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Monday, 04 April 2011 17:22

Production of Fruit Juices

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Fruit juices are made from a wide variety of fruits, including oranges and other citrus fruits, apples, grapes, cranberries, pineapples, mangoes and so forth. In many cases, various fruit juices are blended. Usually, the fruit is processed into a concentrate near where it is grown, then shipped to a fruit juice packager. Fruit juices can be sold as concentrates, frozen concentrates (especially orange juice) and as the diluted juice. Often sugar and preservatives are added.

Once received at the processing plant, the oranges are washed, graded to remove damaged fruit, separated according to size and sent to the juice extractors. There the oils are extracted from the peel, and then the juice extracted by crushing. The pulpy juice is screened to remove seeds and pulp, which often end up as cattle feed. If the orange juice is intended for sale as “not from concentrate”, it is then pasteurized. Otherwise the juice is sent to evaporators, which remove most of the water by heat and vacuum, then chilled, to produce the frozen, concentrated orange juice. This process also removes many oils and essences which are blended back into the concentrate before shipping to the juice packager.

The frozen concentrate is shipped to the packager in refrigerated trucks or tankers. Many dairies package orange juice using the same equipment used to package milk. (See the article “Dairy products industry” elsewhere in this volume.) The concentrate is diluted with filtered water, pasteurized and packaged under sterile conditions. Depending on the amount of water added, the final product can be cans of frozen orange juice concentrate or ready-to-serve orange juice.

 

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Contents

Preface
Part I. The Body
Part II. Health Care
Part III. Management & Policy
Part IV. Tools and Approaches
Part V. Psychosocial and Organizational Factors
Part VI. General Hazards
Part VII. The Environment
Part VIII. Accidents and Safety Management
Part IX. Chemicals
Part X. Industries Based on Biological Resources
Agriculture and Natural Resources Based Industries
Beverage Industry
Resources
Fishing
Food Industry
Forestry
Hunting
Livestock Rearing
Lumber
Paper and Pulp Industry
Part XI. Industries Based on Natural Resources
Part XII. Chemical Industries
Part XIII. Manufacturing Industries
Part XIV. Textile and Apparel Industries
Part XV. Transport Industries
Part XVI. Construction
Part XVII. Services and Trade
Part XVIII. Guides

Beverage Industry Additional Resources

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Beverage Industry References

Carveilheiro, MF, MJM Gomes, O Santo, G Duarte, J Henriques, B Mendes, A Marques, and R Avila. 1994. Symptoms and exposure to endotoxin among brewery employees. Am J Ind Med 25:113-115.

Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. 1992. FAO Year Book. Vol 46. Rome: FAO.

Giullemin, MP and B Horisberger. 1994. Fatal intoxication due to an unexpected presence of carbon dioxide. Ann Occ Hyg 38: 951-957.

Romano, C, F Sulatto, G Piolatto, C Ciacco, E Capellaro, P Falagiani, DW Constabile, A Vaga, and G Scorcetti. 1995. Factors related to the development of sensitization on green coffee and castor bean allergens among coffee workers. Clin Exp Allergy 25:643–650.

Sekimpi, DK, DF Agaba, M Okot-Mwang, and DA Ogaram. 1996. Occupational coffee dust allergies in Uganda. Afr Newslett on Occup and Safety 6(1):6–9.