Psychosocial interventions. State Art Rev Occup Med 2:791-800.

Mendell, MJ. 1993. Non-specific symptoms in office workers: A review and summary of the literature. Indoor Air 4:227-236.

Middaugh, DA, SM Pinney, and DH Linz. 1992. Sick building syndrome: Medical evaluation of two work forces. J Occup Med 34:1197-1204.

Miller, CS. 1992. Possible models for multiple chemical sensitivity: Conceptual issues and the role of the limbic system. Toxicol Ind Health :181-202.

Mølhave, L, R Bach, and OF Pederson. 1986. Human reactions to low concentrations of volatile organic compounds. Environ Int 12:167-175.

Mølhave, L and GD Nielsen. 1992. Interpretation and limitations of the concept “Total volatile organic compounds” (TVOC) as an indicator of human responses to exposures of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in indoor air. Indoor Air 2:65-77.

Robertson, A, PS Burge, A Hedge, S Wilson, and J Harris-Bass. 1988. Relation between passive cigarette smoke exposure and “building sickness”. Thorax 43:263P.

Schottenfeld, RS and MR Cullen. 1985. Occupation-induced post-traumatic stress disorder. Am J Psychol 142:198-202.

Selner, JC and H Strudenmayer. 1992. Neuropsychophysiologic observations in patients presenting with environmental illness. Toxicol Ind Health 8:145-156.

Shorter, E. 1992. From Paralysis to Fatigue. New York: The Free Press.

Simon, GE. 1992. Epidemic MCS in an industrial setting. Toxicol Ind Health 8:41-46.

Simon, GE, W Daniel, and H Stockbridge. 1993. Immunologic, psychologic, and neuropsychological factors in multiple chemical sensitivity. Ann Intern Med 19:97-103.

Sundell, J, T Lindvall, B Stenberg, and S Wall. 1994. SBS in office workers and facial skin symptoms among VDT workers in relation to building and room characteristics: Two case-referent studies. Indoor Air 2:83-94.

Wechsler, CJ. 1992. Indoor chemistry: Ozone, volatile organic compounds, and carpets. Environ Sci Technol 26:2371-2377.

Welch, LS and P Sokas. 1992. Development of MCS after an outbreak of sick building syndrome. Toxicol Ind Health 8:47-50.

Woods, JE. 1989. Cost avoidance and productivity. State Art Rev Occup Med 4:753-770.