" DISCLAIMER: The ILO does not take responsibility for content presented on this web portal that is presented in any language other than English, which is the language used for the initial production and peer-review of original content. Certain statistics have not been updated since the production of the 4th edition of the Encyclopaedia (1998)."

Wednesday, 09 February 2011 04:02

General Profile

Written by
Rate this item
(0 votes)

This chapter presents a series of short discussions of many metals. It contains a tabulation of major health effects, physical properties and physical and chemical hazards associated with these metals and many of their compounds (see table 1 and table 2). Not every metal is covered in this chapter. Cobalt and beryllium, for example, appear in the chapter Respiratory sytem. Other metals are discussed in more detail in articles that present information on the industries in which they predominate. The radioactive elements are discussed in the chapter Radiation, ionizing.

Table 1. Physical and chemical hazards

Chemical name

CAS-number

Molecular formula

Physical and chemical hazards

UN class/div/
subsidiary risks

Aluminium chloride 
7446-70-0

AICI3

 

8

Aluminium hydroxide
21645-51-2

AI(OH)3

  • Forms gels (Al2·3H2O) on prolonged contact with water; absorbs acids and carbon dioxide
 

Aluminium nitrate 
13473-90-0

Al2(NO3)3

 

5.1

Aluminium phosphide 
20859-73-8

AlP

  • Reacts with moist air, water, acids producing highly toxic fumes of phosphine
  • Reacts with water, moist air, acids causing fire and toxic (phosphine fumes) hazard

4.3/ 6.1

Diethylaluminium chloride 
96-10-6

AlClC4H10

 

4.2

Ethylaluminium dichloride
563-43-9

AlCl2C2H5

 

4.2

Ethylaluminium 
sesquichloride 
12075-68-2

Al2Cl3C6H15

 

4.2

Sodium aluminate 
1302-42-7

 
  • The substance is a strong base, it reacts violently with acid and is corrosive
  • The solution in water is a strong base, it reacts violently with acid and is corrosive to aluminium and zinc

8

Triethylaluminium 
97-93-8

AlC6H15

 

4.2

Triisobutylaluminium
100-99-2

AlC12H27

 

4.2

Antimony 
7440-36-0

Sb

  • On combustion, forms toxic fumes (antimony oxides) 
  • Reacts violently with strong oxidants (e.g., halogens, alkali permanganates and nitrates), causing fire and explosion hazard 
  • Reacts with nascent hydrogen in acid medium producing very toxic gas 
  • On contact with hot concentrated acids, emits toxic gas (stibine)

6.1

Antimony pentachloride 
7647-18-9

SbCl5

 

8

Antimony pentafluoride 
7783-70-2

SbF5

 

3/ 6.1

Antimony potassium tartrate
28300-74-5

Sb2K2C8H4O12 ·
3H2O

 

6.1

Antimony trichloride 
10025-91-9

SbCl3

 

8

Antimony trioxide 
1309-64-4

Sb2O3

  • The substance decomposes on heating producing toxic fumes of antimony
  • Reacts under certain circumstances with hydrogen producing a very poisonous gas, stibine
 

Stibine 
7803-52-3

SbH3

  • The substance decomposes slowly at room temperature producing metallic antimony and hydrogen
  • Reacts violently with ozone and concentrated nitric 
acid causing fire and explosion hazard 
  • The substance decomposes on heating 
producing toxic fumes of antimony 
  • The gas is heavier than air and may travel along the ground; distant ignition possible

2.3/ 2.1

Arsenic 
7440-38-2

As

  • Reacts with acids, oxidants, halogens 
  • The substance produces toxic fumes

6.1

Arsenic acid, copper salt
10103-61-4

CuAsOH4

  • The substance decomposes on heating producing toxic fumes of arsenic by comparation with another compounds 
  • Reacts with acids releasing toxic arsine gas
 

Arsenic acid, 
diammonium salt
7784-44-3

(NH4)2AsOH4

  • The substance decomposes on heating producing toxic fumes including arsenic, nitrogen oxides and ammonia 
  • Reacts with acids producing toxic fumes of arsenic 
  • Attacks many metals, such as iron, aluminium and zinc, in presence of water releasing toxic fumes of arsenic and arsine
 

Arsenic acid, 
disodium salt 
7778-43-0

Na2AsOH4

  • The substance decomposes on heating producing toxic fumes of arsenic
  • Reacts with acids releasing toxic arsine gas 
  • Attacks many metals, such as iron, aluminium and zinc, in presence of water releasing toxic fumes of arsenic and arsine
 

Arsenic acid, 
magnesium salt 
10103-50-1

MgxAsO3H4

  • The substance decomposes on heating producing toxic fumes of arsenic 
  • Reacts with acids releasing toxic fumes of arsine gas

6.1

Arsenic acid, 
monopotassium salt 
7784-41-0

KAsO2H4

  • The substance decomposes on heating producing toxic fumes of arsenic 
  • Reacts with acids releasing toxic arsine gas 
  • Attacks many metals, such as iron, aluminium and zinc, in presence of water releasing toxic fumes of arsenic and arsine
 

Arsenic pentoxide
1303-28-2

As2O5

  • The substance decomposes on heating above 300 °C producing toxic fumes (arsenic trioxide) and oxygen 
  • The solution in water is a medium strong acid, which may react with reducing substances producing very toxic gas (arsine) 
  • Reacts violently with bromine pentafluoride causing fire and explosion hazard 
  • Corrosive to metals in the presence of moisture

6.1

Arsenic trioxide 
1327-53-3

As2O3

  • The substance is a strong reducing agent and reacts with oxidants 
  • The solution in water is a weak acid which may react with reducing substances producing very toxic gas (arsine) 
  • Gives off toxic fumes in a fire

6.1

Arsenious acid, 
copper(2+) salt(1:1)
10290-12-7

CuAsH3

  • The substance decomposes on heating producing toxic fumes of arsenic 
  • Reacts with acids releasing toxic fumes of arsine gas

6.1

Arsenious acid, lead(II) salt
10031-13-7

PbAs2O4

  • The substance decomposes on heating producing very toxic fumes of arsenic and lead
  • Reacts with oxidants · Reacts violently with strong acids
 

Arsenious acid, 
potassium salt 
10124-50-2

(KH3)x AsO3

  • The substance decomposes on heating producing toxic fumes of arsenic and potassium oxide
  • Reacts with acids releasing toxic arsine gas 
  • Decomposes on contact with air (by atmospheric carbon dioxide) and through the skin

6.1

Arsenous trichloride 
7784-34-1

AsCl3

  • The substance decomposes on heating and under influence of light producing toxic fumes of hydrogen chloride and arsenic oxides 
  • Reacts violently with bases, strong oxidants and water, causing fire and toxic hazard 
  • On contact with air it emits corrosive fumes of hydrogen chloride
  • Attacks many metals forming combustible gas (hydrogen) in presence of moisture

6.1

Arsine 
7784-42-1

AsH3

  • The substance decomposes on heating and under influence of light and moisture producing toxic arsenic fumes 
  • Reacts violently with strong oxidants, fluorine, chlorine, nitric acid, nitrogen trichloride, causing fire and explosion hazard 
  • The gas is heavier than air and may travel along the ground; distant ignition possible 
  • As a result of flow, agitation, etc., electrostatic charges can be generated, conductivity not checked

2.3/ 2.1

Calcium arsenate 
7778-44-1

Ca3As2O8

  • The substance decomposes on heating producing toxic fumes of arsenic 
  • Reacts with acids releasing toxic arsine gas

6.1

Lead arsenate 
7784-40-9

PbAsO4H

  • The substance decomposes on heating producing toxic fumes of lead, arsenic and its compounds, including arsine

6.1

Methylarsonic acid 
124-58-3

AsCH503

  • The substance decomposes on heating or on burning producing toxic fumes (arsenic oxides)
  • The solution in water is a medium strong acid, which may react with reducing substances, active metals (i.e., iron, aluminium, zinc) producing toxic gas (methylarsine)
 

Sodium arsenate
10048-95-0

Na2AsO4H ·7H2O

  • The substance decomposes on heating producing toxic fumes including arsenic, arsenic oxides
  • Reacts violently with strong oxidants, strong acids and metals such as iron, aluminium and zinc causing explosion and toxic hazard

6.1

Barium 
7440-39-3

Ba

  • The substance may spontaneously ignite on contact with air (if in powder form)
  • The substance is a strong reducing agent and reacts violently with oxidants and acids
  • Reacts with water, forming combustible gas (hydrogen) and barium hydroxide 
  • Reacts violently with halogenated solvents causing fire and explosion hazard

4.3

Barium carbonate 
513-77-9

BaCO3

 

6.1

Barium chlorate 
13477-00-4

BaCl2O6

  • Heating may cause violent combustion or explosion 
  • Shock-sensitive compounds are formed with organic compounds, reducing agents, ammonia-containing agents, metal powders, and sulphuric acid 
  • The substance decomposes violently on warming, on heating and on burning producing oxygen and toxic fumes, causing fire and explosion hazard
  • The substance is a strong oxidant and reacts with combustible and reducing materials
  • Dust explosion possible if in powder or granular form, mixed with air

5.1/ 6.1

Barium chloride 
10361-37-2

BaCl2

  • The substance decomposes on heating producing toxic fumes

6.1

Barium chloride, dihydrate 
10326-27-9

BaCl2·2H20

  • The substance decomposes on heating producing toxic fumes

6.1

Barium 
chromate (VI) 
10294-40-3

BaCrH2O4

 

6.1

Barium hydroxide 
17194-00-2

Ba(OH)2

 

6.1

Barium nitrate 
10022-31-8

BaNO3

 

5.1/ 6.1

Barium oxide 
1304-28-5

BaO

  • The solution in water is a medium strong base 
  • Reacts violently with water, hydrogen sulphide, hydroxylamine, and sulphur trioxide, causing fire and explosion hazard

6.1

Barium perchlorate 
13465-95-7

BaCl2O8

 

5.1/ 6.1

Barium peroxide 
1304-29-6

BaO2

  • The substance can presumably form explosive peroxides 
  • The substance is a strong oxidant and reacts with combustible and reducing materials 
  • The substance is a strong reducing agent and reacts with oxidants 
  • Reacts with water and acids forming hydrogen peroxide and barium oxide 
  • Mixtures with organic substances may be ignited or exploded on shock, friction or concussion

5.1/ 6.1

Barium sulphate 
7727-43-7

BaSO4

  • The substance emits toxic fumes of sulphur oxides when heated to 
decomposition 
  • Reduction of barium sulphate by aluminium is attended by violent explosions

6.1

Beryllium 
7440-41-7

Be

 

6.1

Beryllium oxide 
1304-56-9

BeO

 

6.1

Cadmium 
7440-43-9

Cd

  • Reacts with acids giving off flammable hydrogen gas 
  • Dust reacts with oxidants, hydrogen azide, zinc, selenium or tellurium, causing fire and explosion hazard
  • Dust explosion possible if in powder or granular form, mixed with air
 

Cadmium acetate 
543-90-8

Cd(C2H4O2)2

 

6.1

Cadmium chloride 
10108-64-2

CdCl2

  • The substance decomposes on heating producing very toxic fumes of cadmium and chlorine
  • Solution in water is a weak acid · Reacts with strong oxidants
  • Reacts violently with fluoride, bromide and potassium and acids

6.1

Cadmium oxide 
1306-19-0

CdO

  • The substance decomposes on heating producing toxic fumes of cadmium
  • Reacts violently with magnesium when heated causing fire and explosion hazard
  • Reacts with acids, oxidants

6.1

Cadmium suphate 
10124-36-4

CdSO4

 

6.1

Cadmium sulphide 
1306-23-6

CdS

  • Upon heating, toxic fumes are formed 
  • Reacts with strong oxidants 
  • Reacts with acids forming toxic gas (hydrogen sulphide) 
  • Gives off toxic fumes in a fire

6.1

Ammonium dichromate(VI)
7789-09-5

(NH4)2Cr2H2O7

 

5.1

Chromic acid 
7738-94-5

CrH2O4

 

8

Chromium 
7440-47-3

Cr

 

5.1

Chromium trioxide 
1333-82-0

CrO3

 

5.1

Chromyl chloride 
14977-61-8

CrO2Cl2

  • The substance decomposes violently on contact with water producing toxic and corrosive fumes (hydrochloric acid, chlorine, chromium trioxide and chromium trichloride) 
  • The substance is a strong oxidant and reacts violently with combustible and reducing materials 
  • Reacts violently with water, non-metal halides, non-metal hydrides, ammonia and certain common solvents such as alcohol, ether, acetone, turpentine, causing fire and explosion hazard 
  • Attacks many metals in presence of water 
  • Incompatible with plastics 
  • Can ignite combustible substances

8

Cobalt 
7440-48-4

Co

  • Reacts with strong oxidants (e.g., fused ammonium nitrate) causing fire and explosion hazard
  • Certain forms of cobalt metal powder can ignite spontaneously on contact with oxygen or air (pyrophoric) 
  • Can promote decomposition of various organic substances
 

Cobalt chloride 
7646-79-9

CoCl2

  • The substance decomposes on heating producing toxic fumes of chlorine and cobalt 
  • Reacts violently with alkali metals such as potassium or sodium causing fire and explosion hazard
 

Cobalt (III) oxide 
1308-04-9

Co2O3

  • Reacts violently with hydrogen peroxide 
  • Reacts with reducing agents
 

Cobalt naphthenate 
61789-51-3

CoC22H20O4

  • Upon heating, toxic fumes are formed 
  • As a result of flow, agitation, etc., electrostatic charges can be generated 
  • Dust explosion possible if in powder or granular form, mixed with air
 

Copper 
7440-50-8

Cu

  • Shock-sensitive compounds are formed with acetylenic compounds, ethylene oxides and azides 
  • Reacts with strong oxidants like chlorates, bromates and iodates, causing explosion hazard
 

Copper (I) oxide 
1317-39-1

Cu2O

  • Reacts with acids to form cupric salts · Corrodes aluminium
 

Cupric acetate 
142-71-2

CuC4H6O4

 

6.1

Cupric chloride 
7447-39-4

CuCl2

 

8

Cupric hydroxide 
120427-59-2

Cu(OH)2

 

6.1

Naphthenic acid, Cu-salt
1338-02-9

 
  • On combustion, forms toxic gases
 

Ferric chloride 
7705-08-0

FeCl3

 

8

Iron pentacarbonyl 
13463-40-6

C5FeO5

 

6.1/ 3

Lead 
7439-92-1

Pb

  • The substance decomposes on heating producing toxic fumes including lead oxides
  • The substance is a strong reducing agent
 

Lead acetate 
301-04-2

PbC4H6O4

  • The substance decomposes on heating and on burning producing toxic and corrosive fumes including lead, acetic acid 
  • Reacts violently with bromates, phosphates, carbonates, phenols 
  • Reacts with acids producing corrosive acetic acid

6.1

Lead chromate 
7758-97-6

PbCrO4

  • The substance decomposes on heating producing toxic fumes including lead oxides
  • Reacts with strong oxidants, hydrogen peroxide, sodium and potassium
  • Reacts with aluminium dinitronaphthalene, iron (III) hexacyanoferrate(IV)
  • Reacts with organics at elevated temperature causing fire hazard
 

Lead nitrate 
10099-74-8

Pb(NO3)2

 

5.1/ 6.1

Lead dioxide 
1309-60-0

PbO2

 

5.1

Lead(II) oxide 
1317-36-8

PbO

  • Reacts violently with strong oxidants, aluminium powder and sodium 
  • Upon heating, toxic fumes of lead compounds are formed
 

Naphthenic acid, Pb-salt
61790-14-5

 
  • On combustion, forms toxic fumes including lead oxide
 

Tetraethyl lead 
78-00-2

PbC8H20

  • The substance decomposes on heating above 110 °C and under influence of light producing toxic fumes: carbon monoxide, lead 
  • Reacts violently with strong oxidants, acids, halogens, oils and fats causing fire and explosion hazard 
  • Attacks rubber and some plastics and coatings
  • The vapour is heavier than air

6.1

Tetramethyl lead 
75-74-1

PbC4H12

 

6.1

Lithium aluminium hydride
16853-85-3

LiAlH4

 

4.3

Magnesium 
7439-95-4

Mg

  • The substance may spontaneously ignite on contact with air or moisture producing irritating or poisonous gases including magnesium oxide 
  • Reacts violently with strong oxidants 
  • Reacts violently with many substances causing fire and explosion hazard
  • Reacts with acids or water forming flammable hydrogen gas, causing fire and explosion hazard
  • Dust explosion possible if in powder or granular form, mixed with air

4.1

Magnesium chloride 
7786-30-3

MgCl2

  • The substance decomposes when slowly heated to 300 °C producing chlorine
  • Dissolution in water liberates a considerable amount of heat

5.1

Magnesium nitrate 
10377-60-3

Mg(NO3)2

 

5.1

Magnesium oxide 
1309-48-4

MgO

  • Readily absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide when exposed to air 
  • Reacts vigorously with halogens and strong acids
 

Magnesium phosphide
12057-74-8

Mg3P2

  • Reacts with water, air moisture, acids producing highly toxic fumes of phosphine
  • Reacts with water, air moisture, violently with acids causing fire and toxic (phosphine fumes) hazard

4.3/ 6.1

Mercuric acetate
1600-27-7

HgC4H6O4

  • The substance decomposes on heating and under influence of light producing toxic fumes of mercury or mercuric oxide

6.1

Mercuric bromide 
7789-47-1

HgBr2

 

6.1

Mercuric chloride 
7487-94-7

HgCl2

  • The substance decomposes on heating producing toxic vapours of mercury and chloride
  • Reacts with light metals · Incompatible with formates, sulphites, hypophosphites, phosphates, sulphides, albumin, gelatin, alkalies, alkaloid salts, ammonia, lime water, antimony and arsenic, bromide, borax, carbonate, iron, copper, lead, silver salts

6.1

Mercuric nitrate 
10045-94-0

Hg(NO3)2

  • The substance decomposes on heating producing toxic fumes (mercury, nitrogen oxides), or on exposure to light 
  • The substance is a strong oxidant and reacts violently with combustible and reducing materials 
  • Reacts with acetylene, alcohol, phosphine and sulphur to form shock-sensitive compounds 
  • Attacks most metals when in solution
  • Vigorous reaction with petroleum hydrocarbons

6.1

Mercuric oxide 
21908-53-2

HgO

  • The substance decomposes on exposure to light, on heating above 500 °C, or on burning under influence of light producing highly toxic fumes including mercury and oxygen, which increases fire hazard 
  • Upon heating, toxic fumes are formed 
  • Reacts violently with chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, hypophosphorous acid, hydrazine hydrate, magnesium (when heated), disulphur dichloride and hydrogen trisulphide
  • Reacts explosively with acetyl nitrate, butadiene, ethanol, iodine 
(at 35 °C), chlorine, hydrocarbons, diboron tetrafluoride, hydrogen peroxide, traces of nitric acid, reducing agents 
  • Incompatible with reducing agents

6.1

Mercuric sulphate 
7783-35-9

HgSO4

  • The substance decomposes on heating  or on exposure to light producing toxic fumes of mercury and sulphur oxides 
  • Reacts with water producing insoluble basic mercuric sulphate and sulphuric acid 
  • Reacts violently with hydrogen chloride

6.1

Mercuric thiocyanate 
592-85-8

HgC2N2S2

 

6.1

Mercurous chloride 
10112-91-1

Hg2Cl2

  • The substance decomposes on heating producing toxic fumes of chlorine and mercury, or on exposure to sunlight producing metallic mercury and mercuric chloride 
  • Reacts with bromides, iodides, sulphates, sulphites, carbonates, alkali chlorides, hydroxides, cyanides, lead salts, silver salts, soap, sulphides, copper salts, hydrogen peroxide, lime water, iodoform, ammonia, iodine
 

Mercury 
7439-97-6

Hg

  • Reacts violently with acetylene, chlorine, and ammonia 
  • Attacks copper and copper alloy materials 
  • Incompatible with acetylenes and ammonia gases 
  • Toxic vapours are formed on heating

6.1

Phenylmercuric acetate 
62-38-4

C8H8HgO2

  • The substance decomposes on heating producing toxic vapours of mercury

6.1

Phenylmercuric nitrate 
55-68-5

C6H5HgNO3

  • The substance decomposes on heating producing mercury vapours and other toxic fumes
  • Reacts with reducing agents

6.1

Nickel 
7440-02-0

Ni

  • Reacts with strong oxidants 
  • Reacts violently, in powder form, with titanium powder and potassium perchlorate, and oxidants such as ammonium nitrate, causing fire and explosion hazard 
  • Reacts slowly with non-oxidizing acids and more rapidly with oxidizing acids 
  • Toxic gases and vapours (such as nickel carbonyl) may be released in a fire involving nickel 
  • Dust explosion possible if in powder or granular form, mixed with air
 

Nickel (II) oxide 
1313-99-1

NiO

  • Reacts violently with iodine and hydrogen sulphide causing fire and explosion hazard
 

Nickel carbonate 
3333-67-3

Ni2CO3

  • The substance decomposes on heating and on contact with acids producing carbon dioxide 
  • Reacts violently with aniline, hydrogen sulphide, flammable solvents, hydrazine and metal powders, especially zinc, aluminium and magnesium, causing fire and explosion hazard
 

Nickel carbonyl 
13463-39-3

NiC4O4

  • May explode on heating at 60 °C 
  • The substance may spontaneously ignite on contact with air
  • The substance decomposes on heating at 180 °C on contact with acids producing highly toxic carbon monoxide 
  • Reacts violently with oxidants, acids and bromine 
  • Reacts violently with oxidants causing fire and explosion hazard 
  • Oxidizes in air forming deposits which become peroxidized causing fire hazard 
  • The vapour is heavier than air and may travel along the ground; distant ignition possible

6.1/ 3

Nickel sulphide 
12035-72-2

Ni3S2

  • The substance decomposes on heating to high temperatures producing sulphur oxides
 

Nickel sulphate 
7786-81-4

NiSO4

  • The substance decomposes on heating at 848 °C, producing toxic fumes of 
sulphur trioxide and nickel monoxide 
  • The solution in water is a weak acid
 

Osmium tetroxide 
20816-12-0

OsO4

  • The substance decomposes on heating producing fumes of osmium 
  • The substance is a strong oxidant and reacts with combustible and reducing materials
  • Reacts with hydrochloric acid to form toxic chlorine gas 
  • Forms unstable compounds with alkalis

6.1

Platinum tetrachloride 
13454-96-1

PtCl4

  • On combustion, forms corrosive gases such as chlorine 
  • The substance decomposes on heating or on burning producing toxic fumes (chlorine) 
  • Reacts with strong oxidants
 

Hydrogen selenide 
7783-07-5

SeH2

  • The substance decomposes on heating above 100 °C producing toxic and flammable products including selenium and hydrogen 
  • The substance is a strong reducing agent and reacts violently with oxidants causing fire and explosion hazard 
  • On contact with air it emits toxic and corrosive fumes of selenium dioxide 
  • The gas is heavier than air and may travel along the ground; distant ignition possible

2.3/ 2.1

Selenious acid 
7783-00-8

SeH2O3

  • The substance decomposes on heating producing water and toxic fumes of selenium oxides
  • Reacts on contact with acids producing toxic gaseous hydrogen selenide
 

Selenious acid, disodium salt
10102-18-8

Na2SeO3

  • On contact with hot surfaces or flames this substance decomposes forming toxic gases
  • The solution in water is a medium strong base 
  • Reacts with water, strong acids causing toxic hazard

6.1

Selenium 
7782-49-2

Se

  • Upon heating, toxic fumes are formed 
  • Reacts violently with oxidants and strong acids 
  • Reacts with water at 50 °C forming flammable hydrogen and selenious acids 
  • Reacts with incandescence on gentle heating with phosphorous and metals such as nickel, zinc, sodium, potassium, platinum

6.1

Selenium dioxide 
7446-08-4

SeO2

  • The substance decomposes on heating producing toxic fumes of selenium
  • The solution in water is a medium strong acid (selenious acid) 
  • Reacts with many substances giving off toxic vapours (selenium) 
  • Attacks many metals in presence of water
 

Selenium hexafluoride 
7783-79-1

SeF6

  • The substance decomposes on heating producing toxic and corrosive fumes including hydrogen fluoride, fluoride and selenium

2.3/ 8

Selenium oxychloride 
7791-23-3

SeOCl2

  • The substance decomposes on heating producing toxic fumes of chloride and selenium
  • The solution in water is a strong acid, it reacts violently with bases and is corrosive
  • Reacts violently with white phosphorus and potassium causing fire and explosion hazard
  • Reacts violently with metal oxides

3/ 6.1

Selenium trioxide 
13768-86-0

SeO3

  • The substance decomposes on heating producing toxic fumes of selenium
  • The substance is a strong oxidant and reacts with combustible and reducing materials
  • The solution in water is a strong acid, it reacts violently with bases and is corrosive
  • Reacts violently with water giving off selenic acid 
  • Attacks many metals when moisture is present
 

Silver 
7440-22-4

Ag

  • Shock-sensitive compounds are formed with acetylene 
  • Finely divided silver and strong hydrogen peroxide solution may explode (violent decomposition to oxygen gas) 
  • Contact with ammonia may cause formation of compounds that are explosive when dry 
  • Readily reacts with diluted nitric acid, hot concentrated sulphuric acid
 

Silver nitrate 
7761-88-8

AgNO3

  • Shock-sensitive compounds are formed with acetylene, alcohol, phosphine and sulphur
  • The substance decomposes on heating producing toxic fumes (nitrogen oxides) 
  • The substance is a strong oxidant and reacts violently with combustible and reducing materials
  • Reacts with incompatible substances such as acetylene, alkalis, halides and other compounds causing fire and explosion hazard 
  • Attacks some forms of plastics, rubber and coatings 
  • The substance decomposes on contact with organic contaminants when exposed to light

5.1

Strontium chromate 
7789-06-2

SrCrH2O4

  • The substance decomposes on burning producing toxic fumes 
  • Reacts violently with hydrazine
  • Incompatible with combustible, organic or other readily oxidizable materials such as paper, wood, sulphur, aluminium, plastics
 

Tellurium 
13494-80-9

Te

  • Upon heating, toxic fumes are formed
  • Reacts vigorously with halogens or interhalogens causing flames hazard 
  • Reacts with zinc with incandescence
  • Lithium silicide attacks tellurium with incandescence

6.1

Tellurium hexafluoride 
7783-80-4

TeF6

 

2.3/ 8

Thallium 
7440-28-0

Tl

  • Reacts violently with fluorine 
  • Reacts with halogens at room temperature
  • Incompatible with strong acids, strong oxidants, and oxygen 
  • The substance forms toxic compounds on contact with moisture

6.1

Thallous sulphate 
7446-18-6

Tl2 (SO4)3

  • The substance decomposes on heating producing highly toxic fumes of thallium and sulphur oxides

6.1

Thorium 
7440-29-1

Th

 

7

Di-N-Butyltin dichloride 
683-18-1

SnCl2C8H18

 

6.1

Di-N-Dibutyltin oxide 
818-08-6

C8H18SnO

  • The substance decomposes on heating producing toxic fumes of tin, tin oxides
  • Reacts with oxidants 
  • Dust explosion possible if in powder or granular form, mixed with air
  • If dry, it can be charged electrostatically by swirling, pneumatic transport, pouring, etc.
 

Dibutyltin dilaurate 
77-58-7

SnC32H64O4

 

6.1

Stannic chloride 
7646-78-8

SnCl4

  • The vapour is heavier than air 
  • The substance decomposes on heating producing toxic fumes
  • Reacts violently with water forming corrosive hydrochloric acid and tin oxide fumes 
  • Reacts with turpentine 
  • Attacks many metals, some forms of plastics, rubber and coatings 
  • Contact with alcohol and amines may cause fire and explosion hazard 
  • Reacts with moist air to form hydrochloric acid

8

Stannic oxide 
18282-10-5

SnO

  • Reacts violently with chlorine trifluoride 
  • Contact with hydrogen trisulphide causes violent decomposition and ignition 
  • Violently reduced by magnesium on heating, with fire and explosion hazard
 

Stannous chloride 
7772-99-8

SnCl2

  • Upon heating, toxic fumes are formed 
  • The substance is a strong reducing agent and reacts violently with oxidants 
  • Reacts violently with bromine trifluoride, sodium and nitrates
 

Stannous chloride dihydrate
10025-69-1

SnCl2 ·2H2O

  • The substance is a strong reducing agent and reacts violently with oxidants
  • Upon heating, toxic and corrosive fumes are formed 
  • The substance absorbs oxygen from air and forms insoluble oxychloride
 

Stannous fluoride 
7783-47-3

SnF2

  • Reacts with acids; hydrogen fluoride fumes may be formed 
  • Reacts violently with 
chlorine 
  • Incompatible with alkaline substances and oxidizing agents
 

Tin oxide 
21651-19-4

SnO

  • On heating at 300 °C in air, oxidation to stannic oxide proceeds incandescently
  • Ignites in nitrous oxide at 400 °C and incandesces when heated in sulphur dioxide
 

Titanium tetrachloride 
7550-45-0

TiCl4

 

8

Titanium trichloride 
7705-07-9

TiCl3

 

8

Vanadium pentoxide 
1314-62-1

V2O5

  • Upon heating, toxic fumes are formed 
  • Acts as a catalyst in oxidation reactions

6.1

Vanadium tetrachloride 
7632-51-1

VCl4

 

8

Vanadium trioxide 
1314-34-7

V2O3

  • Ignites on heating in air 
  • The substance decomposes on heating or on burning producing irritating and toxic fumes (vanadium oxides)

6.1

Vanadyl trichloride 
7727-18-6

VOCl3

 

8

Zinc 
7440-66-6

Zn

 

4.3/ 4.2

Zinc chloride 
7646-85-7

ZnCl2

 

8

Zinc nitrate 
7779-88-6

Zn(NO3)2

 

1.5

Zinc phosphide 
1314-84-7

Zn3P2

  • The substance decomposes on heating and on contact with acids or water producing toxic and flammable fumes of phosphorous and zinc oxides, and phosphine 
  • Reacts violently with strong oxidants causing fire hazard

4.3/ 6.1

Zinc stearate 
557-05-1

ZnC36H70O4

  • The substance decomposes on heating producing acrid smoke and fumes of zinc oxide
  • Dust explosion possible if in powder or granular form, mixed with air 
  • If dry, it can be charged electrostatically by swirling, pneumatic transport, pouring, etc.
 

The data on physical and chemical hazards are adapted from the International Chemical Safety Cards (ICSC) series produced by the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), a cooperative programme of the World Health Organization (WHO), the International Labour Organization (ILO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).
The risk classification data are taken from Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods, 9th edition, developed by the United Nations Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods and published by the United Nations (1995).
In the UN risk classification, the following codes are used: 1.5 = very insensitive substances which have a mass explosion hazard; 2.1 = flammable gas; 2.3 = toxic gas; 
3 = flammable liquid; 4.1 = flammable solid; 4.2 = substance liable to spontaneous combustion; 4.3 = substance which in contact with water emits flammable gases; 
5.1 = oxidizing substance; 6.1 = toxic; 7 = radioactive; 8 = corrosive substance.

Table 2. Health hazards

Chemical 
name 
CAS-Number

Short-term 
exposure

Long-term
exposure

Routes of 
exposure

Symptoms

Target organs, routes 
of entry

Symptoms

Aluminium phosphide
20859-73-8

Eyes; skin; resp. tract

 

Inhalation


Skin
Eyes
Ingestion

Abdominal pain, burning sensation, 
cough, dizziness, dullness, headache, 
laboured breathing, nausea, sore throat
Redness, pain 
Redness, pain 
Abdominal pain, convulsions, nausea, 
unconsciousness, vomiting

   

Antimony
7440-36-0

Eyes; skin; resp. tract; lungs; heart

Skin; lungs; resp. tract

Inhalation


Skin
Eyes
Ingestion

Cough, fever, shortness of breath, 
vomiting, soreness of upper respiratory 
tract; See Ingestion
Redness 
Redness, pain, conjunctivitis 
Abdominal pain, burning sensation, 
diarrhoea, nausea, shortness of breath, 
vomiting, cardiac arrhythmias

Resp sys; CVS; skin; eyes 
Inh; ing; con

Irrit eyes, skin, nose, throat, mouth; cough; dizz; head; nau, vomit, diarr; stomach cramps; insom; anor; unable to smell properly

Antimony
trioxide 
1309-64-4

Eyes; skin; resp. tract

Skin; lungs

Inhalation

Skin
Eyes
Ingestion

Cough, fever, nausea, sore throat, 
vomiting 
Redness, pain, blisters 
Redness, pain 
Abdominal pain, diarrhoea, sore throat, 
vomiting, burning sensation

   

Stibine 
7803-52-3

Blood; kidneys; liver; CNS

 

Inhalation

Abdominal pain, headache, nausea, 
shortness of breath, vomiting, 
weakness, weak and irregular pulse, 
haematuria, shock

Blood; liver; kidneys; resp. sys. 
Inh

Head, weak; nau, abdom pain; lumbar pain, hemog, hema, hemolytic anemia; jaun; pulm irrit

Arsenic 
7440-38-2

Eyes; skin; resp. tract; liver; kidneys; 
GI tract

Skin; liver; CNS; carcinogenic; may cause reproductive toxicity

Inhalation

Skin
Eyes
Ingestion

Chest pain, abdominal pain, cough, 
headache, weakness, giddiness 
May be absorbed, irritating 
Redness, irritating 
Diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting

Liver; kidneys; skin; lungs; lymphatic sys (lung & lymphatic cancer) 
Inh; abs; con; ing

Ulceration of nasal septum, derm, 
GI disturbances, peri neur, resp irrit, hyperpig of skin, (carc)

Arsenic acid,
copper salt 
10103-61-4

Eyes; resp. tract; CNS; digestive tract

Skin; PNS; mucous membranes; liver

Inhalation

Skin
Eyes
Ingestion

Cough, headache, laboured breathing, 
weakness; See Ingestion
May be absorbed 
Redness pain 
Abdominal pain, diarrhoea, vomiting, 
burning sensation behind breastbone 
and in the mouth

   

Arsenic acid,
diammonium 
salt 
7784-44-3

Eyes; skin; resp. tract; CNS; digestive tract; circulatory system

PNS; skin; mucous membranes; liver

Inhalation

Skin
Eyes
Ingestion

Cough, headache, laboured breathing, 
weakness; See Ingestion
May be absorbed, soluble, redness, pain
Redness, pain 
Abdominal pain, diarrhoea, vomiting, 
burning sensation behind breastbone 
and in the mouth

   

Arsenic acid, 
disodium salt 
7778-43-0

Eyes;skin; resp. tract; CNS; digestive tract; circulatory system

PNS; skin; mucous membranes; liver

Inhalation

Skin
Eyes
Ingestion

Cough, headache, laboured breathing, 
weakness; See Ingestion
May be absorbed, soluble, redness, pain 
Redness, pain 
Abdominal pain, diarrhoea, vomiting, 
burning sensation behind breastbone 
and in the mouth

   

Arsenic acid,
magnesium 
salt 
10103-50-1

Eyes; resp. tract; CNS; digestive tract; circulatory system

PNS; skin; mucous membranes; liver

Inhalation

Skin
Eyes
Ingestion

Cough, headache, laboured breathing, 
weakness; See Ingestion
May be absorbed 
Redness, pain 
Abdominal pain, diarrhoea, vomiting, 
burning sensation behind breastbone 
and in the mouth

   

Arsenic acid, 
mono-
potassium 
salt
7784-41-0

Eyes; skin; resp. tract; mucous 
mem-
branes

Skin; PNS; mucous membranes; liver

Inhalation

Skin
Eyes
Ingestion

Cough, headache, laboured breathing, 
weakness; See Ingestion
May be absorbed, redness, pain
Redness, pain 
Abdominal pain, burning sensation, 
diarrhoea, vomiting

   

Arsenic 
pentoxide 
1303-28-2

Eyes; skin; resp. tract; kidneys; liver; CVS; CNS; blood

Lungs; skin; bone marrow; CVS; CNS; carcinogenic; may cause reproductive toxicity

Inhalation



Skin
Eyes
Ingestion

Cough, headache, dizziness, weakness
shortness of breath, pain in chest, 
symptoms may be delayed; 
See Ingestion
Redness, skin burns, pain
Redness, pain, conjunctivitis
Constriction in throat, vomiting, 
abdominal pain, diarrhoea, severe thirst, 
muscular cramps, shock

   

Arsenic 
trioxide 
1327-53-3

Eyes; skin; resp. tract; kidneys; liver; CVS; CNS; hemato-
poietic

Lungs; skin; bone marrow; PNS; CNS; CVS; heart; kidneys; liver; carcinogenic; may cause birth defects

Inhalation



Skin
Eyes
Ingestion

Cough, dizziness, headache, shortness 
of breath, weakness, pain in chest, 
symptoms may be delayed; 
See Ingestion
Redness, pain 
Redness, pain, conjunctivitis 
Constriction in throat, abdominal pain, 
diarrhoea, vomiting, severe thirst, 
muscular cramps, shock

   

Arsenious acid, copper (2+) salt (1:1)
10290-12-7

Eyes; skin; resp. tract.; CNS; digestive tract; circulatory system

Skin; PNS; mucous membranes; liver

Inhalation

Skin
Eyes
Ingestion

Cough, headache, laboured breathing, 
weakness; See Ingestion
May be absorbed 
Redness, pain 
Abdominal pain, diarrhoea, vomiting, 
burning sensation behind breastbone 
and in the mouth

   

Arsenious 
acid, lead (II)
salt 
10031-13-7

Eyes; skin; resp. tract; CNS; GI tract; circulatory system

Skin; PNS; mucous membranes; liver

Inhalation

Skin
Eyes
Ingestion

Cough, headache, laboured breathing, 
weakness; See Ingestion
Redness, pain 
Redness, pain 
Abdominal pain, diarrhoea, vomiting, 
burning sensation behind breastbone 
and in the mouth

   

Arsenious 
acid, 
potassium 
salt 
10124-50-2

Eyes; skin; resp. tract; CNS; digestive tract; circulatory system

 

Inhalation

Skin

Eyes
Ingestion

Cough, headache, laboured breathing, 
weakness; See Ingestion
May be absorbed, soluble, redness, 
pain 
Redness, pain 
Abdominal pain, diarrhoea, vomiting, 
burning sensation behind breastbone 
and in the mouth

   

Arsenous 
trichloride 
7784-34-1

Eyes; skin; resp. tract; lungs; CVS; CNS; GI tract

Mucous membranes; skin; liver; kidneys; PNS

Inhalation

Skin

Eyes
Ingestion

Corrosive, cough, laboured breathing; See Ingestion
Corrosive, may be absorbed, redness, 
pain 
Corrosive, pain, severe deep burns
Corrosive, abdominal pain, burning 
sensation, diarrhoea, vomiting, collapse

   

Arsine 
7784-42-1

Lungs; blood; kidneys

 

Inhalation


Skin
Eyes

Abdominal pain, confusion, dizziness, 
headache, nausea, shortness of breath, 
vomiting, weakness 
On contact with liquid: frostbite 
On contact with liquid: frostbite, redness

Blood; kidneys; liver (lung & lymphatic 
cancer)
Inh; con (liq)

Head, mal, weak, dizz; dysp; abdom, back pain; nau, vomit, bronze skin; hema; jaun; peri neur, liq: frostbite; (carc)

Calcium 
arsenate 
7778-44-1

Eyes; skin; resp. tract; CNS; digestive tract; circulatory system

PNS; skin; mucous membranes; liver

Inhalation

Skin
Eyes
Ingestion

Cough, headache, laboured breathing, 
weakness: See Ingestion
May be absorbed, redness, pain
Redness, pain 
Abdominal pain, diarrhoea, vomiting, 
burning sensation behind breastbone 
and in the mouth

Eyes; resp sys; liver; skin; lymphatic sysrtem; CNS; (lymphatic & lung 
cancer) 
Inh; abs; ing; con

Weak; GI dist; peri neur, skin hyperpig, palmar planter hyperkeratoses; derm; (carc); in animals: liver damage

Lead arsenate
7784-40-9

Intestines; CVS

Skin; CNS; GI tract; liver; kidneys; blood; carcinogenic; may cause reproductive toxicity

Inhalation



Skin
Eyes

Abdominal cramps, diarrhoea, 
headache, nausea, vomiting, tightness 
of chest, constipation, excitation, 
disorientation 
Redness 
Redness

   

Methylarsonic 
acid 
124-58-3

Eyes; skin; resp. tract; lungs

Bone marrow; PNS; kidneys; liver

Inhalation
Skin
Eyes
Ingestion

Cough 
Redness 
Redness 
Abdominal pain, diarrhoea, vomiting, 
burning sensation in throat

Organic arsenic compounds: Skin, resp sys, kidneys, CNS, liver, GI tract, repro sys

In animals: irrit skin, possible derm; resp. distress; diarr; kidney damage; musc tremor, sez; possible GI tract, terato, repro effects; possible liver damage

Sodium 
arsenate 
10048-95-0

Eyes; skin; resp. tract; digestive tract; heart; liver; kidneys; CNS

Skin; CNS; CVS; blood; liver; carcinogenic

Inhalation

Skin
Eyes
Ingestion

Cough, headache, sore throat; 
See Ingestion
Redness, pain
Redness, pain 
Abdominal pain, burning sensation, 
diarrhoea, vomiting

   

Barium 
7440-39-3

Eyes; skin; resp. tract

 

Inhalation
Skin
Eyes

Cough, sore throat
Redness
Redness, pain

   

Barium 
chlorate 
13477-00-4

Eyes; skin; resp. tract; various tissues and organs

Tissues and organs

Inhalation


Eyes
Ingestion

Abdominal pain, abdominal cramps, 
burning sensation, nausea, vomiting, 
weakness, paralysis 
Redness, pain
Abdominal cramps, abdominal pain, 
blue lips or fingernails, blue skin, 
burning sensation, diarrhoea, dizziness, 
nausea, sore throat, vomiting, 
weakness, cardiac dysrhythmia

   

Barium 
chloride 
10361-37-2

Eyes; skin; resp. tract; CNS; muscles

 

Inhalation
Eyes
Ingestion

Abdominal cramps, unconsciousness
Redness
Abdominal cramps, dullness, 
unconsciousness

Heart; CNS; skin; resp sys; eyes 
Inh; ing; con

Irrit eyes, skin, upper resp sys; skin burns, gastroenteritis; musc spasm; slow pulse, extrasystoles; hypokalaemia

Barium 
chloride,
dihydrate 
10362-27-9

Eyes; skin; resp. tract; CNS; muscles

 

Inhalation
Eyes
Ingestion

Abdominal cramps, unconsciousness
Redness 
Abdominal cramps, dullness, 
unconsciousness

   

Barium oxide 
1304-28-5

Eyes; skin; resp. tract; muscles

Lungs

Inhalation
Skin
Eyes
Ingestion

Cough, shortness of breath, sore throat
Redness 
Redness, pain 
Abdominal pain, diarrhoea, dizziness, 
nausea, vomiting, muscle paralysis, 
cardiac arrhythmia, hypertension, death

   

Barium
peroxide 
1304-29-6

 

Skin

Inhalation

Skin
Eyes
Ingestion

Cough, nausea, shortness of breath, sore throat
Redness, skin burns, pain, bleaching
Redness, pain, severe deep burns
Abdominal pain, burning sensation, 
sore throat

   

Barium 
sulphate 
7727-43-7

 

Lungs

Inhalation

Cough

Eyes; resp sys 
Inh; con

Irrit eyes, nose, upper resp sys; 
benign pneumoconiosis (baritosis)

Cadmium 
7440-43-9

Eyes; resp. tract; lungs

Lungs; kidneys

Inhalation

Eyes
Ingestion

Cough, headache, symptoms may be 
delayed 
Redness, pain 
Abdominal pain, diarrhoea, headache, 
nausea, vomiting

Resp sys; kidneys; prostate; blood (prostatic & lung 
cancer)
Inh; ing

Pulm oedema, dysp, cough, tight chest, subs pain; head; chills, musc aches; nau, vomit, diarr; anos, emphy, prot, mild anaemia; (carc)

Cadmium 
chloride 
10108-64-2

Resp. tract; digestive tract; lungs

Lungs; kidneys; bone; probably carcinogenic

Inhalation

Skin
Eyes
Ingestion

Cough, laboured breathing, symptoms 
may be delayed 
Redness 
Redness, pain 
Abdominal pain, burning sensation, 
diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting

   

Cadmium 
oxide 
1306-19-0

Resp. tract; digestive tract; lungs

Lungs; kidneys; carcinogenic

Inhalation


Skin
Eyes
Ingestion

Cough, laboured breathing, shortness 
of breath, 
symptoms may be delayed 
Redness 
Redness, pain 
Abdominal cramps, diarrhoea, nausea, 
vomiting

Resp sys; kidneys; blood; (prostatic & lung cancer) 
Inh

Pulm oedema, dysp, cough, tight chest, subs pain; head; chills, musc aches; nau, vomit, diarr; anos, emphy, prot, mild anaemia; (carc)

Cadmium 
sulphide 
1306-23-6

 

Lungs; kidneys; carcinogenic

       

Chromium 
7440-47-3

Eyes; skin; resp. tract; lungs; kidneys

Skin; asthma; larynx; lungs

Eyes
Ingestion

Irritation 
Diarrhoea, nausea, unconsciousness, 
vomiting

Resp sys; skin; eyes 
Inh; ing; con

Irrit eyes, skin; lung fib (histologic)

Chromyl 
chloride 
14977-61-8

Eyes; skin; resp. tract; lungs; corrosive on ingestion

Skin; asthma; probably carcinogenic

Inhalation

Skin
Eyes
Ingestion

Cough, laboured breathing, shortness 
of breath, sore throat 
Redness, skin burns, pain, blisters
Redness, pain, severe deep burns 
Abdominal pain

Eyes; skin; resp sys (lung cancer) 
Inh; abs; ing; con

Irrit eyes, skin, upper resp sys; eye, skin burns

Lead 
chromate 
7758-97-6

Resp. tract; may cause perforation of nasal septum

Skin; inhalation may cause asthma; lungs

Inhalation

Skin
Eyes
Ingestion

Cough, headache, laboured breathing, 
nausea, metallic taste 
Skin burns, ulcers, blisters
Redness 
Abdominal pain, constipation, 
convulsions, cough, diarrhoea, 
vomiting, weakness, anorexia

   

Cobalt 
7440-48-4

 

Skin; resp. tract; lungs; heart

Inhalation

Skin
Eyes
Ingestion

Cough, laboured breathing, shortness 
of breath 
Redness 
Redness 
Abdominal pain, vomiting

Resp sys; skin 
Inh; ing; con

Cough, dysp, wheez, decr pulm func; low-wgt; derm; diffuse nodular fib; resp hypersensitivity, asthma

Cobalt 
chloride 
7646-79-9

Eyes; skin; resp. tract

Skin; resp. tract ; heart

Inhalation

Skin
Eyes
Ingestion

Cough, laboured breathing, shortness 
of breath 
Redness 
Redness 
Abdominal pain, diarrhoea, nausea, 
vomiting

   

Cobalt (III) 
oxide 
1308-04-9

Eyes; skin; resp. tract

Skin; may cause asthma; lungs; possibly carcinogenic

Inhalation

Eyes

Cough, laboured breathing, shortness 
of breath 
Redness

   

Cobalt 
naphthenate 
61789-51-3

Eyes; resp. tract

Skin

Inhalation
Skin
Eyes

Cough, sore throat 
Redness, pain 
Redness, pain

   

Copper 
7440-50-8

Eyes

Skin; lungs

Inhalation

Skin
Eyes
Ingestion

Cough, headache, shortness of breath, 
sore throat 
Redness 
Redness, pain
Abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting

Eyes; resp sys; skin; liver; kidneys (incr risk with Wilsons disease)
Inh; ing; con

Irrit eyes, nose, pharynx; nasal perf; metallic taste; derm; in animals: lung, liver, kidney damage; anaemia

Copper (I) 
oxide 
1317-39-1

Eyes; resp. tract

 

Inhalation
Eyes
Ingestion

Cough, metallic taste, metal fume fever
Redness 
Abdominal cramps, diarrhoea, nausea, 
vomiting

   

Lead 
7439-92-1

 

Nervous system; kidneys; may impair fertility; may cause retarded development of the newborn

Inhalation
Ingestion

Headache, nausea, abdominal spasm
Headache, nausea, sore throat, 
abdominal spasm

Eyes; GI tract; CNS; kidneys; blood; gingival tissue 
Inh; ing; con

Weak, lass, insom; facial pallor; pal eye, anor, low-wgt, malnut; constip, abdom pain, colic; anemia; gingival lead line; tremor; para wrist, ankles; encephalopathy; kidney disease; irrit eyes; hypotension

Lead acetate 
301-04-2

Eyes; skin; resp. tract; blood; CNS; kidneys

Blood; bone marrow; CVS; kidneys; CNS

Inhalation

Eyes
Ingestion

Headache, chronic but not described as 
acute; See Ingestion
Redness, pain
Abdominal cramps, constipation, 
convulsions, headache, nausea, vomiting

   

Tetraethyl 
lead 
78-00-2

Eyes; skin; resp. tract; CNS

Skin; CNS; may cause genetic damage; may cause reproductive toxicity

Inhalation

Skin
Eyes
Ingestion

Convulsions, dizziness, headache, 
unconsciousness, vomiting, weakness
May be absorbed, redness
Pain, blurred vision 
Convulsions, diarrhoea, dizziness, 
headache, unconsciousness, vomiting, 
weakness

CNS; CVS; kidneys; eyes 
Inh; abs; ing; con

Insom, lass, anxiety; tremor, hyper-reflexia, spasticity; bradycardia, hypotension, hypothermia, pallor, nau, anor, low-wgt; conf, disorientation, halu, psychosis, mania, convuls, coma; eye irrit

Lead (II) 
oxide 
1317-36-8

 

CNS; kidneys; blood

       

Magnesium 
7439-95-4

   

Inhalation
Eyes
Ingestion

Cough, laboured breathing 
Redness, pain 
Abdominal pain, diarrhoea

   

Magnesium 
chloride 
7786-30-3

Eyes; resp. tract

 

Inhalation
Eyes
Ingestion

Cough 
Redness 
Diarrhoea

   

Magnesium 
oxide 
1309-48-4

Eyes; nose

 

Inhalation
Eyes
Ingestion

Cough 
Redness 
Diarrhoea

Eyes; resp sys
Inh; con

Irrit eyes, nose; metal fume fever, cough, chest pain, flu-like fever

Magnesium 
phosphide 
12057-74-8

Eyes; skin; resp. tract

 

Inhalation


Skin
Eyes
Ingestion

Abdominal pain, burning sensation, 
cough, dizziness, dullness, headache, 
laboured breathing, nausea, sore throat
Redness, pain
Redness, pain
Abdominal pain, convulsions, nausea, 
unconsciousness, vomiting

   

Manganese 
sulphate 
10034-96-5

Eyes; skin; resp. tract

Lungs; CNS; liver; kidneys; testes

Inhalation

Skin

Eyes
Ingestion

Burning sensation, cough, laboured 
breathing 
May be absorbed, redness, burning 
sensation 
Redness, pain, blurred vision 
Abdominal cramps, nausea, sore throat

   

Mercury 
7439-97-6

Eyes; skin; lungs; CNS

CNS; nervous system; kidneys

Inhalation
Skin
Eyes

Pulmonary irritation, cough 
May be absorbed 
Irritating

Skin; resp sys; CNS; kidneys; eyes
Inh; abs; ing; con

Irrit eyes, skin; cough, chest pain, dysp, bron pneuitis; tremor, insom, irrity, indecision, head, ftg, weak; stomatitis, salv; GI dist, anor, low-wgt; prot

Mercuric 
acetate 
1600-27-7

Eyes; skin; resp. tract; lungs; kidneys

Skin; kidneys

Inhalation



Skin
Eyes
Ingestion

Cough, headache, laboured breathing, 
shortness of breath, sore throat, 
symptoms may be delayed;
See Ingestion
May be absorbed, skin burns, pain 
Pain, blurred vision, severe deep burns 
Abdominal pain, burning sensation, 
diarrhoea, vomiting, metallic taste

   

Mercuric 
chloride 
7487-94-7

Eyes; skin; resp. tract; lungs; kidneys

Skin; kidneys

Inhalation



Skin
Eyes
Ingestion

Burning sensation, cough, laboured 
breathing, shortness of breath, sore 
throat, symptoms may be delayed; 
See Ingestion
May be absorbed, pain, blisters 
Pain, blurred vision, severe deep burns
Abdominal cramps, abdominal pain, 
burning sensation, diarrhoea, nausea, 
sore throat, vomiting, metallic taste

   

Mercuric 
nitrate 
10045-94-0

Skin; resp. tract; eyes; kidneys

Kidneys

Inhalation

Skin
Eyes
Ingestion

Cough, headache, laboured breathing, 
shortness of breath, sore throat 
May be absorbed, redness, pain 
Pain, blurred vision, severe deep burns
Abdominal pain, diarrhoea, vomiting, 
metallic taste

   

Mercuric 
oxide 
21908-53-2

Eyes; skin; resp. tract

Skin; kidneys; CNS

Inhalation
Skin
Eyes
Ingestion

Cough 
May be absorbed, redness 
Redness 
Abdominal pain, diarrhoea

   

Mercuric 
sulphate 
7783-35-9

Eyes; skin; resp. tract; lungs; GI tract; corrosive on ingestion

Kidneys

Inhalation



Skin

Eyes
Ingestion

Burning sensation, cough, laboured 
breathing, shortness of breath, 
weakness, symptoms may be delayed;
See Ingestion
May be absorbed, redness, burning 
sensation, pain 
Pain, blurred vision, severe deep burns 
Abdominal pain, diarrhoea, nausea, 
vomiting, metallic taste

   

Mercurous 
chloride 
10112-91-1

Eyes

Kidneys

Eyes
Ingestion

Redness
Weakness

   

Mercury 
organoalkyl 
compound

       

Eyes; skin; CNS; PNS; kidneys
Inh; abs; ing; con

Pares; ataxia, dysarthria; vision, 
hearing dist; spasticity, jerking limbs; dizz; salv; lac; nau, vomit, diarr, 
constip; skin burns; emotional dist; 
kidney inj; possible terato effects

Phenylmercuric acetate
62-38-4

Eyes; skin; resp. tract; kidneys

Skin; CNS; possibly causes toxic effects upon human reproduction

Inhalation

Skin
Eyes
Ingestion

Cough, laboured breathing, sore throat, 
symptoms may be delayed 
May be absorbed, redness, pain
Redness, pain, blurred vision 
Abdominal pain, diarrhoea, nausea, 
vomiting, weakness, symptoms of 
delayed effects

   

Phenylmercuric nitrate
55-68-5

Eyes; skin; resp. tract; kidneys

Skin; CNS; possibly causes toxic effects on human reproduction

Inhalation

Skin
Eyes
Ingestion

Cough, laboured breathing, sore throat, 
symptoms may be delayed 
May be absorbed, redness, pain
Redness, pain, blurred vision 
Abdominal pain, diarrhoea, nausea, 
vomiting, symptoms of delayed effects

   

Nickel 
7440-02-0

Eyes; resp. tract

Skin; inhalation may cause asthma; may effect conjuctiva; possibly carcinogenic

   

Nasal cavities; lungs; skin (lung & nasal 
cancer)
Inh; ing; con

Sens derm, allergic asthma, pneuitis; (carc)

Nickel (II) 
oxide 
1313-99-1

Eyes; resp. tract

Skin; inhalation may cause asthma; carcinogenic

Inhalation
Skin
Eyes

Cough 
Redness 
Redness

   

Nickel 
carbonate 
3333-67-3

Eyes; resp. tract

Skin; carcinogenic; asthma

Inhalation
Skin
Eyes

Cough 
Redness 
Redness

   

Nickel 
carbonyl 
13463-39-3

Eyes; skin; resp. tract; lungs; CNS

Possibly carcinogenic; may cause defects on the unborn child

Inhalation



Skin
Eyes
Ingestion

Abdominal pain, blue skin, cough, 
dizziness, headache, nausea, shortness 
of breath, vomiting, symptoms may be 
delayed 
May be absorbed, redness, pain 
Redness, pain 
Abdominal pain, headache, nausea, 
vomiting

Lungs; paranasal sinus; CNS; repro sys (lung & nasal cancer)
Inh; abs; ing; con

Head, verti; nau, vomit, epigastric pain; subs pain; cough, hyperpnea; cyan; weak; leucyt; pneuitis; delirium; 
convuls; (carc); in animals: repro, terato effects

Nickel 
sulphide 
12035-72-2

Eyes; skin; resp. tract

Skin; possibly carcinogenic

Inhalation

Cough, sore throat

   

Nickel 
sulphate 
7786-81-4

Eyes; skin; resp. tract; GI tract; CNS

Skin; asthma; possibly carcinogenic

Inhalation
Skin
Eyess
Ingestion

Cough, sore throat 
May be absorbed, redness 
Redness 
Abdominal pain, dizziness, headache, 
nausea, vomiting

   

Osmium 
tetroxide 
20816-12-0

Eyes; skin; resp. tract; lungs

Skin; kidneys

Inhalation


Skin
Eyes
Ingestion

Cough, headache, wheezing, shortness 
of breath, visual disturbances, 
symptoms may be delayed 
Redness, skin burns, skin discoloration 
Blurred vision, loss of vision 
Burning sensation

Eyes; resp sys; skin Inh; ing; con

Irrit eyes, resp sys; lac, vis dist; conj; head; cough, dysp; derm

Platinium 
tetrachloride 
13454-96-1

Eyes; skin; resp. tract

 

Inhalation
Skin
Eyes

Burning sensation, cough 
Redness 
Redness

Eyes; skin; resp sys Inh; ing; con

Irrit eyes, nose; cough; dysp, wheez, cyan; derm, sens skin; lymphocytosis

Hydrogen 
selenide 
7783-07-5

Eyes; resp. tract; lungs

Skin; liver; spleen; kidneys

Inhalation

Skin
Eyes

Burning sensation, cough, laboured 
breathing, nausea, sore throat, 
weakness 
On contact with liquid: frostbite 
Redness, pain;

Resp sys; eyes; liver Inh; con

Irrit eyes, nose, throat; nau, vomit, diarr; metallic taste, garlic breathy; dizz, lass, ftg; liq: frostbite; in animals: pneuitis; liver damage

Selenious acid 
7783-00-8

Eyes; skin; resp. tract

Skin

Inhalation

Skin
Eyes

Ingestion

Burning sensation, cough, laboured 
breathing, sore throat
May be absorbed, redness, pain, blisters 
Redness, pain, blurred vision, severe 
deep burns, puffy eyelids 
Abdominal pain, burning sensation, 
confusion, nausea, sore throat, 
weakness, low blood pressure

   

Selenious 
acid, 
disodium salt 
10102-18-8

Eyes; skin; resp. tract; lungs; liver; kidneys; heart; CNS; GI tract

teeth; bone; blood

Inhalation



Skin
Eyes

Abdominal cramps, diarrhoea, dizziness, 
headache, hair loss, laboured breathing, 
nausea, vomiting, symptoms may be 
delayed 
Redness 
Redness

   

Selenium 7782-49-2

Lungs

Skin; resp. tract; GI tract; integuments

Inhalation



Skin

Eyes
Ingestion

Irritation of nose, cough, dizziness, 
headache, laboured breathing, nausea, 
sore throat, vomiting, weakness, 
symptoms may be delayed 
Redness, skin burns, pain, 
discolouration 
Redness, pain, blurred vision 
Metallic taste, diarrhoea, chills, fever

Resp sys; eyes; skin; liver; kidneys; blood; spleen 
Inh; ing; con

Irrit eyes, skin, nose, throat; vis dist; head; chills, fever, dysp, bron; metallic taste, garlic breath, GI dist; derm, eye, skin burns; in animals: anemia; liver nec, cirr; kidney, spleen damage

Selenium 
dioxide 
7446-08-4

Eyes; skin; resp. tract; lungs

Skin

Inhalation

Skin
Eyes

Ingestion

Burning sensation, cough, laboured 
breathing, sore throat 
May be absorbed, redness, pain, blisters 
Redness, pain, blurred vision, severe 
deep burns, puffy eyelids 
Abdominal pain, burning sensation, 
confusion, nausea, sore throat, 
weakness, low blood pressure

   

Selenium 
hexafluoride 
7783-79-1

Resp. tract; lungs

Skin; CNS; liver; kidneys

Inhalation

Skin

Eyes

Corrosive, cough, headache, nausea, 
shortness of breath, sore throat 
Redness, pain, on contact with liquid: 
frostbite; corrosive 
Redness, pain, blurred vision;

Resp sys
Inh

In animals: plum irrit, edema

Selenium 
oxychloride 
7791-23-3

Eyes; skin; resp. tract; lungs

Skin

Inhalation

Skin

Eyes

Ingestion

Burning sensation, cough, laboured 
breathing, sore throat 
Corrosive, may be absorbed, redness, 
pain, blisters 
Redness, pain, blurred vision, severe 
deep burns 
Abdominal cramps, confusion, nausea, 
sore throat, hypotension

   

Selenium 
trioxide 
13768-86-0

Eyes; skin; resp. tract

Skin; lungs

Inhalation

Skin
Eyes

Ingestion

Burning sensation, cough, laboured 
breathing, sore throat 
May be absorbed, redness, pain 
Redness, pain, blurred vision, puffy 
eyelids 
Abdominal cramps, confusion, nausea, 
sore throat, weakness, low blood 
pressure

   

Silver 
7740-22-4

 

Eyes; nose; throat; skin

   

Nasal septum; skin; eyes
Inh; ing; con

Blue-gray eyes, nasal septum, throat, skin; irrit, ulceration skin; GI dist

Silver nitrate 
7761-88-8

Eyes; skin; resp. tract

Blood; skin

Inhalation

Skin
Eyes

Ingestion

Burning sensation, cough, laboured 
breathing 
Redness, skin burns, pain
Redness, pain, loss of vision, severe 
deep burns 
Abdominal pain, burning sensation, 
weakness

   

Strontium 
chromate 
7789-06-2

Eyes; skin; resp. tract; kidneys; liver

Skin; lungs; blood; liver; kidneys; brain; red and white blood cells; liver; kidneys; carcinogenic

Inhalation
Skin
Ingestion

Cough, hoarseness 
Redness, ulcerations 
Sore throat

   

Tellurium 
13494-80-9

Resp. tract; CNS

Possibly causes malformations in human 
babies

Inhalation

Skin
Eyes
Ingestion

Drowsiness, headache, garlic odour, 
nausea 
May be absorbed 
Redness 
Abdominal pain, constipation, nausea, vomiting, garlic odour of the breath

Skin; CNS; blood 
Inh; ing; con

Garlic breath, sweat; dry mouth, metallic taste; som; anor, nau, no sweat; derm; in animals: CNS, red blood cell effects

Thallium 
metal 
7440-28-0

Nervous system

Eyes; liver; lungs; may cause birth defects

Inhalation


Skin
Eyes
Ingestion

Nausea, vomiting, loss of hair, abdominal colic, pain in legs and chest, nervousness, irritability 
May be absorbed 
May be absorbed 
Abdominal pain, constipation, diarrhoea, headache, nausea, vomiting, loss of vision

Eyes; CNS; lungs; liver; kidneys; GI tract, body hair; resp sys
Inh; abs; ing; con

Nau, diarr, abdom pain, vomit; ptosis, strabismus; peri neuritis, tremor; retster tight, chest pain, pulm edema; sez, chorea, psychosis; liver, kidney damage; alopecia; pares legs

Thallous 
sulphate 
7446-18-6

Eyes; skin; CNS; CVS; kidneys; GI tract

 

Inhalation
Skin

Eyes
Ingestion

See Ingestion
May be absorbed, redness;
See Ingestion
Redness, pain 
Abdominal pain, convulsions, diarrhoea, headache, vomiting, weakness, delirium, tachycardia

   

Di-N-Dibutyltin
oxide
818-08-6

Eyes; skin; resp. tract; lungs

Skin; PNS; liver; bile duct; lymphatic system;

Inhalation

Skin
Eyes

Headache, ringing in the ears, memory 
loss, disorientation
May be absorbed, skin burns, pain 
Redness, pain

   

Stannic 
chloride 
7646-78-8

Eyes; skin; resp. tract; lungs

Skin

Inhalation


Skin
Eyes
Ingestion

Burning sensation, cough, laboured 
breathing, shortness of breath, sore 
throat 
Redness, skin burns, blisters 
Severe deep burns 
Abdominal cramps, vomiting

   

Stannic oxide 
18282-10-5

Resp. tract

Lungs

Inhalation

Cough

Resp sys
Inh; con

Stannosis (benign pneumoconiosis): dysp, decr pulm func

Stannous
chloride
7772-99-8

Eyes; skin; resp. tract; CNS; blood

Liver

Inhalation
Skin
Eyes
Ingestion

Cough, shortness of breath 
Redness 
Redness, pain 
Abdominal pain, diarrhoea, nausea, 
vomiting

   

Stannous chloride 
dihydrate 
10025-69-1

Eyes; skin; resp. tract; CNS; blood

Liver

Inhalation
Skin
Eyes
Ingestion

Cough, shortness of breath 
Redness 
Redness pain 
Abdominal pain, diarrhoea, nausea, 
vomiting

   

Stannous 
fluoride 
7783-47-3

Skin; resp. tract; eyes

Teeth; bone

Inhalation
Skin
Eyes
Ingestion

Cough 
Redness 
Redness, pain, severe deep burns 
Abdominal pain, nausea

   

Tin oxide 
21651-19-4

Resp. tract

Lungs

Inhalation

Cough

Resp sys
Inh; con

Stannosis (benign pneumoconiosis): dysp, decr pulm func

Titanium 
dioxide 
13463-67-7

Eyes; lungs

Lungs

Inhalation
Eyes

Cough 
Redness

Resp sys (in animals: lung tumors)
Inh

Lung fib; (carc)

Vanadium 
pentoxide 
1314-62-1

Eyes; resp. tract; lungs

Skin; lungs; tongue

Inhalation

Skin
Eyes
Ingestion

Burning sensation, cough, shortness of 
breath 
Redness, burning sensation 
Redness, pain, conjunctivitis 
Abdominal pain, diarrhoea, drowsiness, 
unconsciousness, vomiting, symptoms of 
severe systemic poisoning and death

Resp sys; skin; eyes
Inh; con

Irrit eyes, skin, throat; green tongue, metallic taste, eczema; cough; fine râles, wheez, bron, dysp

Vanadium 
trioxide 
1314-34-7

Eyes; skin; resp. tract

Resp. tract; may effect liver and cardiac function

Inhalation



Skin
Eyes
Ingestion

Runny nose, sneezing, cough, 
diarrhoea, laboured breathing, sore 
throat, weakness, pain in chest, green 
to black tongue 
Dry skin, redness 
Redness 
Headache, vomiting, weakness

   

Zinc chromate 
13530-65-9

 

Skin;  resp. tract

Inhalation
Eyes
Ingestion

Cough 
Redness 
Abdominal pain, diarrhoea, vomiting

   

Zinc 
phosphide 
1314-84-7

Resp. tract; lungs; liver; kidneys; heart; CNS

 

Inhalation

Ingestion

Cough, diarrhoea, headache, fatigue, 
nausea, vomiting 
Abdominal pain, cough, diarrhoea, 
dizziness, headache, laboured 
breathing, nausea, unconsciousness, 
vomiting, ataxia, fatigue

   

The short-term and long-term exposure data area adapted from the International Chemical Safety Cards (ICSC) series produced by the International Programme on Chemical Safety (see notes to table 1). The abbreviations used are CNS = central nervous system; CVS = cardiovascular system; PNS = peripheral nervous system; resp. tract = respiratory tract.

The remaining data are adapted from the NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards (NIOSH 1994). The following abbreviations are used:
abdom = abdominal; abnor = abnormal/abnormalities; album = albuminuria; anes = anesthesia; anor = anorexia; anos = anosmia (loss of the sense of smell); 
appre = apprehension; arrhy = arrhythmias; aspir = aspiration; asphy = asphyxia; BP = blood pressure; breath = breathing; bron = bronchitis; 
broncopneu = bronchopneumonia; bronspas = bronchospasm; BUN = blood urea nitrogen; (carc) = potential occupational carcinogen; card = cardiac; chol = cholinesterase; 
cirr = cirrhosis; CNS = central nervous system; conc = concentration; conf = confusion; conj = conjunctivitis; constip = constipation; convuls = convulsions; corn = corneal;
CVS = cardiovascular system; cyan = cyanosis; decr = decreased; depress = depressant/depression; derm = dermatitis; diarr = diarrhea; dist = disturbance; dizz = dizziness;
drow = drowsiness; dysfunc = dysfunction; dysp = dyspnea (breathing difficulty); emphy = emphysema; eosin = eosinophilia; epilep = epileptiform; epis = epistaxis 
(nosebleed); equi = equilibrium; eryt = erythema (skin redness); euph = euphoria; fail = failure; fasc = fasiculation; FEV = forced expiratory volume; fib = fibrosis; 
fibri = fibrillation; ftg = fatigue; func = function; GI = gastrointestinal; gidd = giddiness; halu = hallucinations; head = headache; hema = hematuria (blood in the urine); 
hemato = hematopoietic; hemog = hemoglobinuria; hemorr = hemorrhage; hyperpig = hyperpigmentation; hypox = hypoxemia (reduced oxygen in the blood); 
inco = incoordination; incr = increase(d); inebri = inebriation; inflamm = inflammation; inj = injury; insom = insomnia; irreg = irregularity/irregularities; irrit = irritation; 
irrty = irritability; jaun = jaundice; kera = keratitis (inflammation of the cornea); lac = lacrimation (discharge of tears); lar = laryngeal; lass = lassitude (weakness, exhaustion);
leth = lethargy (drowsiness or indifference); leucyt = leukocytosis (increased blood leukocytes); leupen = leukopenia (reduced blood leukocytes); li-head = lightheadedness; 
liq = liquid; local = localized; low-wgt = weight loss; mal = malaise (vague feeling of discomfort); malnut = malnutrition; methemo = methemoglobinemia; 
monocy = monocytosis (increased blood monocytes); molt = molten; muc memb = mucous membrane; musc = muscle; narco = narcosis; nau = nausea; nec = necrosis; 
nept = nephritis; ner = nervousness; numb = numbness; opac = opacity; palp = palpitations; para = paralysis; pares = paresthesia; perf = perforation; peri neur = peripheral neuropathy; periorb = periorbital (situated around the eye); phar = pharyngeal; photo = phtophobia (abnormal visual intolerance to); pneu = penumonia; 
pneuitis = pneumonitis; PNS = peripheral nervous system; polyneur = polyneuropathy; prot = proteinuria; pulm = pulmonary; RBC = red blood cell; repro = reproductive; 
resp = respiratory; restless = restlessness; retster = retrosternal (occurring behind the sternum); rhin = rhinorrhea (discharge of thin nasal mucus); salv = salivation; 
sens = sensitization; sez = seizure; short = shortness; sneez = sneezing; sol = solid; soln = solution; som = somnolence (sleepiness, unnatural drowsiness); subs = substernal
(occurring beneath the sternum); sweat = sweating; swell = swelling; sys = system; tacar = tachycardia; tend = tenderness; terato = teratogenic; throb = throbbing; 
tight = tightness; trachbronch = tracheobronchitis; twitch = twitching; uncon = unconsciousness; vap = vapor; venfib = ventricular fibrillation; vert = vertigo (an illusion of
movement); vesic = vesiculation; vis dist = viszal disturbance; vomit = vomiting; weak = weakness; wheez = wheezing.

The reader is referred to the Guide to chemicals in Volume IV of this Encyclopaedia for additional information on the toxicity of related chemical substances and compounds. Calcium compounds and boron compounds, in particular, are to be found there. Specific information on biological monitoring is given in the chapter Biological monitoring.

 

Back

Read 53657 times Last modified on Tuesday, 02 August 2011 00:35
More in this category: « Contents Page Acknowledgements »

Contents

Preface
Part I. The Body
Part II. Health Care
Part III. Management & Policy
Part IV. Tools and Approaches
Part V. Psychosocial and Organizational Factors
Part VI. General Hazards
Part VII. The Environment
Part VIII. Accidents and Safety Management
Part IX. Chemicals
Part X. Industries Based on Biological Resources
Agriculture and Natural Resources Based Industries
Beverage Industry
Fishing
Resources
Food Industry
Forestry
Hunting
Livestock Rearing
Lumber
Paper and Pulp Industry
Part XI. Industries Based on Natural Resources
Part XII. Chemical Industries
Part XIII. Manufacturing Industries
Part XIV. Textile and Apparel Industries
Part XV. Transport Industries
Part XVI. Construction
Part XVII. Services and Trade
Part XVIII. Guides

Fishing Additional Resources

Click the Button below to view additional resources for this topic.

button

Fishing References

Alverson, DL, MH Freeberg, SA Murawski, and JG Pope. 1994. A Global Assessment of Fisheries Bycatch and Discards. Rome: FAO.

Anderson, DM. 1994. Red tides. Sci Am 271:62–68.

Chiang, H-C, Y-C Ko, S-S Chen, H-S Yu, T-N Wu, and P-Y Chang. 1993. Prevalence of shoulder and upper-limb disorders among workers in the fish-processing industry. Scand J Work Environment and Health 19:126–131.

Cura, NM. 1995. Treading on dangerous waters. Samudra 13:19–23.

Dayton, PK, SF Thrush, MT Agardy, and RF Hofman. 1995. Environmental effects of marine fishing. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 5:205–232.

Dyer, CL. 1988. Social organization as a function of work. Organization aboard a Japanese surimi trawler. Journal of the Society for Applied Anthropology 47:76–81.

Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. 1992. Review of the State of World Fishery Resources. Part 1: Marine resources. Rome: FAO.

—. 1993. Marine Fisheries and the Law of the Sea: A Decade of Change. Rome: FAO.

—. 1995. The State of the World Fisheries and Aquaculture. Rome: FAO.

Food and Nutrition Board. 1991. Seafood Safety. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Gales, R. 1993. Co-operative Mechanisms for the Conservation of Albatross. Australia: Australian Nature Conservation Agency.

Hagmar, L, K Lindén, A Nilsson, B Norrving, B Åkesson, A Schütz, and T Möller. 1992. Cancer incidence and mortality among Swedish Baltic Sea fishermen. Scand J Work Environ Health 18:217–224.

Husmo, M. 1993. Drømmen om å bli fiskekjøper. Om rekruttering til ledelse og kvinners lederstil i norsk fiskeindustri, Rap. No. 8. Tromsø, Norway: Fiskeriforskning/Norges fiskerihøgskole, Universitetet i Tromsø.

—. 1995. Institusjonell endring eller ferniss? Kvalitetsstyringsprosessen i noen norske fiskeindustribedrifter, Rap. No. 1. Tromsø, Norway: Norges fiskerihøgskole/Seksjon for fiskeriorganisasjon.

Husmo, M and E Munk-Madsen. 1994. Kjønn som kvalifikasjon i fiskeindustrien. In Leve Kysten? Strandhogg i fiskeri-Norge, edited by O Otterstad and S Jentoft. Norway: Ad Notam Glydenal.

Husmo, M and G Søvik. 1995. Ledelsesstrukturen i norsk fiskeforedlingsindustri. Rap. No. 2. Tromsø, Norway: Norges fiskerihøgskole/Seksjon for fiskeriorganisasjon.

Kolare, S. 1993. Strategies for prevention of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (consensus paper). Int J of Ind Ergonomics 11:77–81.

Moore, SRW. 1969. The mortality and morbidity of deep sea fishermen sailing from Grimsby in one year. Br J Ind Med 26:25–46.

Munk-Madsen, E. 1990. Skibet er ladet med køn. En analyse af kønrelationer og kvinders vilkår i fabriksskibsflåden. Tromsø, Norway: Norwegian College of Fisheries Science, University of Tromsø.

Ohlsson, K, GÅ Hansson, I Balogh, U Strömberg, B Pålsson, C Nordander, L Rylander, and S Skerfving. 1994. Disorders of the neck and upper limbs in women in the fish processing industry. Occup and Envir Med 51:826–32.

Ólafsdóttir, H and V Rafnsson. 1997. Increase in musculoskeletal symptoms of upper limbs among women after introduction of the flow-line in fish-fillet plants. Int J Ind Erg, in press.

Rafnsson, V and H Gunnarsdóttir. 1992. Fatal accidents among Icelandic seamen: 1966–1986. Br J Ind Med 49:694–699.

—. 1993. Risk of fatal accidents occurring other than at sea among Icelandic seamen. Br Med J 306:1379-1381.

—. 1994. Mortality among Icelandic seamen. Int J Epidemiol 23:730–736.

—. 1995. Cancer incidence among seamen in Iceland. Am J Ind Med 27:187–193.

Reilley, MSJ. 1985. Mortality from occupational accidents to United Kingdom fishermen 1961–1980. Br J Ind Med 42:806–814.

Skaptadóttir, UD. 1995. Fishermen’s Wives and Fish Processors: Continuity and Change in Women’s Position in Icelandic Fishing Villages, 1870–1990. Ph.D. thesis. New York: University of New York.

Stroud, C. 1996. The ethics and politics of whaling. In The Conservation of Whales and Dolphins: Science and Practice, edited by MP Simmons, and JD Hutchinson. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons.

Svenson, B-G, Z Mikoczy, U Strömberg, and L Hagmar. 1995. Mortality and cancer incidence among Swedish fishermen with a high dietary intake of persistent organochlorine compounds. Scand J Work Environ Health 21:106–115.

Törner, M, G Blide, H Eriksson, R Kadefors, R Karlsson, and I Petersen. 1988. Musculo-skeletal symptoms as related to working conditions among Swedish professional fishermen. Applied Ergonomics 19: 191–201.

Vacher, J. 1994. Be strong by being together. Samudra 10 and 11 (special supplement).

World Health Organization (WHO). 1985. Identification and Control of Work-related Diseases. Technical Report Series No. 714. Geneva: WHO.