Wednesday, 06 April 2011 20:16


Written by

Synonym: Fusion welder

Job profile

Definition and/or description


Joins metal parts by various processes in which the surface layers of the metals are in most cases heated to fusion, with or without pressure; the main groups of welding processes are electric-arc (including metal-arc, inert-gas shielded arc, flux cored arc, plasma arc and submerged arc), gas-flame (including oxyacetylene, oxyhydrogen), resistance, electron-beam, induction, laser-beam, thermit, electroslag and solid-state (friction, explosion, diffusion, ultrasonic and cold) welding. Selects and sets up manual or automatic welding equipment and materials according to work specifi- cations or supervisor’s instructions. Examines and prepares surfaces to be joined by cleaning, degreasing, brushing, filing, grinding and other means. Positions workpieces. Adjusts valves or electric switches to control flow of gases, electric current, etc. Ignites or turns off gas-flame, electric arc, thermit mixture or other source of heat. Guides and applies flame, electrode, filler rod, laser-beam, etc. to the workpieces. Examines welded joint for quality or adherence to specifications.

Related and specific occupations


Thermal cutter (flame cutting, arc cutting, electron-beam cutting); weld surfacer; spark-erosion machine operator.



Adjusting (flow, pressure, etc.); aligning; annealing; applying (fluxes); arc cutting; arc welding; assembling and disassembling; bending; bolting; bonding; brazing; brushing; calculating (current); chipping (excess metal); clamping; cleaning (surfaces); connecting (hoses and cables); controlling; cutting; degreasing; dipping; dressing (electrodes); examining (quality of joint); filing; filling; fixing; flame cutting; fusing; grinding; guiding (rod along the flame); hammering; handling; heat treating; heating and preheating; holding; igniting; installing; inserting; joining; knocking (welds); laying-out; lifting and lowering; loading and unloading; maintaining; marking; melting; mending; mounting; moving; placing; polishing; positioning; preparing; rebrasing; removing (residues); repairing; scarfing (welds); screwing and unscrewing; securing; selecting (tools, materials); separating; servicing; setting up; soldering; sprinkling; straightening; switching (on and off); timing (controls); tinning; torching; touching up; weld-surfacing; welding.


Accident hazards


– Falls from height, particularly in construction work;

– Blows from falls of heavy metal parts, gas cylinders, etc.;

– Cuts and stabs from sharp metal edges, etc.;

– Burns from hot metal surfaces, flames, flying sparks, molten metal droplets, thermal radiation, etc.;

– Foreign particles into the eyes. This is a very common risk, and flying particles may enter the eyes even after the welding flame or arc is extinguished;

– Penetration of molten metal droplets or sparks into ears (particularly in overhead welding);

– Fires ignited by flying sparks, flames, red-hot metal etc. A special fire hazard exists when the surrounding atmosphere becomes enriched in oxygen; ignition becomes much easier (e.g., clothes may catch fire and lubricants and solvents are readily ignited);

– Dust explosions during welding in premises in which flour, grain dust, etc., are present;

– Injection of flying metal particles into the skin (face, neck and hands);

– Tyre explosions during welding of vehicle wheels;

– Ignition and explosion of hydrogen (produced by corrosion processes) and various residual combustible gases in mixtures with air in closed vessels;

– Acute poisoning by phosgene formed from chlorinated hydrocarbons which are used to clean the metal, or as paint, glue and other solvents, or by hazardous gases generated during welding, in particular ozone, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides;

– Electrocution or electric shocks in all processes using electric current; a particular hazard exists from transient overvoltages, or when using more than one power supply at the same time;

– Ignition of clothes in processes using gas-oxygen mixtures, if the surrounding air is enriched (“sweetened”) accidentally or intentionally with oxygen, in particular if clothes are soiled with oils or grease;

– Fires or explosions within the welding system (pipes, acetylene generator) in gas-oxygen flame-welding processes, in particular because of flame flashbacks or backfire due to faulty equipment or human error;

– Fires and explosions from improper handling of calcium carbide or acetylene in oxyacetylene welding;

– Trapping of clothing, fingers, hair, arms, etc., in automatic (“robotic”) welders.

Physical hazards


– Exposure to excessive noise levels;

– Exposure to excessive heat or cold, in particular in construction work;

– Exposure to x or gamma rays during weld inspection by radiography;

– Exposure to x rays from electron-beam welding machines;

– Chronic damage to eyes, skin drying and other skin problems (“heat rash”) as a result of exposure to strong actinic light (in particular UV) and heat. Such effects may be aggravated if good exhaust ventilation exists, since the screening effect of dust is eliminated by the ventilation.

Chemical hazards


– Exposure to welding fumes (see note 3);

– Chronic poisoning as a result of exposure to zinc or cadmium in fumes when welding zinc- or cadmium-plated parts, or to polychlorinated biphenyls from the decomposition of anticorrosion oils, or to constituents of thermal decomposition products from paints during the welding of painted pieces, or to asbestos when flame-cutting asbestos-insulated pieces;

– Siderosis (a type of pneumoconiosis) as a result of inhalation of iron oxide;

– Damage to central nervous system, lungs and liver as a result of inhalation of phosphine (phosphine may be fumed during generation of acetylene from low-purity calcium carbide);

– Respiratory disease due to high concentration of carbon dioxide in the air and the related oxygen deficiency, particularly in closed, poorly ventilated places (this may be aggravated in the case of workers with cardiovascular or pulmonary diseases);

– Irritation of the eyes and the pulmonary system by nitrogen oxides and/or ozone;

– Carbon monoxide poisoning.

Ergonomic and social factors


– Repetitive strain injury by static-load work;

– Musculoskeletal disturbances because of work in awkward postures;

– Eye strain and fatigue;

– Strenuous physical workload during lifting of heavy parts;

– Muscular stress and strain of hands, from the handling of heavy welding guns, in particular in overhead welding.




  1. According to published reports, welders are at increased risk of pneumoconiosis (in particular siderosis), of cancer of several types (e.g., liver, nasal, sinonasal and stomach) and of possible hearing loss because of the combined effect of noise and exposure to carbon monoxide.
  2. The shoulders and the neck of a welder may be heavily exposed to sparks and heat.
  3. Exposure to welding fumes constitutes the major chemical hazard during welding by processes of most types. Such fumes are formed in the air upon cooling and condensation of substances volatilized by the heat of the welding process, from the base metals being welded, from electrodes, filler rods, fluxes, electrode coatings, etc. used in the process, as well as from “extraneous” materials such as metal or paint coatings on the base metal, residues of cleaning materials, etc. As a rule, the particle size of fumes is in the micron or submicron range, but such particles may coalesce and form larger aggregates. Most fume particles are in the “respirable” category, and may thus penetrate deep into the respiratory system and be deposited there. Welding fumes normally contain oxides of the metals being welded (in particular, in the case of steel, iron, chromium, nickel, manganese, vanadium and other oxides) and of the electrodes, silica, alumina, magnesia, alkali- and alkali-earth oxides (in particular baria) and may contain substantial amounts of fluorides, paint, oil and solvent residues or decomposition products. Fumes produced when using thoriated electrodes contain thorium oxide. In the welding of non-ferrous metals, the fumes may contain oxides of the metals being welded and small amounts of highly poisonous impurities such as arsenic and antimony compounds. The amount of fumes formed depends on the type of welding process, but may be as high as 2-3 g/min or even more (e.g., in manual arc welding or in welding with flux-cored electrodes).



Wednesday, 06 April 2011 20:12

Solderer and Brazer

Written by

Synonyms: Soldering equipment operator; hard-solderer; silver-solderer; brazer-assembler; brazier

Job profile

Definition and/or description


Joins metal parts by means of a fusible alloy (“solder” or “braze”; see Note 1). A solderer/brazer selects and sets up manual or automatic soldering equipment and materials according to work specifications. Examines and prepares parts to be joined by cleaning, degreasing (may use ultrasonic degreaser), brushing, filing and other means. Clamps workpieces into position for soldering. Switches on and controls electric current or gas-flame. Cleans soldering iron tip. Applies fluxes, soldering iron tip, torch or flame, solder wire, etc. to the workpieces. Examines soldered pieces for quality and adherence to specifications. Cleans surface of the soldered workpiece to remove flux and solder residues. May melt and separate soldered joints to repair or reuse parts.



Adjusting (flow, pressure, etc.); aligning; annealing; applying (fluxes); arc cutting; arc welding; assembling and disassembling; bending; bolting; bonding; brazing; brushing; calculating (current); clamping; cleaning (surfaces); connecting (hoses; cables); controlling; cutting; degreasing; dipping; examining (quality of joint); filing; filling; fixing; flame cutting; fusing; grinding; guiding (rod along the flame); hammering; handling; heat treating; heating and preheating; holding; igniting; installing; inserting; joining; knocking (welds); laying-out; lifting and lowering; loading and unloading; maintaining; marking; melting; mending; mounting; moving; placing; polishing; positioning; preparing; rebrazing; removing (residues); repairing; screwing and unscrewing; securing; selecting (tools, materials); separating; servicing; setting up; soldering; sprinkling; straightening; switching (on and off); timing (controls); tinning; torching; touching up.

Industries in which this occupation is common


Soldering and brazing, as full- or part-time occupations, are encountered in a very large number of manufacturing industries, workshops, technical services, research institutions, etc., such as, for example, all electrical and electronic manufacturing, assembly, maintenance and repair; air conditioning and refrigeration; manufacture of metal boxes, housings, storage tanks and containers; gas and chemicals supply lines; radiator manufacturing and repair (car and home-heating); jewellery manufacturing; artwork; tinker shops in research institutions; musical instruments manufacturing and repair; dental labouratories; many “cottage” industries, etc.


Accident hazards


– Blows, in particular on feet, from the fall of heavy workpieces, pipe sections, etc.;

– Cuts and stabs, in particular on the fingers, from sharp edges, protrusions, files (or other instruments) during the preparation of workpieces for soldering, and during the cleaning of the soldered product;

– Damage to eyes as a result of penetration of solid particles (particularly when using rotary wire brushes or abrasive wheels for cleaning), or molten metal, flux droplets, or droplets of cleaning solutions into the eyes;

– Electrocution or electric shock when using electrical soldering equipment;

– Skin burns from contact with hot surfaces, flames and splashes of hot solder or fluxes;

– Fires, as a result of ignition of flammable solvents and other substances, by the soldering flame or by sparks;

– Fire and explosions, particularly when using oxyacetylene, air-propane and other blow-torch processes;

– Chemical burns as a result of splashes of corrosive chemicals used in metal cleaning, in particular strong acids or mixtures of acids and oxidizing solutions (e.g., sulphuric/nitric or sulphuric/chromic acid mixtures), or metal-cleaning creams, etc.

– Acute (and sometimes fatal) poisoning by phosgene and other poisonous gases formed from chlorinated solvents in contact with a high-temperature source, in particular during brazing.

Physical hazards


– Exposure of eyes to strong light emitted during certain high-temperature brazing processes;

– Heat rashes as a result of continuous exposure of skin to heat from the soldering and brazing processes.

Chemical hazards


– Skin allergies as a result of exposure to solvents, to rosin (colophony), hydrazine, aminoethanolamines, and activators in fluxes;

– Ulceration (and other dermatological problems) of fingertips due to the handling of metal pieces and exposure to fluxes;

– Rashes and dermatitis, especially when using liquid fluxes;

– Irritation of eyes, mucous membranes and respiratory tract as a result of exposure to aerosols and gases evolved in acid-cleaning processes (e.g., nitrogen oxides);

– Irritation of eyes, mucous membranes and respiratory tract as a result of exposure to flux components or to their decomposition products released during the soldering (e.g., hydrochloric acid, zinc and ammonium chlorides), fluorides, formaldehyde (formed in the pyrolysis of core solder), fluoroborates, rosin, hydrazine salts, etc., or to ozone and nitrogen oxides formed in air during certain high-temperature brazing processes;

– Neurotoxic disturbances as a result of exposure to aliphatic, aromatic and chlorinated solvents used in metal cleaning;

– Chronic poisoning as a result of exposure to a variety of poisonous metals present in the solder, most commonly lead, cadmium, zinc, antimony and indium (and in particular to their fumes released during the soldering) or exposure to poisonous metals in the dross and drippings from soldering operations;

– Adverse coronary effects as a result of chronic inhalation of small amounts of carbon monoxide in certain flame-soldering operations;

– Poisoning by substances released during the cleaning or soldering/brazing of painted workpieces (e.g., isocyanates).

Ergonomic and social factors


– Heat stress due to exposure to a hot environment;

– Fatigue and muscular pains due to repetitive work, especially when working overtime;

– Eye strain when working under inadequate illumination;

– Leg fatigue when working long hours in a standing posture.




  1. The process is called “soldering” when the solder has a melting point below 426 °C, and “brazing” or “hard soldering” (different terms may be used in different countries) when the solder has a higher melting point. Manual soldering processes include electric-iron, gas-flame, torch, chemical-cartridge and gas-heated iron soldering, as well as dip tinning; automatic processes include dip-, flow-, wave- and spray-gun soldering.
  2. According to published reports, solderers and brazers may be at increased risk of spontaneous abortions in the case of pregnant woman solderers; increased risk of bronchial asthma and hyperreactivity due to exposure to soldering fumes and gases, particularly to rosin (colophony) fumes and decomposition products, and to tetrafluorides.



National Safety Council (NSC). 1994. Soldering and Brazing. Datasheet 445-Rev-94. Washington, DC: NSC.



Wednesday, 06 April 2011 20:01


Written by

Synonyms: Sanitary inspector; sanitation inspector; sanitation supervisor; environmental technician; pollution-control technician (DOT). Also: public-health inspector; environmental-health inspector; environmental-quality inspector; environmental technician/engineering aid; registered/certified sanitarian

Job profile

Definition and/or description


Plans, develops and executes environmental health programme; organizes and conducts training programme in environmental health practices for schools and other groups; determines and sets health and sanitation standards and enforces regulations concerned with food processing and serving, collection and disposal of solid wastes, sewage treatment and disposal, plumbing, vector control, recreational areas, hospitals and other institutions, noise, ventilation, air pollution, radiation and other areas; confers with government, community, industrial, civil defence and private organizations to interpret and promote environmental health programmes; collaborates with other health personnel in epidemiological investigations and control. Advises civic and other officials in development of environmental health laws and regulations (DOT).

Related and specific occupations


Sanitary engineer; public-health engineer; environmental engineer; food and drug inspector; exterminator; mosquito sprayer (DOT).



Analysing; assembling and installing; burning (of garbage, etc.); calculating; catching (insects, rodents, etc.); checking; constructing; controlling; designing; determining (quantities, treatment techniques, etc.); developing; digging; disinfecting; disposing; disseminating (information); distributing (information or training material); driving; educating; enforcing; estimating (quantities); eradicating (pests); evaluating; examining; executing; exterminating; guiding; handling; improving (control techniques, etc.); inspecting; investigating; measuring; operating; planning; preventing; questioning; reporting; sampl- ing; sanitizing; spraying; supervising; surveying; testing; transferring; warning; witnessing.

Auxiliary tasks

Administering; advising; answering; applying; assisting; collaborating; collecting; compiling; computing; coordinating; discussing; filing; fixing; initiating; instructing; interpreting; lecturing; negotiating; organizing; participating (in committees, programmes, etc.); promoting; reviewing; scheduling; standardizing; teaching; training; writing.


Accident hazards


– Slips, trips and falls from ladders, stairs, elevated platforms, etc., during field visits of plants and throughout inspection operations;

– Falls into open pits and manholes while inspecting water and sewage systems;

– Acute poisoning by gases (e.g., sulphur dioxide and hydrogen sulphide) during inspection and cleaning of sewage systems;

– Acute poisoning resulting from operation and handling of drinking water and swimming-pool chlorination and bromination equipment and containers;

– Acute poisoning caused by use of various pesticides (see Appendix) throughout pest control/extermination operations;

– Burns resulting from garbage-burning operations and from operating incinerators;

– Relatively high risk of being involved in road accidents as a result of extensive and frequent driving on badly kept roads and off-roads;

– Electrical shock resulting from work with mechanized and electrical field equipment;

– Fires and explosions caused by flammable and explosive substances (e.g., solvents, gasoline, etc.).

Physical hazards


– Exposure to excessive noise (relevant for sanitarians engaged in industrial hygiene, heating and ventilation systems and in inspection of “noisy” industries such as the heavy industries, the textile industry and printing);

– Exposure to ionizing radiation (relevant for sanitarians engaged in control and supervision of radioisotope usage, x-ray equipment and radioactive wastes);

– Exposure to non-ionizing radiation (e.g., in water sterilization by UV);

– Exposure to extreme climatic conditions while working in the field.

Chemical hazards


– Chronic poisoning as a result of exposure to various toxic materials, such as pesticides (including insecticides, herbicides, rodenticides, fungicides, algicides, nematocides, etc.), their vapours and aerosols throughout extermination operations or disposal of containers with toxic pesticide residues;

– Contact with strong oxidants, especially chlorine compounds used for disinfection of drinking water and swimming pools;

– Toxic gases present in sewage systems or in industrial plants with inadequate ventilation systems;

– Dermatites and eczemas resulting from contact with various oils and solvents used for pest control, garbage- burning operations or other chemicals commonly used in sanitary laboratories.

Biological hazards


– Exposure to various micro-organisms while working with liquid or solid wastes;

– Bites and stings by various insects (e.g., bees, flies, fleas, ticks, mites, mosquitoes and wasps), snakes, scorpions, rodents, etc., during field and laboratory work;

– Risk of contracting infectious diseases while working in hospitals.

Ergonomic and social factors


– Physical and/or verbal assault while carrying out sanitary inspections of buildings, businesses, shops, etc.

– Attempts of those subjected to inspection to file unwarranted complaints which result in psychological stress, nervousness, etc.



Freedman, B. 1977. Sanitarian’s Handbook, 4th edition. New Orleans, LA: Peerless Publishing Co.

Last, JM and RB Wallace (eds.). 1992. Maxcy-Rosenau-Last Public Health and Preventive Medicine, 13th edition. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Tchobanoglous, G and FL Burton. 1991. Metcalf & Eddy Wastewater Engineering—Treatment, Disposal, and Reuse, 3rd edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.


Principal chemicals to which sanitarians may be exposed:

– Acids

– Activated carbon

– Alcohols

– Aldrin

– Allethrin


– Asbestos

– Benzene hexachloride

– Bichloride of mercury

– Borax

– Boric acid

– Bromine

– Cadaverine

– Calcium cyanide

– Calcium hypochlorite

– Carbamates

– Carbolic acid

– Carbon monoxide

– Carbon disulphide

– Chloramines

– Chlordane

– Chlorinated hydrocarbons

– Chlorine

– Chlorine dioxide

– Copper sulfate

– Cresol

– Crude oil

– Cyanides



– Detergents

– Diatomaceous earth

– Diazinon

– Dieldrin

– Diesel oil

– Dioxin

– Dipterex

– Disinfectants

– Fluorides

– Fluorine

– Formaldehyde

– Fuel oils

– Fumigants

– Fungicides

– Heptachlor

– Herbicides

– Hexametaphosphate

– Hydrocyanic acid

– Hydrofluoric acid

– Hydrogen sulphide

– Indol

– Iodine

– Kerosene

– Larvicides

– Lime

– Lindane

– Malathion

– Methoxychlor

– Mineral acids

– Nitrates

– Nitric acid

– Organic acids

– Organic phosphates (polyphosphates)

– Orthotolidine

– Ozone

– Parathion

– Pesticides

– Phenol

– Pine oil

– Pival

– Potassium permanganate

– Pyrethrum

– Quaternary ammonium compounds

– Rodenticides

– Skatole

– Soaps

– Sulphur dioxide

– Sulphuric acid

– Warfarin

– Xylene

– Zeolites



Wednesday, 06 April 2011 19:52


Written by

Synonyms: Installator; pipefitter; pipelayer; pipeline maintenance and repair worker

Job profile

Definition and/or description


Assembles, installs and repairs metal, plastic, ceramic and other pipes, fittings and fixtures of heating, water and drainage systems. Cuts openings in walls and floors to accommodate pipe and fittings, using hand- and power-tools. Cuts and threads pipe using pipecutters, cutting torch and pipe-threading machine. Bends pipe by hand or by using pipe-bending machine. Assembles and installs valves, pipes and fittings. Joins pipes by use of screw, bolts, fittings, adhesive, solder, braze and caulks joints. Installs and repairs plumbing fixtures such as sinks, commodes, bathtubs, hot water tanks, tank heaters, dishwashers, water softeners, garbage disposal units, etc. Opens clogged drains. Mends burst pipes. Replaces washers in leaky faucets. Secures pipes and fixtures with brackets, clamps and hangers; may weld holding fixtures to steel structural members. May operate equipment for locating leaks, test pipes and other plumbing fixtures for structural integrity, etc. May insulate piping or water tanks in hot-water or steam-supply systems.



Aligning; assembling; bending and straightening; boring; bracing; brazing; breaking (walls, floors); burning (old insulation or coatings); carrying (pipes, fixtures, equipment); caulking; cementing; chiselling; clamping; cleaning; coating (pipes); connecting; covering; cutting (pipes and fittings or opening in walls and floors); digging; dipping; ditching; dismantling; draining; drilling; driving; dumping; emptying; excavating; fastening; filing; filling; fitting; flame cutting; fixing; gluing; hammering; heating; immersing; installing, insulating; joining; jointing; laying; levelling; lifting; loading and unloading; locating (leaks, pipe position); loosening; marking and measuring; maintaining; mending; operating (tools); opening; painting; positioning; pouring (cements); pulling and pushing; pumping; repairing; replacing; rubbing; sanding; sawing; screwing; scrubbing; securing; sealing; setting; shovelling; siphoning; smoothing; soldering; spraying (coatings, paint); spreading (mortar); squeezing; taping; tapping; testing (for leaks); threading; tightening; transporting; trimming; welding; wrapping; wrenching.

Primary equipment used


Borers; chisels; drills; hammers; headlamps; leak-detecting instruments; pipe-bending machine; pipe-threading machine; pliers; saws; screw-drivers; shears; shovels; wrenches. Some of the tools may be battery- or mains-operated.

Industries in which this occupation is common


Agriculture; boilermaking and maintenance; chemical and related industries; construction (including building repair and maintenance); industrial equipment manufacturing; laboratories; municipal services; pipeline (including water, gas, oil, etc. supply lines) construction and maintenance; shipbuilding; water-heating equipment manufacturing; water desalination.


Accident hazards


– Falls from height (from ladders, scaffolds and roofs); falls into ditches;

– Falls on level surfaces (slips and falls on wet and slippery surfaces);

– Injuries (and possible asphyxiation) as a result of cave-in of ditches;

– Cuts, stabs, pinches, bruises and finger crushing from hand tools and machinery;

– Cuts and stabs from broken sanitary china;

– Blows on the head from pipes, overhead bars, corners, etc., in particular in confined spaces or in low-ceiling cellars and passages;

– Foreign particles in the eyes, in particular during drilling or insulation (dismantling work);

– Injuries to feet from falling tools or pipe sections;

– Burns from hot or corrosive liquids emitted from burst pipes or connections;

– Burns from portable blowtorches used for soldering and brazing;

– Electric shock and electrocution from portable lamps and electric tools;

– Fires and explosions as a result of using mobile electric lamps or tools in confined spaces (e.g., inside cisterns) containing combustible-gas residues;

– Drowning in accidental flooding of pumping stations (water, sewage);

– Sprains and damage to internal organs (e.g., hernia, bursting of small blood vessels) as a result of overexertion;

– Bites and stings by rodents, insects, mites, etc.;

– Poisoning by phosgene released from chlorinated solvents at high temperatures (e.g., in the presence of flames, arcs, burning cigarettes, etc.), particularly in confined spaces;

– Poisoning by toxic gases released in sewage systems (e.g., sulphur dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, indole, etc.).

Chemical hazards


– Contact dermatitis from exposure to various components of drainage and sewage liquids, from exposure to solvents and other components from glues and pipe cleaning fluids (especially when working with plastic piping);

– Irritation of the respiratory system and the eyes from exposure to acids, alkalis and various proprietary corrosive liquids used to unclog piping;

– Oxygen deficiency or exposure to asphyxiant gases when working in confined (e.g., crawl) spaces;

– Irritation of respiratory tract and possible damage to the lungs from exposure to asbestos, mineral fibres and other inorganic aerosols or fibres when applying or dismantling piping insulation or asbestos pipes.

Biological hazards


Exposure to a wide variety of micro-organisms, parasites, etc., in sewage, stagnant water (especially stagnant warm water), sanitary installations, etc., with risk of legionnaires’ disease, giardiasis, cutaneous Larra migrans dermatitis, etc.

Ergonomic and social factors


– Exposure to excessive damp, cold and heat (e.g., in cellars, or in construction, agriculture and other field work);

– Lower back pain;

– Heat stress when wearing vapour-barrier suits;

– Wrist problems due to overexertion in threading and cutting work; calluses on the knees (“plumber’s knee”) because of prolonged work in a kneeling posture.




  1. Increased risks have been reported, in the case of plumbers, of leptospirosis; bronchial carcinoma; liver cirrhosis; lung cancer; cancer of the oesophagus; oral and oropharyngeal cancer; liver cancer; non-Hodgkins lymphoma; laryngeal cancer; pleural mesothelioma; cancer of the tongue; prostate cancer.
  2. When working in laboratories, in the chemical industry, or in sewage systems, plumbers are exposed to all the chemical and biological hazards relevant for those workplaces. In welding, brazing or soldering operations, plumbers are exposed to all hazards of welders, solderers and brazers. In gluing work, plumbers are exposed to the hazards of gluers.



Wednesday, 06 April 2011 19:42

Pest Exterminator

Written by

Synonyms: Applicator, pesticides; exterminator; exterminator, vermin and rodent; fumigator and sterilizer; pest-control worker; scout (agriculture); sprayer, pesticides; sprayer/duster, pesticides

Job profile

Definition and/or description


An Exterminator (business ser.) sprays chemical solutions or toxic gases and sets mechanical traps to kill pests that infest buildings and surrounding areas. Fumigates rooms and buildings, using toxic gases. Sprays chemical solutions or dusts powders in rooms and work areas. Places poisonous paste or bait and mechanical traps where pests are present. May clean areas that harbour pests, using rakes, brooms, shovels, and mops, preparatory to fumigating. May be required to hold state licence. May be designated according to type of pest eliminated as Rodent Exterminator (business ser.) (DOT).

Related and specific occupations


Agricultural aircraft pilot (airplane pilot, cropdusting; aerial applicator, pilot; or pest-control, pilot); agricultural-chemicals inspector; autoclave operator; exterminator helper; hand-spray operator; herbicide worker/handler; insecticide mixer (chemical); insect-sprayer, mobile unit; mosquito sprayer; pasteurizer; pesticide-control inspector; pesticide maker; sanitarian-exterminator; sprayer, insecticide; sprayer hand (agriculture); sterilizer-operator (beverages; –/ dairy products; –/ feathers; –/ medical services; etc.); supervisor, extermination; supervisor, insect and disease inspection; termite-treater; weed-inspector (DOT); agricultural worker exposed to pesticide residues (gardener, nursery or greenhouse worker); field fumigator; pesticide ground-applicator; pesticide mixer and/or loader; pesticide store worker; pilot flagger to aircraft, etc.



Adding (chemicals); advising (customers); analysing; applying; assisting; authorizing; baiting; blending; bolting; boring; briefing (workers, etc.); burning (weeds); calculating; calling; carrying; checking; clamping; cleaning; climbing; collecting; confiscating; controlling; coordinating; crawling; cutting; destroying; detecting; determining; digging; directing; discharging (gases); distributing; drilling; driving; dusting; eliminating; ensuring; estimating; evaluating; examining; exterminating; fastening; filing; flushing; fogging; formulating (pesticide mixtures); fumigating; gassing; gauging; hammering; handling; identifying; igniting; impregnating (soil); initiating; injecting; inserting; inspecting; installing; instructing; interviewing; investigating; isolating; issuing; keeping; killing; laying (blocks); loading and unloading; locating; maintaining; manipulating (levers); marking; measuring; mixing; modifying; moving; notifying; observing; obtaining; opening; operating; padlocking; painting; performing; piloting; placing; pointing (nozzle); poisoning; positioning; posting; pouring; preparing; preventing; producing; pulling and pushing; pumping; quarantining; raising; recommending; recording; releasing; removing; replacing; reporting; reviewing; sampling; sawing; sealing; searching; securing; selecting; setting; shooting; signalling; spraying; spreading; sterilizing; studying; supervising; surveying; taping; teaching; tending (machines); transferring; transporting; trapping; treating; turning; updating; using; visiting; weighing; wrapping.


Accident hazards


– Increased risk of road accidents due to lengthy periods of driving heavily loaded vehicles, frequently towing trailers and mechanical spraying equipment, on deteriorated field roads and under unfavourable weather conditions;

– Hazards associated with a flight aboard light aircraft (including helicopters) at low altitude (typical for pest exterminators engaged in aerial operations), including aircraft crashes, exposure to pesticides carried into the cockpit onto clothes and footwear, or during accidental flying through a cloud of sprayed pesticides (drift cloud); as a result of leakage from hoppers, etc.;

– Hazards to ground personnel engaged in aerial pesticide application (loaders, flagmen, agricultural workers, etc.), including risk of being struck by aircraft during take-off, landing, taxiing or low altitude flight; accidental exposure to pesticides as a result of pesticide-loaded aircraft crash, leakage from hoppers, etc.;

– Risk of being hit by a train while exterminating pests between the rails of a railroad;

– Slips, trips, falls and bumps (on slippery surfaces and at obstacles, especially while wearing protective mask limiting the field of vision); falls of exterminator-helper from the towed equipment; falls from elevated platforms and stairs, especially when carrying containers and other heavy loads;

– Falls of heavy loads, especially containers, on workers’ feet;

– Stabs and cuts caused by sharp objects;

– Stepping on sharp discarded objects while carrying out spraying work in the field;

– Bursting of overpressurized spraying vessels, resulting in pesticide splashes capable of hitting the operator;

– Hazard of snake bites or wasp and bee stings while carrying out spraying work in the field;

– Risk of hernia as a result of overstrenuous movements when lifting and loading heavy loads;

– Acute poisoning while applying pesticides (especially as a result of inhaling aerosols while not wearing protective mask; could be fatal), or as a result of spills and fires during transportation and storage of pesticides;

– Accidental contamination or poisoning of exterminators during the process of mixing extremely concentrated and highly hazardous pesticides;

– Splashes of pesticides on face and/or hands while preparing pesticide formulations;

– Accidental inhalation of pesticide spray (caused by a sudden change of wind, or by a poorly selected and maintained protective mask, etc.);

– Risk of incidental swallowing of a liquid pesticide mistakenly thought to be water, or of pesticide-polluted irrigation water (may occasionally happen to agricultural workers and particularly to children, not directly engaged in the extermination work but present at its site), or as a result of incidental contact with, or use of, discarded and empty pesticide containers;

– Skin burns as a result of excessive exposure of unprotected skin to pesticides (e.g., to diquat dibromide solutions);

– Electric shocks caused by contact with defective electromechanical equipment;

– Electric hazards while exterminating pests around power line pylons;

– Acute intoxication as a result of release into the atmosphere of hazardous compounds (e.g., HCN, SO2, NOx) during accidental (fires or explosions) or intentional (owing to poor judgment) burning of pesticides or pesticide containers at manufacturing, storing, formulating, and similar establish-ments, or at application sites;

– Skin and eye irritation, chest tightness, nausea, limb numbness, asphyxia, etc., in firefighters engaged in extinguishing pesticide-involved fires.

Physical hazards


– Risk of electrocution from electrical power lines, while spraying pesticides on agricultural fields;

– Exposure to direct and reflected ultraviolet (solar) radiation while working outdoors, possibly leading to erythema, skin cancer, cataracts and photokeratitis;

– Exposure to potentially health-detrimental climatic factors (resulting in effects ranging from temperature dis- comfort to heat stroke) while working outdoors.

Chemical hazards


– Severe intoxication (not acute) due to exposure to various pesticides that may result in disease, disability or death;

– Various skin effects (itching, erythema, blistering, irritation, sensitization, photosensitization, etc.) as a result of exposure to vapours, spray and gaseous forms of pesticides, especially through direct skin contact (e.g., blisters and itching from methyl bromide; erythema from synthetic pyrethroid; urticaria from diethyl fumarate, etc.);

– Contact and systemic dermatoses in pesticide workers, including gardeners and farmers, veterinarians, fruit and vegetable handlers (contacting pesticide residues), and especially from contact with organic phosphorous pesticides (OPP) and cyano pyrethroids;

– Chloracne and porphyria-cutana-tarda as a result of contact with chlorinated pesticides;

– Eye irritation in pesticide sprayers (e.g., while spraying OPP);

– Eye cataracts as a result of exposure to diquat dibromide;

– Corneal and conjunctival injuries caused by insect repellents;

– Mouth and throat irritation and burns (in sprayers);

– Ulcers of the mouth (in gardener sprayers engaged in diluting carbamates);

– Asphyxia caused by OPP and carbamates (in agricultural sprayers);

– Various pulmonary diseases, including lung oedema, pneumonitis, asthmatic reactions, alveolitis, pneumoconiosis (from pesticide dusting), etc.;

– Various gastrointestinal effects, including abdominal pains, cramps, diarrhea, nausea, vertigo, giddiness, headaches, reduced and/or lost consciousness, seizures, coma, etc.;

– Nervous system disorders, including neurotoxicity, postural instability, neuropathy, neuro-behavioural effects, effects on cognitive functions, anxiety, insomnia, etc. (caused by exposure to pesticides, especially to OPP);

– Disorders of endocrine and reproductive systems, including infertility, spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, sterility, congenital defects, embryo- and foetotoxicity effects, perinatal death, etc.;

– Effects on blood and circulatory system, caused by exposure to pesticides, especially to chlorinated hydrocarbons;

– Musculoskeletal and soft tissue problems in pesticide users;

– Other systemic effects caused by exposure to various pesticides;

– Carcinogenic effects, including cancer of bladder, brain, liver, lung, prostate, gastrointestinal tract, respiratory system, testicles, etc., malignant lymphomas, leukaemia, multiple myeloma, and numerous other forms of carcinogenic and mutagenic effects.

Biological hazards


Risk of being infected by zoonotic diseases transmitted by fleas or other insects during extermination work.

Ergonomic and social factors


– Back pains in hand-spray workers;

– Acute musculoskeletal injuries caused by physical overexertion and awkward posture while carrying and otherwise handling containers and heavy pieces of equipment;

– Tiredness and general ill feeling;

– Psychological stress resulting from the fears of potential overexposure to pesticides and of failing the compulsory periodical health check-ups;

– Development of lumbago caused by vibrations, inadequate vehicle suspension, uncomfortable seat, wet and/or humid working conditions, etc.


International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). 1991. Occupational Exposures in Insecticide Application and Some Pesticides. IARC Monograph on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Vol. 53. Lyon: IARC.

International Occupational Safety and Health Information Centre (CIS). 1995. International Safety Datasheets on Occupations. Steering Committee meeting, 9-10 March. Geneva: ILO. (Classified under “Laboratory Animal Raiser”.)

World Health Organization (WHO). 1990. Principles for the Toxicological Assessment of Pesticide Residues in Food. Environmental Health Criteria Series 104. Geneva: WHO.


List of common pesticides:

– Aldrin

– Aldicarb

– Amitrole

– Arsenic

– Atrazine

– Azinphos (methyl)

– Captan

– Carbaryl

– Chlordane

– Chloropicrin

– Chlorpyrifos

– Copper sulphate

– 2,4-D


– Diazinon

– Dichlorvos

– Dieldryn

– Diquat

– Endosulphan

– Endrin

– Ethion

– Ethylene dibromide

– Fenamiphos

– Fensulphothion

– Fenthion

– Fonophos

– Furfural

– Heptachlor

– Lindane

– Malathion

– Methyl bromide

– Mevinphos

– Paraquat

– Parathion

– Pentachlorophenol

– Permethrin

– Pyrethrum

– Rotenone

– Sodium fluoroacetate

– Systox (2,4,5-T)

– Temephos


– Thallium

– Thiram

– Warfarin



Wednesday, 06 April 2011 19:17

Painter (Non-Art)

Written by

Synonyms: Brusher; lacquerer; paint sprayer; paint worker

Job profile

Definition and/or description


Applies paint to surfaces. Prepares walls, metal, wood or other surfaces for painting. Spreads dropcloths over floors, machines and furnishings. Erects scaffolding or sets up ladders for work above ground level. Removes fixtures (such as pictures, nails, and electric switch covers). Removes old paint using paint remover, scraper, wire brush or blow-torch. Fills holes, cracks and joints with caulk, putty, plaster or other filler. Smooths surface using sandpaper, steel, wool and/or brushes. Washes and treats surfaces with water or other cleaning media. Selects premixed paint or mixes paint components. Applies coats of paint, varnish, stain, enamel or lacquer to surfaces using brushes, spray guns, rollers or electrostatic equipment. May dry or bake paint in special ovens. May cut stencils and brush or spray decorations and lettering on surfaces.



Air-drying; applying (paint); blowing (dry air); bolting; bonding; brushing; burning; calculating; carrying; caulking; cementing; cleaning; climbing; coating; cutting; decorating; dissolving; drying; depositing (electrostatically); enam- elling; erecting (scaffolds); filling; filtering; finishing; gluing; grinding; hauling; lacquering; lettering; loading and unloading; marking; masking; matching; measuring; mixing; moving; operating (spray gun etc.); painting; pasting; patterning; plastering; pouring; preparing (surfaces); purchasing; puttying; regulating (flow); removing (paint, rust, fixtures, etc.); repairing; rolling; rubbing; sanding; scraping; screwing and unscrewing; sealing; selecting; setting-up (ladders, etc.); shot blasting; smoothening; spraying; spreading; staining; stamping (patterns and designs); stripping; taping; touching up; tracing; transferring; transporting; varnishing; washing; waxing; whitewashing; wiping; wrenching.

Primary equipment used


Hand brushes; rollers; spraying equipment (air pressure or airless; hand-held or automated); electrostatic painting equipment; paint-drying ovens, lamps or hot-air blowers; paint mixing equipment; paint-stripping tools (manual or electric).


Accident hazards


– Falls from height (falls from ladders, from fixed and mobile elevated platforms, from scaffolds, from roofs, from tank tops, through opening in roofs, etc.);

– Slips and falls on level surfaces, in particular on slippery floors;

– Electrocution or electric shock (from faulty electrical equipment, through contact of metallic ladders with electric lines, during work with high-voltage electrostatic painting equipment, etc.);

– Hypodermal injection of paint into fingers, hands and (less frequently) other parts of the body when working with high-pressure airless spraying equipment. Such injection may cause deep penetration and amputation of affected fingers;

– Severe mechanical damage to eyes by high-pressure paint jets;

– Fire and explosions of flammable paint solvents and other constituents, especially when working (painting or mixing paints) in confined spaces with poor ventilation. Furniture lacquers may contain nitrocellulose, which is an explosive substance and may explode on impact or heating, if residues of the lacquer are allowed to dry;

– Fire and explosions as a result of electrostatic discharges during electrostatic painting with powdered paints, or as a result of sparks generated when metal particles (e.g., in paints containing metal powders) impact on the painted metal surface, or as a result of ignition of paints with binders which oxidize on contact with air;

– Clothes catching fire, within or outside the painting zone, when impregnated with paints or oil;

– Paint-splashing accidents from burst piping or when trying to unclog clogged spray nozzles;

– Penetration of foreign particles into the eyes during surface preparation for painting (e.g., by shot-blasting or sanding);

– Cuts, stabs, abrasions, etc. in fingers and hands during surface preparation by mechanical means;

– Penetration of skin by wood splinters when preparing wood surfaces for painting;

– Crushing of limbs or blows to other body parts when working in a suspended position;

– Skin abrasions from ladder rungs;

– Eye irritation or damage to the cornea from solvent droplets splashed into the eyes;

– Asphyxiation in confined spaces as a result of oxygen deficiency aggravated by the presence of solvent vapours.

Physical hazards


– Noise from spray guns or shot-blasting equipment;

– Exposure to UV or IR radiation, or heat, from paint-drying equipment;

– Exposure to cold, rain, snow and winds in winter, or to heat and sunrays in summer, particularly in outside work;

– Exposure to draughts in unfinished buildings.

Chemical hazards


– Occupational contact dermatitis as a result of exposure to various paint components or solvents, in particular to aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons and organohalogen compounds;

– Irritation of the eyes (with possible permanent damage to vision) and the respiratory tract by various paint components, in particular toluene and methylene diisocyanates;

– Acute intoxication, mainly as a result of inhalation of solvents, especially in confined spaces with inadequate ventilation. Mild intoxication has a narcotic effect which reduces vigilance and markedly increases the risk of falls or other accidents, sometimes with severe consequences. Severe intoxication may be fatal;

– Poisoning by phosgene formed from various chlorinated solvents in contact with a heat source under partial combustion conditions;

– Poisoning by lead in primers and by other metal constituents of paints (e.g., mercury and arsenic compounds used as fungicides in latex paints, organotin compounds in marine antifouling paints, zinc chromate in various lead-free primers, etc.);

– Poisoning by paint strippers such as methylene chloride or mixed solvents;

– Poisoning by hazardous paint constituents, depending on the type of paint used (e.g. formaldehyde in melamine/formaldehyde paints, epoxy resins in epoxy paints, toluene diisocyanate and methylene diisocyanate in polyurethane paints, etc.);

– Neurotoxic effect as a result of work with paints containing n-hexane solvents or lead pigments.

Ergonomic and social factors


– Neck or shoulder pains, sprain and strain of upper limbs, and musculoskeletal disorders, as a result of awkward postures, in particular during the painting of ceilings;

– Eye strain in painters of small articles;

– Knee pains and injuries to cartilage of the knee joints;

– Cardiorespiratory strains when using respiratory-protection equipment.




  1. Reports have been published according to which painters may be at increased risk of cancer of the lungs, the bladder, the stomach, the kidneys, the oesophagus and the large intestines; of leukaemia, if using paint containing benzene; of presenile dementia as a result of exposure to solvents; of endocrinal disorders; of chronic bronchitis and respiratory obstructions diseases; of mixed-dust pneumoconiosis; of renal failure; and of chronic eye-lens damage as a result of long-term solvent exposure.
  2. A special risk exists in the mechanical or chemical stripping or burning of old paints. The use of pigments containing lead, arsenic or mercury in modern paints is now severely restricted and in many countries it is prohibited by law (except for some specialized applications); old paints, however, may contain substantial amounts of such pigments, and during their stripping or burning the pigments are released into the air as dust or fumes, exposure to which may cause lead, mercury or arsenic poisoning.
  3. It has been reported that exposure to ethylene glycol ethers and acetates present in paints may have an adverse effect on the reproductive system.



Health and Safety Executive (HSE). 1991. Health and Safety in Motor-vehicle Repair: Painting. HSE Publication HS(G) 67. London: HSE.

O’Neill, L. 1995. Health and safety in paints and painting. In Croner’s Handbook of Occupational Hygiene. Vol. 2, part 8.19. Kingston-upon-Thames: Croner’s Publications Ltd.


Chemicals and chemical products to which a painter may be exposed: Paint stripping formulations containing, in particular, methylene chloride, cresol, phenol, potassium hydroxide, and/or alicylic hydrocarbons (e.g., methylcyclohexane). Paint components including, in particular, cadmium, lead, organotin, mercury and arsenic compounds, chromates, epoxy, polyurethane, acrylate, vinyl and other resins and their constituents. Solvents and diluents including, in particular, turpentine, petroleum fractions (naphtha, white spirit, Stoddard’s solvent), n-hexane, toluene, xylene, benzene, acetone, methyl ethyl and other ketones, alcohols (methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, amyl, etc.), formaldehyde, phenol, etc. Cleaning formulations including acids (which may contain various organic inhibitors), alkalis, organic solvents, etc.



Wednesday, 06 April 2011 19:04

Model Maker

Written by

Synonyms: Patternmaker; model builder; modeller

Job profile

Definition and/or description


Constructs scale models of objects or situations. Builds and moulds models, using clay, metal, wood, plastics, rubber or other materials, depending on industry for which model is constructed. Uses experience, skills and special knowledge to understand the customer’s requirements expressed in documents, drawings, sketches, etc.; selects appropriate methods, tools and technological processes; designs and manufactures the model; verifies its correspondence to the requirements and specifications. May make frames, showcases, etc. for models and glaze them. May disassemble or otherwise utilize models that are no longer usable. May repair or modify existing models. May test, demonstrate and operate model at the place of manufacture or at the customer’s premises. May instruct others how to use model.

Related and specific occupations


Model maker or patternmaker designated according to industry (e.g., model maker (aut. mfg.), model maker (jewellery-silver), model maker (pottery and porcelain)), to principal material used (e.g., model maker (wood), model maker (sheet-metal)) or to specific class of products (relief-map modeller, model maker (house appliances), etc.) (DOT).



Abrading; adjusting; aligning; analysing; applying; ascertaining; assembling; blueprinting; bolting; bonding; boring; brazing; brushing; building; carving; casting; checking; chiselling; clamping; cleaning; coating; conferring; connecting; constructing; consulting; correcting; covering; cutting; deburring; demonstrating; designing; determining; disassembling; disconnecting; dismantling; drawing; drilling; estimating; examining; fabricating; fastening; filing; filling; finishing; fitting; forming; framing; glazing; grinding; gluing; hammering; hand-finishing; indicating; inspecting; installing; instructing; interpreting (drawings, etc.); joining; lacquering; laying out; lifting; machining; maintaining; making; manufacturing; marking; measuring; melting; mending; milling; mixing; modifying; moulding; moving; painting; performing; placing; planing; planning; polishing; positioning; pouring; preparing; pressing; producing; pulling; punching; pushing; reading (specifications, etc.); reassembling; recasting; repairing; replacing; removing; riveting; sanding; scraping; screwing; scribing; selecting; servicing; setting-up; shaping; sharpening; shaving; sketching; smoothing; soldering; spreading; studying; testing; transporting; trimming; tuning; using; utilizing; verifying; waxing; welding; wiring.


Accident hazards


– Injuries during work with machining equipment, such as lathes, drills, discs, shapers and various cutting and hand tools (e.g. cutters, wrenches, screwdrivers, chisels, etc.);

– Stabs and cuts caused by knives, sharp objects, hand tools, banging on metal pieces, etc.;

– Slips, trips and falls, especially when moving raw materials and completed heavy models;

– Falls on level surfaces, especially on wet, slippery and greasy floors;

– Crushing of toes as a result of falls of heavy objects on feet;

– Burns and scorches as a result of contact with hot materials or heated tools; soldering, brazing and welding operations, etc.;

– Eye injuries from splinters and flying objects during grinding, machining, abrading, polishing, boring and similar operations; as a result of splashes of corrosive and reactive chemicals, etc.;

– Fires and explosions caused by flammable and explosive substances (e.g., solvents) or by flames originating from flame and arc cutting and welding operations, etc;

– Electric shocks caused by contact with defective electric and electromechanical equipment.

Physical hazards


– Hazards commonly associated with a specific industry (e.g., exposure to excessive heat from furnaces in pottery industry).

Chemical hazards


– Chronic poisoning and/or skin diseases as a result of exposure to a wide range of industrial chemicals (e.g. solvents, lacquers, varnishes, cleaners, paint removers and thinners);

– Eye irritation, dizziness, nausea, breathing problems, headaches, etc., caused by contact with irritating substances (e.g., wood and metal dusts, fumes and solvents);

– In some industries, pronounced increased risk of certain cancers due to exposure to wood products, dust, plastics, solvents, etc.;

– Gastrointestinal disturbances as a result of chronic ingestion of adhesives, paints, solvents, etc.;

– Excessive exposure to ozone during arc welding.

Biological hazards


Biological hazards may be encountered by model makers working in an environment where they are potentially exposed to micro-organisms, allergenic plants, hair, fur, etc.

Ergonomic and social factors


– Acute musculoskeletal injuries caused by physical overexertion and incorrect combination of weight and posture during lifting and moving heavy loads of raw materials and completed models;

– Cumulative trauma disorders, including carpal tunnel syndrome, caused by long-time repetitive work;

– Tiredness and general ill feeling;

– Psychological stress resulting from the fear of making unnoticed flaws in the model that will be replicated in mass production items and when trying to meet difficult or unusual job specifications or tight time schedules.



Wednesday, 06 April 2011 18:55

Laboratory Worker

Written by

Synonyms: Laboratory hand/workhand/workman/workwoman

Job profile

Definition and/or description


Laboratory Worker (any industry) is a term for any worker in a laboratory performing routine or special tests or research. Classifications are made according to type of work as Biochemist (profess. and kin.); Food Tester (any industry); Laboratory Tester (any industry); Scientific Helper (profess. and kin.) (DOT). A Laboratory Tester (any industry) performs laboratory tests according to prescribed standards to determine chemical and physical characteristics or composition of solid, liquid or gaseous materials for such purposes as quality control, process control or product development. Sets up, adjusts and operates laboratory equipment and instruments, such as microscopes, centrifuge, agitators, viscosimeter, chemical balance scales, spectrophotometer, gas chromatograph, colorimeter and other equipment. Tests materials used as ingredients in adhesives, cement, propellants, lubricants, refractories, synthetic rubber, plastics, paint, paper, cloth, and other products for such qualities as purity, stability, viscosity, density, absorption, burning rate and melting or flash point. Tests solutions used in processes, such as anodizing, waterproofing, cleaning, bleaching and pickling for chemical concentration, specific gravity or other characteristics. Tests materials for presence and content of elements or substances, such as hydrocarbons, manganese, natural grease, tungsten, sulphur, cyanide, ash, dust or impurities. Tests samples of manufactured products to verify conformity to specifications. Records test results on standardized forms and writes test reports describing procedures used. Cleans and sterilizes laboratory equipment. May prepare graphs and charts. May prepare chemical solutions according to standard formulas. May add chemicals or raw materials to process solutions or product batches to correct or establish formulation required to meet specifications. May calibrate laboratory instruments. May be designated according to product or material tested (DOT).

Related and specific occupations


Laboratory aide; –/assistant; –/chief; –/clerk; –/equipment installer; –/helper; –/inspector; –/manager; –/re- searcher; –/sample carrier; –/sampler; –/supervisor; –/technician; –/tester, etc.



Adding (chemicals to solution, etc.); adjusting (equipment); agitating; analysing; anaesthetizing; applying; appraising; asphyxiating; aspirating; assembling (systems); assisting; assuring (quality, consistency, etc.); attaching (tubing); attending; balancing (scales); bleaching; blending; boiling; burning; calculating; calibrating (instruments); carrying; centrifuging; classifying; cleaning; climbing; coating (metals, etc.); collecting (samples); comparing (to standards, etc.); computing; condensing; conducting (tests); connecting and disconnecting; controlling; cooling; counting; crushing; cutting (tissues); describing; determining (test parameters, etc.); diluting; dipping; dis- infecting; dispensing (aliquots); disposing; distilling; documenting; drying; elevating; ensuring; evaluating; examining; feeding; filtering; fitting; flaming; flushing; freezing (tissues); glass-blowing; grinding; handling; heating; holding (instruments, etc.); humidifying; identifying; immersing; incubating; inflating; injecting; inoculating; inspecting; installing; instructing; investigating; labelling; lifting; loading and unloading; maintaining; managing; manipulating; marking; measuring; metering; mixing; monitoring; moving; notifying; observing; operating; ordering (chemicals, etc.); performing (tests); pipetting; placing; polishing; pouring; preparing (samples, etc.); processing, pulverizing; pumping; purchasing; raising; reading; recording; record-keeping; refrigerating; regulating (flows, etc.); removing; repairing; reporting; researching; sampling; screwing; sealing; securing; selecting; separating; setting; setting-up; sieving; soldering; sterilizing; storing; straining; studying; sucking; supervising; tagging; testing; training; transferring; transporting; using; ventilating; verifying (conformity to standards, etc.); washing; wearing (personal protection equipment, etc.); weighing; writing (reports).

Primary equipment used


Disposable glass and plastic equipment (flasks, jars, pipettes, micropipettes; burettes, beakers, dishes, cocks, rigid and flexible tubing, etc.); handling and securing devices (pincers, tweezers, manipulators, jacks, pliers, stands, screw drivers, etc.); automatic dispensing equipment (e.g., automatic pipettes); scales and balances; sieves, filters, pumps, mixers and blenders; gas-, liquid- and solid-sampling instruments; particle counting instruments; heating, cooling and tempera- ture measuring or maintaining equipment (plates, jackets, ovens, gas burners, infrared heaters, immersion heaters, refrigerators, Peltier-effect cold plates, pyrometers, thermometers, thermostats, etc.); vacuum pumps, flasks, gauges, etc.; calculators, recorders, computers and peripherals; personal protective equipment; etc.; specialized equipment for specific purposes (e.g., optical and electron microscopes); pH meters; ion-selective electrodes; power supplies, potentiostats and galvanostats; immunoassay kits, materials testing instruments, incubators and autoclaves; humidity testers, flow meters, colorimeters and calorimeters; gas and liquid chromatographs; mass spectrometers, IR and Raman spectroscopes; x-ray diffraction and fluorescence analysers, lasers; radiation sources, probes, dosimeters and monitors; glove boxes; hoods; microtomes; etc.

Industries in which this occupation is common


Chemical, petroleum and petrochemical, food, rubber, polymer, metallurgical and metal finishing, paper and other industries; universities, schools, research institutes; hospitals and medical clinics; standards institutions; public and private testing, inspection and quality assurance laboratories.


Accident hazards


– Slips and falls on wet floors; falls from ladders;

– Cuts and stabs from sharp edges, broken glass;

– Fire and explosions in work with flammable gases, liquids and solids;

– Fires and explosions from uncontrolled chemical reactions;

– Implosions of vacuum equipment;

– Falls of heavy objects on head (from overhead storage shelves) and feet;

– Entanglement of dressing, hair, fingers and arms in rotating and other moving equipment, in particular centrifuges, mixers, blenders, etc.;

– Explosion of elevated-pressure equipment;

– Electrocution and electric shock;

– Burns and scalds from flames, hot surfaces, hot gases and liquids;

– Chemical burns from corrosive fluids;

– Flying particles from the bursting of centrifuges and autoclaves;

– Acute poisoning by a wide variety of poisonous gases, liquids and solids used as starting materials or released in chemical reactions;

– Damage to eyes from laser beams, splashes of chemicals, corrosive gases and flying particles;

– “Freeze burns”, or frostbite, from skin contact with very cold surfaces or fluids (e.g., liquefied gases).

Physical hazards


– Ionizing and ultraviolet radiation;

– High noise, subsonic or ultrasonic levels from vibrating or rotating equipment.

Chemical hazards


Exposure to an extremely wide variety of chemical substances (chemical laboratory workers may be exposed to any known chemical agents or combinations thereof), including corrosive, irritating, toxic, neurotoxic, asphyxiating, allergenic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, foetotoxic, enzyme inhibiting, radioactive and similar substances, by way of inhalation, ingestion, skin, eye contact, etc. (see Appendix).

Biological hazards


Exposure to an extremely wide variety of biological agents (biological laboratory workers may be exposed to any known biological agents or combinations thereof) including viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, etc., by way of inhalation, ingestion, skin, eye contact, transmission by laboratory animal bites or stings, accidental injection, etc.

Ergonomic and social factors


– Eye strain from work with optical and electron microscopes, telescopic manipulators, computer terminals, work in dark or semi-dark rooms, etc.;

– Musculoskeletal effects from routine work in a fixed position;

– Hand stress and strain from repetitive manual operations (e.g., in pipetting, non-automated counting, manual polishing, etc.).




A special hazard exists when working with new chemical substances (NCSs) whose physical, chemical, biological and other effects have not been adequately investigated. NCSs may be explosive or highly flammable or form explosive mixtures with air or other substances. NCSs may be highly poisonous, corrosive to the skin, eyes or respiratory system, carcinogenic, teratogenic, mutagenic, etc., or have a synergistic effect with other substances.


Centers for Disease Control (CDC). 1984. Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical laboratories. DHHS (CDC) Publication No. 84-8395. Atlanta, GA: CDC.

Mahn, JW. 1991. Fundamentals of laboratory Safety: Physical Hazards in the Academic Laboratory. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Stricoff, RS and DB Walters. 1996. Handbook of Laboratory Health and Safety, 2nd edition. New York: Wiley-Interscience.

World Health Organization (WHO). 1983. Laboratory Safety Manual. Geneva: WHO.


United Nations classification of hazardous substances:

Class 1: Explosives

1.1. Substances and articles which have a mass explosion hazard.

1.2. Substances and articles which have a projection hazard but not a mass explosion hazard.

1.3. Substances and articles which have a fire hazard and either a minor blast hazard or a minor projection hazard or both, but not a mass explosion hazard.

1.4. Substances and articles which present no significant hazard.

1.5. Very insensitive substances which have a mass explosion hazard.

1.6. Extremely insensitive substances which do not have a mass explosion hazard.

Class 2: Gases

Compressed, liquefied, dissolved under pressure or deeply refrigerated.

Class 3: Flammable Liquids

Class 4: Flammable Solids

4.1. Flammable solids.

4.2. Substances liable to spontaneous combustion.

4.3. Substances which, in contact with water, emit flammable gases.

Class 5: Oxidizing Solids

Class 6: Toxic and Infectious Substances

Class 7: Radioactive Material

Class 8: Corrosive Substances

Class 9: Miscellaneous Dangerous Substances and Articles



Wednesday, 06 April 2011 18:49

Heavy-Truck and Lorry Driver

Written by

Synonyms: Driver, truck/heavy; lorry driver; road-transport driver; teamster; trailer-truck driver; truck driver, heavy; trucker; truckman/woman

Job profile

Definition and/or description


Drives truck with capacity of more than 3 tonnes, to transport materials to and from specified destinations. Drives truck to destination, applying knowledge of commercial driving regulations and area roads. Prepares receipts for loads picked up. Collects payment for goods delivered and for delivery charges. May maintain truck log, according to applicable regulations. May maintain telephone or radio contact with supervisor to receive delivery instructions. May load and unload truck. May inspect truck equipment and supplies, such as tyres, lights, brakes, gas, oil and water. May perform emergency roadside repairs, such as changing tyres, installing light bulbs, tyre chains and spark plugs. May position blocks and tie rope around items to secure cargo during transit. When driving truck equipped for specific purposes, such as fighting fires, digging holes and installing and repairing utility company lines, may be designated Fire-truck Driver (petrol & gas); Hole-digger-truck Driver (construction; tel. & tel.; utilities). When specializing in making deliveries, may be designated Delivery-truck Driver, Heavy (any industry). May be designated according to type of truck driven as Truck Driver, Flatbed (logging). May be designated according to kind of cargo transported as Water Hauler (logging) (DOT).

Related and specific occupations


Truck driver, light (including food-service driver; liquid-fertilizer driver, etc.); concrete-mixing-truck driver; dump-truck driver; truck driver, inflammables (including explosives truck driver; powder-truck driver; tank-truck driver, etc.); trailer-truck driver (including tractor-trailer-truck driver; log-truck driver; semi-trailer or full-trailer driver, etc.); truck driver, heavy (including milk driver/hauler; garbage collector driver; watertruck driver; van driver, etc.); bus, tram (streetcar) and trolley-bus drivers.



Adjusting; applying; arranging; assembling; assisting; attaching; banding; braking; camping; carrying; changing; checking; cleaning; collecting; communicating; computing; connecting and disconnecting; controlling; delivering; digging; directing; disengaging; dispatching; disposing; distributing; dividing; documenting; driving; dumping; elevating; emptying; examining; fastening; filling; fueling; gauging; greasing; handling; hauling; hoisting; honking; inspecting; jerking; lifting; loading and unloading; locating (shipment addresses); logging; lubricating; maintaining; manoeuvring; measuring; mending; metering; mixing; monitoring; moving; observing; operating; overseeing; packing and unpacking; padding; parking; performing; placing; positioning; preparing; pulling and pushing; pumping; raising; reading; recording; recovering; refilling; registering; regulating; releasing; repairing; replacing; reporting; reversing; roping; sampling; securing; servicing; serving; spraying; sprinkling; stacking; steering; sterilizing (milk containers); storing; submitting; supervising; testing; towing; transporting; tying; warning; washing; wrapping; wrenching; writing.


Accident hazards


– Increased risk of road accidents due to lengthy driving periods (especially for transcontinental and other long-haul truck drivers), including night driving, driving under unfavourable weather conditions, under bad road conditions and through excessive traffic jams (risk is increased due to driver’s physical and mental fatigue and boredom resulting from long driving hours, short rest periods, drowsiness, irregular eating and bad diet habits, excessive alcohol drinking, driving at high speeds due to the bonus payment system, etc.);

– Road accidents due to loss of control while driving heavily loaded truck on steep and slippery roads at extreme temperatures and other climatic conditions;

– Road accidents due to driving while using tranquilizers, chemical stimulants or drugs against common diseases whose side effects include drowsiness, sleepiness and alertness-reducing impairment of sensomotoric functions (especially delayed reaction and inadequate coordination);

– Overturning of heavily loaded truck due to mechanical failure, difficult road conditions and/or excessive speed, head-on collisions, etc., with resulting life-threatening trapping of driver inside cabin or under the truck;

– Accidents caused by uncoupling of the locking device securing the tractor to the trailer;

– Slips, trips and falls from a high cabin, cabin ladder or trailer;

– Danger of being crushed between tractor and trailer, or between trailers, while trying to disengage one from another;

– Injuries due to accidental bumping into unguarded rigid parts of truck or cargo;

– Injuries while performing various functions of a heavy truck driver (e.g., field repair work, tyre change, unfastening tight bands and ropes, etc.);

– Injuries using various maintenance and repair tools: wrenches, knives, jacks, etc.;

– Explosions, chemical burns, acute poisoning by toxic chemicals, impaired vision, etc., caused by hazardous cargo, such as explosives and inflammables, strong reactives, toxic substances and dust-forming bulk solids;

– Acute poisoning by exhaust gases, including carbon monoxide;

– Fire hazards as a result of spills and leaks of inflammables (usually in tank trucks) that may ignite on contact with open flame, hot surfaces, electric sparks, atmospheric or electrostatic discharges, or as a result of mechanical shock following road collision, overturning, etc. (the hazard is also to the environment);

– Explosion of over-inflated tyres;

– Traumas, such as hernia rupture, due to physical overexertion (changing tyres, moving heavy pieces of cargo, fastening ropes, etc.).

Physical hazards


– Exposure to prolonged excessive engine noise of high amplitude (greater than 80 dBA) and/or low frequency, resulting in early (severe headache) or delayed (hearing loss, etc.) detrimental effects;

– Exposure to ionizing radiation while transporting radioisotopes (frequently kept, for security reasons, inside the driver’s cabin);

– Exposure to direct and reflected ultraviolet (solar) radiation;

– Exposure to potentially health-detrimental climatic factors, such as extreme cold or heat, or combinations of temperature, humidity and wind, resulting in frostbite or heat stroke;

– Exposure to sudden ambient temperature changes when leaving and entering the climatic-conditioned cabin, resulting in colds and/or rheumatic effects;

– Whole-body vibrations that may impair functions of chest and abdominal organs and musculoskeletal system, contribute to driver’s fatigue and decrease his/her alertness.

Chemical hazards


– Exposure to various toxic substances (in solid, liquid, or gaseous state) while transporting hazardous cargo (a few thousand substances, classified by the United Nations into 9 groups: explosives, gases, inflammable liquids, inflammable solids, oxidizing substances, poisonous and infectious substances, radioactive substances, corrosives, miscellaneous hazardous substances) that may result in chronic health-detrimental effects, including carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, etc.;

– Skin diseases and conditions (various types of dermatitis, skin sensitization, eczema, oil acne, etc.) caused by exposure to chemicals (e.g., cleaning and rinsing compounds, antifreeze and brake fluids, gasoline, diesel oil, oils, etc.);

– Chronic effects caused by inhalation of gasoline or diesel-fuel fumes and exhaust gases containing carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides (NOx), hydrocarbons, etc.

Biological hazards


Contamination and infection caused by exposure to biologically hazardous cargo.

Ergonomic and social factors


– Low back pain and pains in the joints (of legs and hands/arms) caused by prolonged driving, sometimes over bumpy roads, and/or inadequate seats;

– Rheumatic disorders (including sinistral scapulohumeral arthrosis or periarthritis) due to the habit of resting elbow on the window frame during driving;

– Digestive tract disorders caused by irregular eating and poor dietary habits;

– Hypnotic hallucinations during periods of drowsiness and psychic disorders caused by mental and emotional stress factors;

– Increased incidence of myocardial infarction among obese drivers;

– Smoking inside cabin, contributing to health deterioration;

– Visual discomfort and eye problems caused by inadequate illumination and eyestrain (especially when driving at dark time on interurban roads);

– Exposure to peer violence (e.g., in roadside cafeterias, etc.) and to petty and gang (including organized) crime attracted by valuable cargo (especially when driving in countries with inadequate law enforcement);

– Development of lumbago caused by vibrations, inadequate vehicle suspension, uncomfortable seats, etc.;

– Pathologic changes and premature ageing of the lumbosacral part of the spine, which may cause accelerated creation of intervertebral lumbar discs (also possibly related to routine handling of heavy loads);

– Increased chances of contracting sexually transmitted diseases (especially in the group of long-haul drivers spending long periods of time away from home).



International Labour Organization (ILO). 1972. Working Conditions and Safety Provisions Applying to Persons Employed in Road Transport. Inland Transport Committee, 9th Session. Geneva: ILO.

—. 1977. Hours of Work and Rest Periods in Road-transport. Report VII(1), International Labour Conference, 64th Session. Geneva: ILO.



Wednesday, 06 April 2011 17:53


Written by

Synonyms: Adhesive worker; bonder; cementer; floor-layer and wall-coverer (construction ind.); gluing worker; adhesives applicator; adhesive joiner; veneer worker (furniture)

Job profile

Definition and/or description


Glues materials such as paper, cloth, leather, wood, metal, glass, rubber or plastic together, following specified procedures. Applies adhesive to surface or material by brushing, spraying, dipping, rolling, holding material against rotating saturated brush or feeding part between saturated rollers. Presses glued materials together manually, presses material with hand roller or clamps materials in fixture to bond material together and set glue. May perform limited assembly of preglued material. May trim excess material from cemented parts. May wipe surplus adhesive from seams, using cloth or sponge. May visually inspect completed work. May be designated according to article glued as Arrow-point Attacher (toy-sport equip.); Gasket Attacher (machinery mfg.); Nock Applier (toy-sport equip.); Pad Attacher (any industry); Sample Mounter (any industry); or according to gluing method used as Adhesive Sprayer (any industry). May also be designated: Box Coverer, Hand (paper goods); Glue Spreader (furniture); Paper-cone Maker (electron. comp.); Rubber Attacher (toy-sport equip.).

Related and specific occupations


Adhesive applicator; –/joiner; –/sprayer; bonding-machine operator; floor coverer; glue-bone worker; glue-jointer worker; glue-machine operator; glue-mill operator; glue mixer; –/spreader; gluing-machine operator; etc.



Affixing; applying (adhesives); aspirating (solvents); assembling; attaching (pads); binding (books); bonding; brushing; carpeting; carrying; cementing; clamping; cleaning and conditioning; climbing (ladders, scaffolding, etc.); coating; covering; cutting (carpets, wallpaper edges, etc.); dipping; dispensing (glue); driving; disposing (of waste); drying; documenting; feeding (machines); fitting; forming; gluing; handling; heating (glue); holding (tools); injecting (glue); inspecting; installing; insulating; joining (surfaces); kneeling (while carpeting, etc.); laminating; laying (floors); lifting and lowering; loading and unloading; maintaining; manufacturing; mixing (two-part glues, etc.); moulding; mounting; opening (containers, etc.); operating (equipment); ordering (materials); packing and unpacking; pasting; performing; positioning; pouring; preparing; pressing; regulating (spray flow, etc.); repairing; sealing; securing; selecting; setting; smoothing (surfaces); spraying; spreading; squeezing; storing; supervising; taping; testing (glue joints); transporting; trimming; unclogging (nozzles); upholstering; using (tools); washing (equipment, hands, etc.); wearing (personal protective equipment); weighing; wiping.

Primary equipment used


Hand brushes; rollers (hand-held or mechanized); spraying equipment (air pressure or airless; hand-held or automated); hot-melt jet pistols; drop dispensers; squeeze dispensers.

Industries in which this occupation is common


Adhesive tapes; air conditioning (manufacturing and installation); aircraft manufacturing and maintenance; appliances assembly; bookbinding; car manufacturing and maintenance; construction (floorlaying and wall covering); corrugated cardboard; disposable diapers; electronics; foam mattresses; footwear; furniture; jewellery; labelling and packaging in miscellaneous industries and services; lamination (paper and cardboard); leathergoods; plumbing (PVC and other plastic pipes); refrigeration; rubber goods; toys manufacturing; upholstering.


Accident hazards


– Injuries during work with mechanized equipment used for the mixing or application of glues (e.g., hair, beard, clothing or fingers entanglement in mechanical mixers or in presses);

– Falls from ladders (particularly in the case of wall coverers);

– Dropping of heavy glue containers on the toes or feet;

– Cuts during opening of glue containers of certain types;

– Bursting of clogged pressure-spraying nozzles, with particular hazard of eye damage, particularly in airless spraying;

– Bursting of pressurized containers;

– Burns and eye damage in the case of work with (particularly spraying of) hot-melt adhesives; burns from heated surfaces (e.g., of dryers or activation heaters).

– Splashing of irritants, allergens and otherwise hazardous fluids (solvents, thinners, liquid glues, strongly alkaline emulsions, etc.) into eyes or on skin, with possible ingestion, during mixing, transport or application of glues;

– Poisoning by phosgene (see note 1);

– Bonding of fingers (see note 2).

– Electric shock or electrocution risk, because of the use of hand-held electric tools (e.g., hot-melt pistols, electric fans, some spraying tools), particularly in work with water-based glues;

– High risk of fires and explosions because of the presence of flammable solvents and other flammable materials (e.g., paper and cardboard in bookbinding, wood and wood dust in furniture making, some flammable foams in insulation gluing, etc.) and the accumulation of solvent vapours, particularly in small and inadequately aerated premises (see Appendix);

– Explosions of hydrogen-air mixtures formed if highly alkaline glues are accidentally or mistakenly allowed to come into contact with aluminium surfaces.

Physical hazards


– Exposure to microwave radiation, IR or UV light, if used in the drying of glues;

– High noise levels, particularly in spraying operations.

Chemical hazards


– Erythema, skin sensitization, contact and systemic dermatoses as a result of exposure to many solvents and their vapours and to other glue components, particularly to epoxy resins, n-hexane, toluene, vinyl chloride, etc.;

– Contact skin depigmentation (vitiligo) in workers exposed to neoprene glues;

– Blistering of skin in contact with glues containing epichlorohydrin (e.g., epoxy glues);

– Eye irritation by glues or vapours containing epichlorohydrin, chlorinated solvents, toluene or xylene;

– Asphyxia in the case of exposure to high concentrations of n-hexane;

– Irritation of mouth, throat and nasal cavity by toluene, trichloroethylene or xylene;

– Respiratory tract irritation by solvent vapours, particularly n-hexane;

– Carbon monoxide poisoning from overheated hot-melt adhesives;

– Pneumoconioses from exposure to dust or fibres of some inorganic insulating materials being glued;

– Pulmonary oedema as a result of inhalation of vapours of mixed aliphatic solvents and gasoline;

– Pulmonary oedema, chemical pneumonitis and haemorrhages as a result of aspiration of liquid benzene or xylene;

– Gastrointestinal disturbances as a result of the ingestion of minute amounts of various glues, in particular during brushing of vinyl glues;

– Polyneuropathy, in particular by n-hexane;

– Depression of the central nervous system with possible headaches, dizziness, incoordination, stupor and coma as a result of inhalation of acrylonitrile, cyclohexane, toluene, xylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane and trichloroethylene;

– Risk of spontaneous abortion or damage to the foetus in pregnant women exposed to organohalogen solvents;

– Blood changes and anaemia from exposure to benzene;

– Elevated blood pressure from exposure to dimethylformamide;

– Damage to the liver by dimethylformamide, tetrahydrofuran or vinyl chloride;

– Carcinogenicity. The following glue constituents or solvents have been classified as animal carcinogens (Category A3) by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH): acrylamide; chloroform; dinitrotoluene; epichlorohydrin; hexachloroethane; methylene chloride; 2-nitropropane. Acrylonitrile and ethyl acrylate have been classified as suspected human carcinogens (Category A2). Benzene has been classified as a confirmed human carcinogen (Category A1).

Biological hazards


– Exposure to pathogenic micro-organisms which may grow in certain types of glues (e.g., bone or casein glue).

Ergonomic and social factors


– Wrist, hand and arm problems (e.g., tenosynovitis as a result of repetitive motion when glues are applied by brushing or by squeeze-dispensing);

– Tiredness (in particular leg tiredness) in gluers continuously working in a standing position, as in a spraying station;

– Leg cramps and damage to knees in the case of floorlayers (carpet, parquet and strip layers); use of knees to move carpets during carpetlaying may cause bursitis (known in this case as “carpetlayer’s knee”);

– Strains and sprains caused by the lifting of heavy glue containers;

– Exposure to obnoxious smells, particularly from glues containing certain bactericides.




  1. Severe and even fatal poisonings by phosgene have been reported for gluers who smoked while working with glues containing organohalogen solvents. When inhaled through a burning cigarette, such solvents are decomposed and partially converted into phosgene.
  2. A hazard peculiar to gluers is the possible bonding of finger-to-finger, particularly when working with cyanoacrylate and some epoxy glues.
  3. Severe injury may be caused, in particular during airless spray gluing, by high-pressure cutaneous injection of glue into the hands or arms.
  4. “Glue sniffing”, and the related intoxication and neurotoxic effects, are a significant hazard because of the easy access to glues.
  5. The use of benzene as a glue solvent has been banned in many countries.
  6. Eye injuries have been caused by bursting of glue (in particular cyanoacrylate) during hard squeezing of tubes whose opening was clogged by a small amount of hardened glue.
  7. Increased incidences of sinonasal cancer, rectal cancer and multiple sclerosis have been reported for gluers.



Chemical substances commonly used as glue constituents or solvents:

– Acetone

– Acrylamide polymers

– Acrylonitrile

– Adipic acid

– Aliphatic amines

– Benzene

n-Butyl acetate

n-Butyl acrylate

– Butylated hydroxytoluene


– Chloroacetamide

– Chlorobenzene

– Collagen

– Colophony (rosin)

– Cyclohexane

– Cyclohexanone

– Diaminodiphenylmethane

– Dibutyl maleinate


– 1,1-Dichloroethane

– Dichloromethane (methylene chloride)

– Dichloropropane

– 2,2-Dimethylbutane

– Epoxy resins

– Ethanol

– Ethyl acetate

– Ethyl butyl ketone

– Ethylcyanoacrylate

– Ethylvinyl acrylate

– Formaldehyde



– 2-Hydroxypropyl methacrylate

– Isobutyl alcohol

– Isophoronediamine

– Isopropyl acetate

– Isopropyl alcohol

– Kerosene

– Maleic anhydride

– Methanol

– Methyl butyl ketone

– Methylene chloride

– Methyl chloroform (1,1,1-trichloroethane)

– Methyl cyanoacrylate

– Methyl ethyl ketone

– Methyl isobutyl ketone

– Methyl methacrylate

– Methyl pentanes

– Naphtha solvent

– Naphtha VM&P

– Natural latex

– Neoprene

– Nitrobenzene

– 2-Nitropropane

– Pentachlorophenol

– Pentane

– Perchloroethylene

– Phenol-formaldehyde resins

– Polyamide resins

– Polyester resins

– Polyimide resins

– Polyoxyalkene glycols

– Polyurethane resins

– Polyvinyl acetate

– Polyvinyl alcohol

– Polyvinyl chloride

– Stoddard’s solvent

– Styrene acrylate

– Tetrachloroethylene (perchloethylene)

– Tetrahydrofuran

– Toluene

– Toluene diisocyanate

– 1,1,1-Trichloroethane

– Trichloroethylene

– Vinyl acetate

– Xylene




Part I. The Body
Part II. Health Care
Part III. Management & Policy
Part IV. Tools and Approaches
Part V. Psychosocial and Organizational Factors
Part VI. General Hazards
Part VII. The Environment
Part VIII. Accidents and Safety Management
Part IX. Chemicals
Part X. Industries Based on Biological Resources
Part XI. Industries Based on Natural Resources
Part XII. Chemical Industries
Part XIII. Manufacturing Industries
Part XIV. Textile and Apparel Industries
Part XV. Transport Industries
Part XVI. Construction
Part XVII. Services and Trade
Part XVIII. Guides