No one profession holds the key to understanding and solving the problems of work-related hazards. The field of occupational safety and health is truly multidisciplinary.

The intent of the fourth edition of the International Labour Organization’s Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety is to present a panoramic view of the basic available information in the field. But what comprises the “field”? Let us consider an example.

How might a group of various experts approach health and safety issues that relate to long-term use of visual display units (VDUs), the now familiar computer screens? A physician, charged with the occupational health service for a group of VDU workers, might tend to schedule medical exams to look for signs and symptoms of physical illness. Eye examinations would be one logical component. VDU-specific eyeglasses might be one solution. The epidemiologist, on the other hand, would confront the problem statistically. She would want to gather data on the results of the examinations of a group of VDU workers and compare them to workers who did not engage in VDU work, in order to determine the relative risks of the job for various health outcomes. The occupational hygienist would focus on the environment and might measure the lighting levels or test for particular contaminants. The ergonomist could orient towards the design of the equipment itself and study the physical interactions between the machine and the worker. The psychologist would look towards organizational factors—the social structure in the workplace—concentrating on issues such as job demands, job control and electronic performance monitoring, while the basic researcher might be more interested in experiments on the biological mechanisms that could ultimately explain any effects observed. The educator might develop training materials for helping workers function optimally on the job. The trade unionist and the employer may be interested in the application of principles of occupational health to conditions of employment and contractual agreements. Finally, the lawyer and the government regulator might be considering still other pragmatic issues, such as compensation for injuries, or “proving” possible health effects for establishing workplace regulation.

Each of these approaches is a valid and important aspect of occupational health and safety and each complements the other. No one profession holds the key to understanding and solving the problems of work-related hazards. The “field” of occupational safety and health is truly multidisciplinary.

Multidisciplinarity is challenging to the encyclopaedia editor. Facts may be neutral, but the way in which they are comprehended, interpreted and applied is culture bound, where by culture we mean the integrated pattern of human belief, behaviour and knowledge. In technical fields, culture will be a reflection of the basic discipline of training, as well as of personal philosophy. Not only will what you are—a lawyer, hygienist, trade unionist or physician—guide your thinking, but who you are—whether you are a representative of government, labour or management, for example—will inevitably influence your perceptions of the universe, its demands, its effects. Where you developed your expertise will also matter, since the philosophical and practical underpinnings of science and medicine, too, are culture bound and hence not the same throughout the world. At the very least you will be bound by the realities of available resources and this will inevitably alter your perspective. A seasoned professional attempts to minimize such biases, but one look at the real world shows how pervasive they are.

The problems of multidisciplinarity have not been solved in this Encyclopaedia, and probably will never completely be solved anywhere, but a pragmatic approach has been developed here. The Encyclopaedia has been developed in parts, sections and chapters which correspond to the various disciplines that comprise occupational health and safety. It has been designed to provide the general user with background information on the major disciplines of occupational health and safety in an understandable manner that will, at the same time, be considered rigorous by professionals in those fields. We have attempted to provide sufficient depth and breadth of coverage to permit workers in one area to appreciate and be stimulated by the ideas and approaches of other disciplines in occupational health and safety. We have endeavoured to make the descriptions of hazard recognition and control as straightforward as possible, with a minimum of jargon. The overall structures is:

Volume I

  • The Body and Health Care take a medical approach and provides information on disease, its detection and prevention, and occupational health services and health promotional activities.
  • Prevention, Management and Policy covers legal, ethical and social policy aspects of the field, as well as educational and informational and institutional resources.
  • Tools and Approaches provides insight into the disciplines which comprise the study and application of occupational health and safety: engineering, ergonomics, occupational hygiene, epidemiology and statistics and laboratory research.

Volume II

  • Hazards spans the range of chemical, physical and social hazards, accidents and safety management methods that may be encountered around the world. The nature of the hazard is detailed, together with technical information on its recognition, evaluation and control.

Volume III

  • Chemicals presents basic data on use in industry and chemical, physical and toxicological properties information on more than 2,000 chemicals categorized by chemical family
  • Industries and Occupations takes a “how things work” and “how to control hazards” approach to all the major industries. The hazards associated with a variety of occupations which span several industrial sectors are presented in a hazard card format.

Volume IV

  • Indexes and Guides provides a how-to-use the Encyclopaedia guide; lists of tables and figures and collaborating institutions; and indexes of chemical substances, cross-references, subjects and authors cited.


Several thousand internationally recognized experts have been called upon to be writers and reviewers of this Encyclopaedia. They have been drawn from virtually all the major institutions around the world and we have attempted to assure that international perspectives are represented because such perspectives are not the same everywhere and it is the responsibility of the International Labour Organization to promote the free interchange of different conceptualizations. Further, problems and solutions vary around the globe and it makes good sense to seek out the expertise of those who personally know and understand the issues.

In this Encyclopaedia we have planted an occupational health and safety garden with facts, figures and interpretations to assist in the blossoming of safe and healthful working conditions around the world. The seeds have been sown in more or less orderly disciplinary groupings, so that the reader, once becoming familiar with the garden paths, can create any bouquet of facts that she or he wants. The indexes in the fourth volume provide a more detailed map, including a valuable index guide to the essential cross-referencing of information. The experienced reader will soon learn what is planted where and will be able to make his way along a favoured route.

The electronic version of this work has additional navigational aids, with its built-in hyperlinks and specialized search facilities. By judicious creation of searches, the astute CD-ROM user could even plant an entirely new and rearranged garden of his or her own.

The Encyclopaedia is not, of course, one hundred per cent complete. Isolated facts are missing. Some notions may be outdated even before we go to press. This is the sign of an active and creative field of human endeavour. This Encyclopaedia could not have been written without the countless hours of work of individuals from around the world. The reader will find the names of our collaborators in the lists of authors and editors, and in the Directory of Experts which is published in the electronic version of this work. Most of these individuals came to the effort with the full support and assistance of the institutions with which they were affiliated. Volume IV contains a non-exhaustive list of these collaborating institutions, as well.

We are grateful for the extensive support in this worldwide effort. Of course, the individual viewpoints presented are ultimately those of the authors and not of their institutions or the International Labour Office. We hope that the compendium of ideas presented here will hasten the day in which occupational death and disease is a rarity in the world.

Jeanne Mager Stellman
Geneva, 1998

In the following article, the term cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) refers to organic and functional disorders of the heart and circulatory system, including the resultant damage to other organ systems, which are classified under numbers 390 to 459 in the 9th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) (World Health Organization (WHO) 1975). Based essentially on international statistics assembled by the WHO and data collected in Germany, the article discusses the prevalence of CVDs, new disease rates, and frequency of deaths, morbidity and disability.

Definition and Prevalence in the Working-Age Population

Coronary artery disease (ICD 410-414) resulting in ischaemia of the myocardium is probably the most significant CVD in the working population, particularly in industrialized countries. This condition results from a constriction in the vascular system that supplies the heart muscle, a problem caused primarily by arteriosclerosis. It affects 0.9 to 1.5% of working-age men and 0.5 to 1.0% of women.

Inflammatory diseases (ICD 420-423) may involve the endocardium, the heart valves, the pericardium and/or the heart muscle (myocardium) itself. They are less common in industrialized countries, where their frequency is well below 0.01% of the adult population, but are seen more frequently in developing countries, perhaps reflecting the greater prevalence of nutritional disorders and infectious diseases.

Heart rhythm disorders (ICD 427) are relatively rare, although much media attention has been given to recent instances of disability and sudden death among prominent professional athletes. Although they can have a significant impact on the ability to work, they are often asymptomatic and transitory.

The myocardiopathies (ICD 424) are conditions which involve enlargement or thickening of the heart musculation, effectively narrowing the vessels and weakening the heart. They have attracted more attention in recent years, largely because of improved methods of diagnosis, although their pathogenesis is often obscure. They have been attributed to infections, metabolic diseases, immunologic disorders, inflammatory diseases involving the capillaries and, of particular importance in this volume, to toxic exposures in the workplace. They are divided into three types:

  • dilative—the most common form (5 to 15 cases per 100,000 people), which is associated with the functional weakening of the heart
  • hypertrophic—thickening and enlargement of the myocardium resulting in relative insufficiency of the coronary arteries
  • restrictive—a rare type in which myocardial contractions are limited.


Hypertension (ICD 401-405) (increased systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure) is the most common circulatory disease, being found among 15 to 20% of working people in industrialized countries. It is discussed in greater detail below.

Atherosclerotic changes in the major blood vessels (ICD 440), often associated with hypertension, cause disease in the organs they serve. Foremost among these is cerebrovascular disease (ICD 430-438), which may result in a stroke due to infarction and/or haemorrhage. This occurs in 0.3 to 1.0% of working people, most commonly among those aged 40 and older.

Atherosclerotic diseases, including coronary artery disease, stroke and hypertension, by far the most common cardiovascular diseases in the working population, are multifactorial in origin and have their onset early in life. They are of importance in the workplace because:

  • so large a proportion of the workforce has an asymptomatic or unrecognized form of cardiovascular disease
  • the development of that disease may be aggravated or acute symptomatic events precipitated by working conditions and job demands
  • the acute onset of a symptomatic phase of the cardiovascular disease is often attributed to the job and/or the workplace environment
  • most individuals with an established cardiovascular disease are capable of working productively, albeit, sometimes, only after effective rehabilitation and job retraining
  • the workplace is a uniquely propitious arena for primary and secondary preventive programmes.


Functional circulatory disorders in the extremities (ICD 443) include Raynaud’s disease, short-term pallor of the fingers, and are relatively rare. Some occupational conditions, such as frostbite, long-term exposure to vinyl chloride and hand-arm exposure to vibration can induce these disorders.

Varicosities in the leg veins (ICD 454), often improperly dismissed as a cosmetic problem, are frequent among women, especially during pregnancy. While a hereditary tendency to weakness of the vein walls may be a factor, they are usually associated with long periods of standing in one position without movement, during which the static pressure within the veins is increased. The resultant discomfort and leg oedema often dictate change or modification of the job.

Annual incidence rates

Among the CVDs, hypertension has the highest annual new case rate among working people aged 35 to 64. New cases develop in approximately 1% of that population every year. Next in frequency are coronary heart disease (8 to 92 new cases of acute heart attack per 10,000 men per year, and 3 to 16 new cases per 10,000 women per year) and stroke (12 to 30 cases per 10,000 men per year, and 6 to 30 cases per 10,000 women per year). As demonstrated by global data collected by the WHO-Monica project (WHO-MONICA 1994; WHO-MONICA 1988), the lowest new incidence rates for heart attack were found among men in China and women in Spain, while the highest rates were found among both men and women in Scotland. The significance of these data is that in the population of working age, 40 to 60% of heart attack victims and 30 to 40% of stroke victims do not survive their initial episodes.


Within the primary working ages of 15 to 64, only 8 to 18% of deaths from CVDs occur prior to age 45. Most occur after age 45, with the annual rate increasing with age. The rates, which have been changing, vary considerably from country to country (WHO 1994b).

Table 3.1 [CAR01TE] shows the death rates for men and for women aged 45 to 54 and 55 to 64 for some countries. Note that the death rates for men are consistently higher than those for women of corresponding ages. Table 3.2 [CAR02TE] compares the death rates for various CVDs among people aged 55 to 64 in five countries.

Work Disability and Early Retirement

Diagnosis-related statistics on time lost from work represent an important perspective on the impact of morbidity on the working population, even though the diagnostic designations are usually less precise than in cases of early retirement because of disability. The case rates, usually expressed in cases per 10,000 employees, provide an index of the frequency of the disease categories, while the average number of days lost per case indicates the relative seriousness of particular diseases. Thus, according to statistics on 10 million workers in western Germany compiled by the Allgemeinen Ortskrankenkasse, CVDs accounted for 7.7% of the total disability in 1991-92, although the number of cases for that period was only 4.6% of the total (table 3.3 [CAR03TE]). In some countries, where early retirement is provided when work ability is reduced due to illness, the pattern of disability mirrors the rates for different categories of CVD.

Tuesday, 03 May 2011 10:26

Preface to the Fourth Edition (1998)

It is a sobering thought that the prefaces to the preceding editions of this Encyclopaedia are still timely: occupational illnesses and injuries remain an unnecessary blight on the human landscape. Much progress has been made since the publication of the first edition of this work. Exposure to some extremely dangerous poisons, such as the deadly radium painted on watch faces to make them glow in the dark, or the crippling and disfiguring phosphorus that had been used as the combustible material in matches, have been completely eradicated. Governments have established regulations and have undertaken many noteworthy actions to guard against the entirely preventable tragedies of occupational death, disease and disability. The level of knowledge among all our constituents is vastly improved. The ILO itself has contributed to this progress with Conventions, Recommendations and Codes of Practice governing many workplace conditions, as well as with its many technical cooperation programmes and specialized publications. Equally important, the capability of medicine, science and engineering to solve problems, and to provide better means of recognition and of hazard prevention has dramatically increased. Social systems are in place for worker protection and for worker participation in decisions relating to their work environments.

Yet, despite tireless efforts to promote better working conditions, the ILO and others must still combat many forms of exploitation of working people, such as child labour, indentured servitude and clandestine work, with their inevitably hazardous and oppressive conditions. Tens of millions of others labour while exposed to chemical, physical and social hazards which drain their health and their spirits. Solutions to such problems of occupational injury and illness will not arise simply from issuing publications or obtaining advice from experts. The health and well-being of workers is an issue of social justice and the ILO stands above all for the ideal of promoting social justice in the world. Ultimately solutions are social as much as technical. It is not merely the lack of know-how that perpetuates the toll of death, disability and disease in the working population, it is the lack of the social means and the social will to do something about it. The societal basis for occupational safety and health is perhaps the most important reason for the ILO to publish the Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety. With its publication we present a panorama of the problems, and their technical and social solutions: we define the fields for action.

The Encyclopaedia’s popularity and influence have been enormous. Tens of thousands of copies have been in use throughout the greater part of this century. Earlier editions have been published in Spanish, French, Russian, Chinese, Hungarian and Serbo-Croatian. The Encyclopaedia is the most widely distributed publication of the ILO. The process of compiling the fourth edition has continued the tradition of reaching out to world experts, which the Office sees as essential to its continued growth and relevance. We have assembled a network of more than 2,000 specialists from over 65 countries who have extensively contributed their time, energy and expertise to the writing and reviewing of articles and the editing of chapters. Most major health and safety institutions, governmental, academic or private, from around the world, are contributing in one form or another to this immense undertaking, an act of generosity and support for which we are grateful. The hope and the intent is that this Encyclopaedia provide technical, theoretical and ethical underpinnings to the ongoing work of achieving the goal of social justice in a global economy.

Michel Hansenne
International Labour Office
Geneva, 1998

In 1919 the International Labour Conference at Washington requested the International Labour Office “to draw up a list of the principal processes to be considered as unhealthy”. But it was impossible in practice to draw up such a list, at least in a complete or final form, on account of the number and complexity of the operations which in some aspects could be considered unhealthy, the continuous evolution of industrial technique which does away with causes of disease in one direction, while giving rise to fresh possibilities of disease in another, and the indefinite character of the conception of “unhealthiness” which varies at different times and in different countries.

These considerations led to the idea of substituting for the list of unhealthy processes requested by the Conference, a sort of encyclopaedia which would analyse from the triple point of view of the work to be done, the worker employed, and the environment in which he worked, the various tasks involved in human labour, the properties of the substances dealt with, the operations involved in handling and working up these substances, the possible sources and carriers of intoxication and disease, the statistical data on the effects as far as known, the symptoms, the diagnosis, the therapeutic and prophylactic treatment, and the protective legislation already in existence.
It was a difficult task, and one which was bound to be open to the reproach of being neither complete nor final. But how could it be otherwise? No one can hope to fix once for all something which is living, evolving, progressive. Although, as was mentioned above, the evolution of technical practice in industry may create new dangers for the worker every day, yet the progress of this same technique and of industrial hygiene may, on the following day, do away with certain existing dangers, which must, notwithstanding, be recorded and analysed in this work. One of the virtues of this work is just the fact that it is not final. It seizes one moment in social life and in the progress of industrial hygiene, but it requires to be kept constantly up to date precisely because it is a scientific as well as a practical work.

This is its dual nature, as it is that of every piece of research undertaken by the International Labour Office, the strict purpose of which is to make science the servant of practical action. This Encyclopaedia is not a work of pure propaganda; it never sacrifices scientific objectivity to the ideas which the authors naturally have at heart. On the other hand, it is not purely a treatise on medicine or hygiene; it claims no originality in the treatment of the various questions; it does not claim to be an exhaustive study; on each subject it merely gives a summary of the existing position of science, with figures taken from statistics for the sake of example and not in support of any argument. It has tried to keep a middle path between a purely scientific work intended for the expert, and a popular manual. It is meant to supply workers, employers, their organisations, and practising doctors with the information necessary to enable them to discover, combat, and prevent occupational diseases, the economic consequences of which are as harmful to production as their social consequences are to the world of labour…

…The International Labour Office, in collaborating with these scientists for some years, has obtained a clearer consciousness of the scope of its mission. The Preamble to Part Xlll of the Peace Treaty [of Versailles] included among the urgent tasks of the Office the protection of workers “against sickness, disease and injury arising out of their employment”. The signatory States, in agreeing to this statement of principle, seem to have accepted the dictum of Beaconsfield that the health of the people is the most important of all problems. The Office has put at the disposal of those concerned a statement up to the actual position of science and has conveyed to the legislator the elements of physiology and physio-pathology necessary to him for setting up a code of industrial health; by collecting and concentrating this information in one work, and thereby increasing its range and appeal, the Office is continuing the work of those who, since the inception of “large-scale” industry, have endeavoured to protect human life, openly or insidiously menaced by new technical processes…

In ancient societies, dangerous and disagreeable tasks were reserved for criminals. Fourier, for all his fertile imagination, dared not foresee that the progress of industrial technique would one day lead to the suppression of unhealthy or dangerous occupations: he reserved filthy or dangerous work for his “small gangs”. Nowadays the problem is entirely different: the conscience of modern society realises that occupational diseases should not be reserved for certain persons, but that they should be made to disappear. The origins and the causes are now known, and all that is wanted is will and organisation. There are plenty of other sufferings and plenty of other infirmities to which mortals are exposed. As Puccinotti has said: “Life must be preserved for labour, and labour must be made harmless to life”. …

Albert Thomas
International Labour Office
Geneva, 1930

Occupational accidents and diseases remain the most appalling human tragedy of modern industry and one of its most serious forms of economic waste. The best estimates currently available on a world basis reckon the number of fatal injuries at the workplace at close to 100,000 annually. In some highly industrialised countries industrial accidents are responsible for the loss of four or five times as many working days as industrial disputes. In certain cases their cost is comparable to that of national defence. Industrialisation and the mechanisation of agriculture have made the problem acute in a much wider range of countries and occupations.

The economic burden on the community cannot be expressed in compensation costs alone. It also includes loss of production, disruption of production schedules, damage to productive equipment and—in the case of large-scale accidents—major social dislocations. But the economic burden is by no means the full measure of the human cost…
Originally, the main thrust of preventive action was to improve the unhealthiest working conditions and remedy the appalling lack of physical protection against the most dangerous occupational hazards. The first international standards were designed either to do away with the more flagrant abuses impairing health, such as the employment of very young children, over-long hours of work, the absence of any form of maternity protection, and night work by women and children, or to combat the risks most commonly encountered by industrial workers—anthrax, and lead or chronic phosphorus poisoning.

When the ILO passed beyond formulating these basic standards to grapple with the problem of social security, the first question it considered was compensation for occupational accidents and diseases. Workmen’s compensation legislation already existed in many countries; it was developed on the basis of ILO standards and its financial implications gave a powerful impetus to preventive measures. The ILO did much to bring about the standardisation of industrial injury and occupational disease statistics and the systematic collection of data on accident frequency…
Gradually this concentration of attention upon the most flagrant abuses and the highest accident and disease rates broadened into a more comprehensive approach designed to promote the highest standards of safety and health in all industries and occupations. The monumental Model Code of Safety Regulations for Industrial Establishments for the Guidance of Governments and Industry, first issued in 1949 on the basis of work initiated during the Second World War and periodically revised since, was an important step in this direction. It furnished an impetus which has now found expression in a wide range of codes of practice and guides to practice which are complementary to it. In the 1950s this broader approach was reflected in new comprehensive international standards for the protection of workers’ health, welfare facilities and occupational health services.

In the 1960s these were supplemented by a new series of specific provisions dealing with particular risks which had assumed increased importance. In factories, one accident in six is caused by machinery; hence the importance of international standards on the guarding of moving parts which regulate not only the use, sale and hire of machinery having dangerous parts but also its manufacture…

Modern industrial medicine has outgrown the stage where it merely involved first aid in the event of an accident and the diagnosis of occupational diseases; nowadays it is concerned with all the effects of work upon physical and mental health, and even with the impact of man’s physical or psychological disabilities upon his work…

Technological progress now moves far more swiftly than it did 40 years ago. There is every reason to believe that the pace will quicken still further. This second edition of the Encyclopaedia will therefore be merely the next stage in our work. But each stage is the indispensable foundation for its successor. During the coming years the Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety will be an essential tool for humanising the working environment and improving the lot of workers the world over. In human and economic terms alike higher health and safety standards are a primary responsibility of enlightened social policy and efficient management. Neither can be effective without the comprehensive body of knowledge necessary to appraise the relevance of current information to policy and action. The present Encyclopaedia, which was prepared under the technical responsibility of Dr. Luigi Parmeggiani, Chief of the Occupational Safety and Health Branch, is designed to make readily accessible to all the comprehensive knowledge of these matters which is now available. In editing the Encyclopaedia, Dr. Parmeggiani has worthily maintained the traditions established by Dr. Luigi Carozzi, who laid the foundations of the industrial health work of the ILO.

Wilfred Jenks
International Labour Office
Geneva, 1971

The decision to publish the second edition of the Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety was taken some 15 years ago, and its preparation lasted throughout the years 1966 to 1971. Since then a great deal of progress has been made in the knowledge and activities covered by this publication. Side by side with technological progress there have been great advances in methods of identifying, evaluating and controlling occupational hazards and providing health protection in the workplace. Toxic substances, dust in industry, mineral fibres, non-ionising radiation, allergy and occupationally induced cancer have been the subject of intensive experimental research and important epidemiological studies. Nevertheless, the changes that took place in working environments in the 1970s were not due merely to wider technical knowledge and awareness. A new trend began to take shape: the workers’ claim for a better quality of life at work and the increasing involvement of trade unions in health and safety protection in the workplace, the fuller support by employers of comprehensive occupational health and safety programmes and increasing efforts by governments to apply far-reaching measures in this field. This trend has been reflected in national and international legislation concerning the working environment and working conditions, which has advanced to an unprecedented extent. Thus the panorama of occupational health and safely, industrial hygiene and ergonomics has undergone profound changes in many member countries of the ILO, not only as regards the state of the art, but also as regards the practical application of these disciplines in the workplace…

It is 63 years since the ILO first established as one of its basic objectives “the protection of the worker against sickness, disease and injury arising out of his employment”. The objective is still the same, but the form and methods of this protection have evolved along with technical progress and economic development… International dissemination of the most recent scientific and practical knowledge in this field is an integral part of ILO activity—together with the traditional modes of action: standard-setting and technical co-operation—to promote the increased effectiveness of health and safety protection at work throughout the world. The new edition of the Encyclopaedia will make an important contribution to that great endeavour.

Francis Blanchard
International Labour Office
Geneva, 1983

Friday, 15 July 2011 12:36

acids and anhydrides table 1

Acids and Anhydrides,Organic: Chemical identification


un code




Ethanoic acid;
Ethylic acid;
Methanecarboxylic acid




Acetic oxide;
Acetyl anhydride;
Acetyl ether;
Acetyl oxide;
Ethanoic anhydrate




Acetosalic acid;
o-Acetoxybenzoic acid;
2-Acetoxybenzoic acid;
Salicylic acid, acetate;




Ethylenecarboxylic acid;
Propene acid;
Propenoic acid




Adipinic acid;
1,4-Butanedicarboxylic acid;
Hexanedioic acid;
1,6-Hexanedioic acid




L-3-Ketothreohexuronic acid lactone;
Vitamin C




Benzenecarboxylic acid;
Benzeneformic acid;
Benzenemethanoic acid;
Phenyl carboxylic acid;
Phenylformic acid




Butanic acid;
Butanoic acid;
n-Butyric acid;
Butyric acid;
Ethylacetic acid;
1-Propanecarboxylic acid;
Propylformic acid




Butylacetic acid;
Capronic acid;
n-Hexanoic acid;
N-Hexoic acid;
Pentanecarboxylic acid;
Pentiformic acid;
Pentylformic acid




1,4,5,6,7,7-Hexachloro-5-norbornene-2,3-dicarboxylic acid;
Hexachloro-endo-­Methylenetetrahydrophthalic acid




Monochloroacetic acid;
Monochloroethanoic acid




2-Chlorobenzoic acid




3-Chlorobenzoic acid




4-Chlorobenzoic acid;
Chlorodracylic acid




α-Chloropropionic acid




4-Chloro-o-cresoxyacetic acid;
(4-Chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid;




2-hydroxy-1,2,3-Propanetricarboxylic acid;
β-Hydroxytricarballylic acid




1,2,3-Propanetricarboxylic acid, 2-Hydroxy-, monohydrate




α-Butenoic acid;
β-Methylacrylic acid;
3-Methylacrylic acid




Bichloracetic acid;
2,2-Dichloroacetic acid;
Dichloroethanoic acid




Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid




Butylethylacetic acid;
α-Ethylcaproic acid;
2-Ethylhexanoic acid;




Pymonic acid;
Fluoroethanoic acid;
Monofluoroacetic acid




Aminic acid;
Formylic acid;
Hydrogen carboxylic acid;
Methanoic acid




trans-Butenedioic acid;
trans-1,2-Ethylenedicarboxylic acid;
1,2-Ethylenedicarboxylic acid




3,4,5-Trihydroxybenzoic acid




Hydroxyacetic acid;
Hydroxyethanoic acid




n-Heptoic acid;
Heptylic acid;
1-Hexanecarboxylic acid;
Oenanthic acid;
Oenanthylic acid




Dimethylacetic acid;
Isopropylformic acid;
2-Methylpropanoic acid;
2-Methylpropionic acid




Benzene-1,3-dicarboxylic acid;
m-Benzenedicarboxylic acid;
m-Phthalic acid




Dodecanoic acid;
Dodecoic acid;
Duodecylic acid;
Laurostearic acid;
1-Undecanecarboxylic acid




cis-Butenedioic acid;
cis-1,2-Ethylenedicarboxylic acid;
1,2-Ethylenedicarboxylic acid;
Maleinic acid;
Malenic acid;
Toxilic acid




cis-Butenedioic anhydride;
Maleic acid anhydride;
Toxilic anhydride




Carboxyacetic acid;
Methanedicarboxylic acid;
Propanedioic acid




α-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid;
α-Hydroxy-a-toluic acid;
Paramandelic acid;
Phenylglycolic acid;
Phenylhydroxyacetic acid




Methacrylic acid;
2-Methylpropenoic acid




n-Nonylic acid;
1-Octanecarboxylic acid;
Pelargonic acid




cis-9-Octadecenoic acid;
9,10-Octadecenoic acid;
Oleic acid;
Oleinic acid




Ethanedioic acid;
Ethanedionic acid




Cetylic acid;
Hexadecanoic acid;
n-hexadecoic acid;
Hexadecylic acid;
1-Pentadecanecarboxylic acid




Benzene-1,2-dicarboxylic acid;
o-benzenedicarboxylic acid;
1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid;
o-Phthalic acid




1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid anhydride;
Phthalic acid anhydride




2,2-Dimethylpropanoic acid;
α,α-Dimethylpropionic acid;
2,2-Dimethylpropionic acid;
Neopentanoic acid;
tert-Pentanoic acid;
Propanoic acid;
Trimethylacetic acid




Ethanecarboxylic acid;
Ethylformic acid;
Metacetonic acid;
Methyl acetic acid;
Propanoic acid




Methylacetic anhydride;
Propanoic anhydride;
Propionic acid anhydride;
Propionyl oxide








p-Methylbenzenesulfonic acid;
4-Methylbenzenesulfonic acid;
p-Methylphenylsulfonic acid;
Toluenesulfonic acid;
4-Toluenesulfonic acid




o-Hydroxybenzoic acid;
2-Hydroxybenzoic acid;
Orthohydroxybenzoic acid




Cetylacetic acid;
1-Heptadecanecarboxylic acid;
Octadecanoic acid




butanedioic acid;
1,2-Ethanedicarboxylic acid;
Ethylenesuccinic acid




p-Aminobenzenesulphonic acid;
4-Aminobenzenesulphonic acid;
p-Aminophenylsulphonic acid;
Aniline-p-sulphonic acid;
Aniline-4-sulphonic acid




2,3-Dihydrosuccinic acid;
2,3-Dihydroxybutanedioic acid;
Threaric acid




p-Benzenedicarboxylic acid;
1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid












Perfluoroacetic acid;
Trifluoroethanoic acid;




4-Carboxyphthalic anhydride;
1,3-Dioxo-5-Phthalancarboxylic acid;
5-Phthalanacarboxylic acid;
1,2,4-Benzenetricarboxylic anhydride




Butanecarboxylic acid;
1-Butanecarboxylic acid;
Pentanoic acid;
Propylacetic acid




Melting Point (ºC)

10- 5

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