" DISCLAIMER: The ILO does not take responsibility for content presented on this web portal that is presented in any language other than English, which is the language used for the initial production and peer-review of original content. Certain statistics have not been updated since the production of the 4th edition of the Encyclopaedia (1998)."
Address: Industrywide Studies Branch, Division of Surveillance, Robert A.Taft Laboratories, Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226
Country: United States
Past position(s): Assistant Professor, Eastern Kentucky University
Education: PhD, 1992, University of Cincinatti
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 1995. Toxicological Profile for Tetrachloroethylene (Update-draft for Public Comment). Atlanta, GA: US ATSDR.
Albert, RE, AR Sellakumar, S Laskin, K Kuschner, N Nelson, and CA Snyder. 1982. Gaseous formaldehyde and hydrogen chloride induction of nasal cancer in the rat. JNCI 68: 597-603.
Anderson, B. 1993. Britain’s Secret Slaves: An Investigation into the Plight of Overseas Domestic Workers. Human Right Series No. 5, Anti-slavery International and Kalayaan: Justice for Overseas Domestic Workers.
Armstrong, P and H Armstrong. 1994. The Double Ghetto, 3rd edition. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart.
Association pour la santé et la sécurité au travail, secteur affaires sociales (ASSTSAS). 1993. Entretien sanitaire. Montreal: ASSTSAS.
Baxter, PJ, AM Brazier, and SEJ Young. 1988. Is smallpox a hazard in church crypts? Br J Ind Med 45: 359-360.
Blainey, AD, S Ollier, D Cundell, RE Smith, and RJ Davies. 1986. Occupational asthma in hairdressing salons. Thorax 41:42-50.
Blair, A, R Saracci, PA Stewart, RB Hayes, and C Shy. 1990a. Epidemiologic evidence on the relationship between formaldehyde exposure and cancer. Scand J Work, Environ and Health 16:381-391.
Blair, A, P Stewart, PE Tolbert, D Grauman, FX Moran, J Faught, and J Rayner. 1990b. Cancer and other causes of death among laundry and dry cleaning workers. Br J Ind Med 47:162-168.
Blair, A, PA Stewart, M O’Berg, W Gaffey, J Walrath, J Ward, R Bales, S Kaplan, and D Cubit. 1986. Mortality among industrial workers exposed to formaldehyde. JNCI 76: 1071-1084.
Borglum, B and AM Hansen. 1994. A Survey of Washing and Cleaning Agents (in Danish, abstract in English). AMI Report 44. Copenhagen, Denmark: Danish Institute of Occupational Health.
Bretin, H. 1994. Santé des ouvriers du nettoyage à Montréal et à Paris: La face cachée du travail dans la ville. Kremlin-Bicêtre, France: INSERM Unité 292.
Bretin, H, N Frigul, I Metenier, L Aussel, and A Thébaud-Mony. 1992. Des femmes chomeuses en mauvaise santé. Kremlin-Bicêtre, France: INSERM Unité 292.
Cherry, NM, MH Beck, and V Owen-Smith. 1994. Surveillance of Occupational Skin Disease in the United Kingdom: The OCC-Derm Project. US NIOSH Publication No. 94-112. Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Epidemiology in Occupational Health, 23-25 September 1992, Cincinnati, OH: US NIOSH.
Coleman, R. 1995. Reducing the levels of formaldehyde exposure in gross anatomy laboratories. Anat Rec 243: 531-533.
Delaporte, M-F, M Estryn-Behar, G Brucker, E Peigne, and A Pelletier. 1990. Pathologie dermatologique et exercice professionnel en milieu hospitalier. Arch mal prof 51(2):83-88.
Demers, PA, TL Vaughan, and RR Schommer. 1991. Occupation, socioeconomic status and brain tumor mortality: A death certificate-based case-control study. JOM 33(9):1001-1006.
Dooms-Goossens, A. 1986. A computerized retrieval system of contact allergenic substances. Seminars in Dermatology 5(3):249-254.
Duh, RW and NR Asal. 1984. Mortality among laundry and dry cleaning workers in Oklahoma. Am J Public Health 74:1278-1280.
Earnest, GS. 1996. Evaluation and control of perchloroethylene exposures during dry cleaning. Appl Occup Environ Hyg 11(2):125-132.
Earnest, GS and AB Spencer. 1996. Lessons from Europe: Reducing Occupational Exposure and Environmental Emissions to Perchloroethylene in Commercial Dry Cleaning (ECTB No. 201-07). Cincinnati, OH: US NIOSH.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 1991a. Dry-cleaning Facilities—Background Information for Proposed Standards (EPA Publication No. 50/3-91-020a). Research Triangle Park, NC: Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Environmental Protection Agency.
—. 1991b. National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants for source categories: Perchloroethylene emissions from dry cleaning facilities, proposed rule and notice of public hearing. Federal Reg 56(236):64382-64402.
Feron, VJ, JP Bruyntjes, RA Woutersen, HR Immel, and LM Appelman. 1988. Nasal tumors in rats after short-term exposure to a cytotoxic concentration of formaldehyde. Canc Lett 39: 101-111.
Flyvholm, M-A. 1993. Contact allergens in registered cleaning agents for industrial and household use. Br J Ind Med 50:1043-1050.
Foussereau, J, C Benezra, HI Maibach, and N Hjorth. 1982. House personnel. In Occupational Contact Dermatitis, Clinical and Chemical Aspects. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company.
Gamboa, PM, CG de la Cuesta, BE Garcia, JG Castillo, and A Oehling. 1989. Late asthmatic reaction in a hairdresser, due to inhalation of ammonium persulfate salts. Allergologia et immunopathologia 17:109-111.
Gawkrodger, DJ, MH Lloyd, and JAA Hunter. 1986 Occupational skin disease in hospital cleaning and kitchen workers. Contact Dermatitis 15:132-135.
Gershon, RRM and C Karkashion. 1996. The risk of TB in funeral service workers: Preliminary results. Presented at the American Public Health Association meetings, November, New York City.
Gershon, RRM, D Vlahox, H Farzadegan, and A Miriam. 1995. Occupational risk of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus infections among funeral service practitioners in Maryland. 1995. Infec Contr Hosp Epid 16: 194-197.
Gervais, M. 1993. Bilan de santé des travailleurs québécois. Montréal: Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Quebec.
Government of Quebec. 1994. Décret sur le personnel d’entretien d’édifices publics de la région de Montréal. Québec: Éditeur officiel.
Gulati, L. 1993. Women Migrant Workers in Asia: A Review. New Delhi. ILO Asian Regional Team for Employment Protection.
Hagner, I-M and M Hagberg. 1989. Evaluation of two floor-mopping work methods by measurement of load. Ergonomics 32 (4): 401-408.
Hansen, KS. 1983. Occupational dermatoses in hospital cleaning women. Contact Dermatitis 9:343-351.
Harford, TC and SD Brooks. 1992. Cirrhosis mortality and occupation. J Stud Alcohol 53(5):463-468.
Hayes, RB, A Blair, PA Stewart, RF Herrick, and H Mahar. 1990. Mortality of U.S. embalmers and funeral directors. Am J Ind Med 18: 641-652.
Hayes, RB, JW Raatgever, A de Bruyn, and M Gerin. 1986. Cancer of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses and formaldehyde exposure. Int J Canc 37: 487-492.
Healing, TD, PN Hoffman, and SEJ Young. 1995. The infection hazards of human cadavers. Communicable Dis Rev 5: R61-R68.
Hohenstein Institute. 1995. Requirements for the Use of Hydrocarbon Solvents in the Dry Cleaning Industry. Boennigheim, Germany: Hohenstein Institute.
Horte, LG and K Toren. 1993. Smoking adjusted mortality due to asthma in a population of Swedish working women. Br J Ind Med 50(6):575-576.
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). 1995a. Dry cleaning, some chlorinated solvents and other industrial chemicals (Dry cleaning). In IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk to Humans. Vol. 63. Lyon: IARC.
—. 1995b. Dry cleaning, some chlorinated solvents and other industrial chemicals (Tetrachloroethylene). In IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lyon: IARC.
—. 1995c. Wood dust and formaldehyde. In IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lyon: IARC.
International Fabricare Institute. 1990. Focus on Dry Cleaning: Distillation. Silver Spring, MD: International Fabricare Institute.
International Labour Organization (ILO). 1989. Conditions of Work Digest: Home Work. Vol. 8, No. 2. Geneva: ILO.
Johannsson, S-E and G Ljunggren. 1989. Perceived exertion during a self-imposed pace of work for a group of cleaners. Applied Ergonomics 20 (4):307-312.
John, EM, DA Savitz, and CM Shy. 1994. Spontaneous abortion among cosmetologists. Epidemiology 5:147-155.
Katz, RM and D Jowett. 1981. Female laundry and dry cleaning workers in Wisconsin: A mortality analysis. Am J Public Health 71:305-307.
Kerns, WD, KL Pavkov, DJ Donofrio, EJ Gralla, and JA Swenberg. 1982. Carcinogenicity of formaldehyde in rats and mice after long-term inhalation exposure. Canc Res 43: 4382-4392.
Koenig, KL. 1994. Hair dye use and breast cancer: A case-control study among screening participants. Am J Epi 133:985-995.
Levine, RJ, DA Andjelkovich, and LK Shaw. 1984. The mortality of Ontario undertakers and a review of formaldehyde-related mortality studies. J Occ Med 26: 740-746.
Lin, RS and II Kessler. 1981. A multifactorial model for pancreatic cancer in man: Epidemiologic evidence. JAMA 245:147-152.
McCarroll, JE, RJ Ursano, CS Fullerton, and A Lundy. 1993. Traumatic stress of a wartime mortuary, anticipation of exposure to mass death. J Nerv Ment Dis 181: 545-551.
—. 1995. Anticipatory stress of handling human remains from the Persian Gulf War. J Nerv Ment Dis 183: 698-703.
McDonald, AD, B Armstong, N Cherry, C Delorme, AD Nolin, JC McDonald, and D Robert. 1986. Spontaneous abortion and occupation. J Occ Med 28:1232-1238.
McDonald, AD, JC McDonald, B Armstong, N Cherry, C Delorme, AD Nolin, and D Robert. 1987. Occupation and pregnancy outcome. Br J Ind Med 44:521-526.
McDonald, AD, JC McDonald, B Armstong, N Cherry, AD Nolin, and D Robert. 1988. Prematurity and work in pregnancy. Br J Ind Med 45:56-62.
McDougal, L, PR Band, JJ Spinelli, WJ Threlfall, and RP Gallagher. 1992. Mortality patterns in female domestic workers. Am J Ind Med 21(4):595-599.
Messing, K. 1991. Occupational Health Concerns of Canadian Women/La santé et la sécurité des travailleuses canadiennes. Ottawa: Human Resources Canada.
—. In press. Hospital trash: Cleaners speak of their role in disease prevention. Med Anthropol Quar.
Messing, K, C Chatigny, and J Courville. 1995. Travail prescrit, travail réel, travail perçu: l’entretien sanitaire «lourd» et «léger» en milieu hospitalier. Annals of the Société d’ergonomie de langue française: 578-585.
—. 1996. L’invisibilité du travail et la division léger/lourd dans l’entretien sanitaire: Impact sur la santé et la sécurité du travail. Objectif Prévention. 19(2):13-16.
Messing, K, G Doniol-Shaw, and C Haëntjens. 1993. Sugar and spice: Health effects of the sexual division of labour among train cleaners. Int J Health Services 23 (1):133-146.
Messing, K, C Haëntjens, and G Doniol-Shaw. 1993. L’invisible nécessaire: l’activité de nettoyage des toilettes sur les trains de voyageurs en gare. Le travail humain 55:353-370.
Michaels, David. Undated. Right-to-know Handbook for Custodial Assistants. New York: City of New York Mayor’s Office of Operations, Citywide Office of Occupational Safety and Health and District Council 37 Education Fund.
National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). 1991. Fire Protection Handbook. Quincy, MA: NFPA.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). 1975. Health and Safety Guide for Laundries and Dry Cleaners. NIOSH Publication No. 273-831. Cincinnati, OH: US NIOSH.
—. 1977. Occupational Diseases: A Guide to Their Recognition. NIOSH Publication No. 77-181. Cincinnati, OH: US NIOSH.
Nielsen, J. 1995. Occupational Health of Cleaners (in Danish, summary in English). Ph.D. thesis. Copenhagen, Denmark: Arbejdsmiljjoinstituttet.
—. 1996. The occurrence and course of skin symptoms on the hands among female cleaners. Contact Dermatitis 34: 284-291.
Nordin, M, G Hultman, R Philipsson, S Ortelius, and GBJ Andersson. 1986. Dynamic measurements of trunk movements during work tasks. In The Ergonomics of Working Postures, edited by N Corlett, J Wilson and I Manenica. Philadelphia: Taylor & Francis.
Nwanyanwu, OC, TH Tubasuri, and G Harris. 1989. Exposure to and precautions for blood and body fluids among workers in the funeral home franchises of Fort Worth, Texas. Am J Infect Control 17: 208-212.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). 1993. Occupational Safety and Health Administration, database, regulations, documents and technical information. OSHA-CD-ROM (OSHA A93-2). Unpublished database.
Olsen, JH and S Asnaes. 1986. Formaldehyde and the risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the sinonasal cavities. Br J Ind Med 43: 769-774.
Opatowski, S, P Varaillac, C Richoux, N Sandret, L Peres, D Riffiod, and Y Iwatsubo. 1995. Enquête sur les ouvriers nettoyeurs d’Ile-de-France. Archives des maladies professionnelles 56 (3):219-220.
Pearce, N. 1992. Increasing incidence of Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma: Occupational and environmental factors. Canc Res 52 (Supplement): 5496s-5500s.
Pepys, J. 1986. Occupational allergic lung disease caused by organic agents. J Allergy Clin Immunol 78(5) Part 2: 1,058-1,062.
Rice, B and J Weinberg. 1994. Dressed to Kill: The Dangers of Dry Cleaning and the Case for Chlorine-free Alternatives. A Greenpeace/Pollution Probe Report. Toronto. Pollution Probe, Sunset Chemicals Project for the Great Lakes.
Roush, GC, J Walrath, LT Stayner, SA Kaplan, JT Flannery, and A Blair. 1987. Nasopharyngeal cancer, sinonasal cancer and occupations related to formaldehyde: A case-control study. JNCI 79: 1221-1225.
Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC). 1986. Organochlorine Solvents: Health Risks to Workers (EUR10531EN). Luxembourg: Royal Society of Chemistry, Commission of the European Communities.
Ruder, AM, EM Ward, and DP Brown. 1994. Cancer mortality in female and male dry cleaning workers. J Occup Med 36:867-874.
Savitz, DA, KW Andrews, and LA Brinton. 1995. Occupation and cervical cancer. J Occup and Envir Med 37(3):357-361.
Schwartz, HJ, JL Arnold, and KP Strohl. 1990. Occupational allergic rhinitis in the hair care industry. Reactions to permanent wave solutions. J Occ Med 32:473-475.
Scolari, FG and B Gardenghi. 1966. Problems of preselection, prevention, and recovery in occupational dermatology. Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia 107 (5):1259-1270.
Seligman, PJ, SC Newman, CL Timbrook, and WE Halperin. 1987. Sexual assault of women at work. Am J Ind Med 12 (4):445-450.
Singgih, SIR, H Latinga, JP Nater, TE Woest, and JA Kruyt-Gaspersz. 1986. Occupational hand dermatoses in hospital cleaning personnel. Contact Dermatitis 14: 14-19.
Sly. 1994. Epidemic of small-pox in Quebec, supposed to depend upon the opening of an intramural cemetery 214 years old. Can J Publ Hlth (May-June): 149.
Sogaard, K. 1994. Biomechanics and Motor Control during Repetitive Work: A Biomechanical and Electromyographical Study of Floor Cleaning. Ph.D. thesis. Copenhagen, Denmark: Department of Physiology, National Institute of Occupational Health.
Sogaard, K, N Fallentin, and J Nielsen. 1996. Workload during floor cleaning. The effect of cleaning methods and work technique. Eur J App Physiol.
Sovet, U. 1958. Poisoning caused by powder used in the cleaning of silver. Presse Medicale 10 (9):69-70.
Spencer, AB, CF Estil, JB McCammon, RL Mickelsen, and OE Johnston. 1996. Control of ethyl methacrylate exposures during the application of artificial fingernails. Amer Ind Hyg Assoc J 58: 214-218.
Starr, JC, J Yunginger, and GW Brahser. 1982. Immediate type I asthmatic response to henna following occupational exposure in hairdressers. Annals of Allergy 48:98-99.
Stayner, LT, L Elliott, L Blade, R Keenlyside, and W Halperin. 1988. A retrospective cohort mortality study of workers exposed to formaldehyde in the garment industry. Am J Ind Med 13: 667-681.
Steineck, G, N Plato, SE Norell, and C Hogstedt. 1990. Urothelial cancer and some industry-related chemicals: An evaluation of the epidemiologic literature. Am J Ind Med 17:371-391.
Tanaka, S, AB Smith, W Halperin, and R Jensen. 1982. Carpet-layer’s knee. New England J Med 307(20):1276-1277.
Tobe, M, T Kaneko, Y Uchida, E Kamata, Y Ogawa, Y Ikeda, and M Saito. 1985. Studies on Inhalation Toxicity of Formaldehyde. Report of the National Sanitary and Medical Laboratory Service. Tokyo: Toxicity Department of the Organism Safety Research Centre.
Toivanen, H, P Helin, and O Hänninen. 1993. Impact of regular relaxation training and psychosocial working factors on neck-shoulder tension and absenteeism in hospital cleaners. J Occup Med 35(11): 1123-1130.
Turnbull, N, J Dornan, B Fletcher, and S Wilson. 1992. Prevalence of spinal pain among the staff of a district health authority. Occup Med 42(3):143-148.
Ursano, RJ, CS Fullerton, TC Kao, and VR Bhartiya. 1995. Longitudinal assessment of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression after exposure to traumatic death. J Nerv and Ment Dis 183: 36-42.
van der Walle, HB and VM Brunsveld. 1994. Dermatitis in hairdressers. Contact Dermatitis 30:217-221.
Vasquez, C. 1995. Wet Cleaning Equipment. Chicago: Center for Neighborhood Technology.
Vaughan, TL, C Strader, S Davis, and JR Daling. 1986. Formaldehyde and cancers of the pharynx, sinus and nasal cavity. Occupational exposures. Int J Canc 38: 677-683.
Villaplana J, C Romaguera, and F Grimalt. 1991. Contact dermatitis from resorcinol in a hair dye. Contact Dermatitis 24:151-152.
Vingard, E, L Alfredsson, I Goldie, and C Hogstedt. 1991. Occupation and osteoarthrosis of the hip and knee: A register-based cohort study. Int J Epidemiol 20 (4):1025-1031.
Walrath, J and JF Fraumeni. 1983. Mortality patterns among embalmers. Int J Canc 31:407-411.
Weaver, V, MA McDiarmid, JA Guidera, FE Humphrey, and JA Schaefer. 1993. Occupational chemical exposures in an academic medical center. J Occup Med 35(7):701-706.
Wentz, M. 1995. The evolution of environmentally responsible fabricare technologies. American Drycleaner 62(7):52-62.
Winkel, J, B Ekblom, M Hagberg, and B Jonsson. 1983. The working environment of cleaners. Evaluation of physical strain in mopping and swabbing as a basis for job redesign. In Ergonomics of Workstation Design, edited by TO Kialseth. Toronto: Butterworth.
Wolff, HL and JJAB Croon. 1968. The survival of small pox virus (Variola Mivor) in natural circumstances. Bull World Health Organ 38: 492-493.
Zahm, SH, DD Weisenburger, PA Babbitt, RC Saal, JB Vaught, and A Blair. 1992. Use of hair coloring products and the risk of lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Am J Public Health 82:990-997.