At present, there is no handbook, manual or other single source which contains the essential data on the various occupational hazards which exist in specific occupations. The variety of the occupations is so great that not even experienced specialists—safety engineers, industrial hygienists, industrial physicians, consultants and researchers—can be familiar with all the hazards existing in each specific occupation. Therefore, occupational safety and health (OSH) experts must search information in the very extensive relevant professional literature and databases and, sometimes, have to scan scores of technical documents. Such searches are complicated, tedious, time-consuming and require access to specialized information sources. Usually, they are beyond the ability and resources of an OSH field worker (industrial hygienist, safety officer, inspector, occupational physician, sanitarian or instructor), and much beyond the possibilities of a non-professional (plant manager, safety committee member or employees’ representative). As a result, quite frequently an OSH worker comes to the workplace without adequate preliminary technical preparation.

This was realized many years ago. An early attempt to create a practical list of hazards according to occupations was undertaken by A.D. Brandt in his 1946 book Industrial Health Engineering. Brandt presented a compilation of about 1,300 various occupations with the relevant occupational hazards in each occupation. The total number of hazards listed was roughly 150, most of them chemical hazards. Since Brandt’s pioneering effort, no systematic work was carried out on the subject, except for a few partial lists related to limited aspects of occupational hazards. However, there were some other efforts in this field, such as the 1964 book Accident Research: Methods and Approaches, by W. Haddon, E.A. Suchman and D. Klein, which attempted to classify the various types of accidents; a “table of health hazards listed by occupation”, which appeared in the 1973 book Work Is Dangerous to Your Health, by J.M. Stellman and S.M. Daum; a set of partial lists of “potential occupational exposures” published in 1977 in the comprehensive National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) monograph Occupational Diseases: A Guide to their Recognition; and a list of about 1,000 various potential health hazards that might exist in about 2,000 different occupations, which was compiled in 1973 by the School of Medicine of Tel-Aviv University.

All of the projects mentioned above suffer from a number of shortcomings: they are not up-to-date; the lists are only partial and refer to specific aspects rather than to the entire OSH field; and they deal mostly with the chronic occupational hygiene aspect, neglecting largely the safety and acute aspects of the problem. Moreover, none of those lists is in a concise, practical form, such as a pocket-size and easy-to-use manual, or separate single cards that could be used directly in the field.

A compilation of 100 “hazard cards”, in Hebrew, was recently prepared for the Israeli Ministry of Health and deals with the various hazards to which this ministry’s employees (mostly hospital staff and field workers) are exposed. In preparing this compilation, different United Nations and International Labour Organization (ILO) documents related to the classification of occupations and economic activities were used, as were various documents issued by the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) within the framework of its International Programme on Chemical Safety.

The experience gained during the above work gave rise to the idea of starting a project of International Safety Datasheets on Occupations that has been subsequently endorsed by the ILO’s International Occupational Safety and Health Information Centre (CIS) and is currently in progress. For this chapter of the Encyclopaedia, a number of such datasheets has been selected, in order to demonstrate a systematic approach that would be widely applicable and not confined to any specific professional domain. From this point of view, the selection was based on two main criteria: broad diversity of selected occupations with regard to the types of activities involved and their relative risk and the “cross-boundary” character of each occupation, i.e. its presence in many fields of economy.

Methodological Aspects

A consistent conceptual and procedural framework has been elaborated and used in the preparation of the datasheets. It is organized around a checklist, or matrix, serving as a guideline for a systematic and comprehensive analysis of the hazards existing in a given occupation. While helping to reveal and evaluate different hazards that may be present in the occupation, this checklist has an additional function of serving as a template, according to which a hazard datasheet is actually compiled (see table 1).

The use of such a standard and well-itemized template provides a uniform datasheet structure, assuring quick familiarization and easy orientation by a user. Another important consideration is the use of standard phrases and expressions across the whole range of occupations, the advantage being an instant recognition of similar hazards present in different occupations.

The checklist (template), together with a set of standard phrases and key-words, will serve in the future as a basis for developing a Guide for Compilers of Hazard Datasheets, with a purpose similar to that of the Compiler’s Guide for the Preparation of International Chemical Safety Cards (a joint project of the CEC, the ILO, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)).

The datasheet structure contains the following sections, according to the template:

    • Name of occupation: the title taken either from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) or from the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO)
    • Synonyms: taken from DOT and/or other sources, typically an English-language thesaurus
    • Definition and/or description: mostly quoted or adapted from DOT or ISCO. Some definitions quoted from DOT contain abbreviated designations of different industries, according to the “Industry Index” (DOT, Vol. 2). “Professional and kindred occupations” (“Occupations requiring extensive study or experience in professions, technical services, sciences, art, and related types of work”) are designated “Profess. & kin.”; occupations that are “not elsewhere classified” are designated “n.e.c.”; most of the other abbreviations are self-explanatory.
    • Related and specific occupations: compiled on the basis of DOT, ISCO, discussions with experts and personal knowledge
    • Tasks: compiled from various sources, including the Revised Handbook for Analyzing Jobs (RHAJ), DOT, ISCO, suggestions by experts, etc., and arranged alphabetically
    • Primary equipment used and Industries where this occupation is common: The lists of tools, machines and industries were compiled on the basis of discussions with field workers and experts, as well as information found in various technical job descriptions; personal expert knowledge was also extensively used.
    • Hazards: The lists of hazards of various types were compiled following thorough examination of numerous information resources, including: previous lists of occupational hazards compiled by various researchers; job descriptions of DOT and ISCO; technical documents issued by national OSH organizations, such as INRS (France), HSE (United Kingdom), NIOSH (US), IIOSH (Israel), etc.; professional literature, including the ILO Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety; computerized databases (e.g., CISDOC, NIOSHTIC, HSELINE and TOXLINE); interviews with field workers and OSH professionals, as well as personal knowledge and expert evaluation.
    • Notes: any additional important and relevant information not included elsewhere, such as information on synergistic effects and warnings about some high-risk situations
    • Appendices: auxiliary and supplementary data, such as lists of substances used in a given occupation, etc.


                    Following its compilation, each hazard datasheet was subjected to peer reviewing and comments by at least two competent specialists.



                    Table 1. Checklist (template)

                    NAME OF OCCUPATION


                    Job profile

                    Definition and/or description


                    Related and specific occupations




                    Primary equipment used


                    Industries in which this occupation is common



                    Accident hazards


                    Mechanical and general

                    – Machinery accidents

                    – Transport accidents

                    – Falls of persons (e.g., slips, trips on the level, from heights, from a moving vehicle, etc.)

                    – Falls of heavy objects, materials, wall collapses, etc.

                    – Stabs, cuts, amputations

                    – Striking against or struck by objects (bone fracture, bruises)

                    – Stepping on objects

                    – Being caught in or between objects, including crushing and tearing accidents

                    – Pressure vessels, vacuum vessels (bursting, mechanical explosions or implosions)

                    – Burns and scalds (by hot or cold fluids or surfaces)

                    – Penetration of foreign particles into eyes

                    – Swallowing of bulky or sharp-edged non-poisonous solids

                    – Drowning

                    – Acute injuries caused by animals (e.g., bites, scratches, kicks, squeezing and trampling, stings, rammings, etc.)

                    – Overexertion or overstrenuous movements

                    Chemical accidents

                    – All acute injuries and effects related to accidental release, spillage, inhalation, swallowing of, or contact with, chemical agents (except fire or explosions)

                    Electrical accidents

                    – All injuries and effects related to electric current and static electricity

                    Fires and chemical explosions
                    Radiation accidents

                    – Injuries involving accidental exposure to high doses of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation, including laser beams and strong light, UV, etc.

                    Physical hazards


                    – Ionizing radiation (including, e.g., x rays, alpha-, beta- and gamma radiation, neutron and particle beams, radon, etc.)

                    – Non-ionizing radiation (including the whole spectrum of electromagnetic non-ionizing radiation, e.g., visible light, UV and IR, laser beams, RF, MW, etc.); electric and magnetic fields

                    – Vibration (affecting whole body; vibration-related hazards affecting specific organs appear under “Ergonomic and social factors”)

                    – Noise (including also ultra- and infrasound)

                    – Exposure to weather, extreme heat or cold, reduced or increased barometric pressure (including heat stroke, sun stroke, heat stress, cold stress, frostbite, etc.)

                    Chemical hazards*


                    * Hazards related to non-accidental exposure to chemicals

                    Direct/immediate effects:

                    – Irritation of mucous membranes, eyes and respiratory system

                    – Effects on the nervous system (headaches, reduced alertness, intoxication, etc.)

                    – Gastrointestinal disturbances

                    – Skin effects (itching, erythema, blistering, etc.)

                    – Effects of “routine” exposure on ultrasensitive persons; effect of combination of “routine” factors, e.g., non-accidental formation of phosgene when smoking in presence of organochlorine compounds

                    – Asphyxia

                    Delayed, chronic or long-term effects:

                    – Chronic systemic poisoning

                    – Other systemic effects (e.g., hematopoietic, on the gastro-intestinal, urogenital nervous systems, etc.)

                    – Skin effects (dermatoses, skin sensitization and allergies, etc.)

                    – Eye effects (cataracts, impaired vision, corrosive damage, etc.)

                    – Inhalation effects (lung oedema, chemical pneumonitis, pneumoconiosis, asthmatic reactions, etc.)

                    – Ingestion effects (sore throat, abdominal pain and/or cramps, diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting, reduced consciousness, coma, etc.)

                    – Chemical allergies not included above

                    – Effects on reproductive system, pregnancy (spontaneous abortion, embryo- and foetotoxicity), birth defects

                    – Carcinogenesis and mutagenesis

                    Biological hazards


                    – Microorganisms and their toxic products

                    – Poisonous and allergenic plants

                    – Exposure to animals which can lead to diseases and allergies (from hair, furs, etc.)

                    Ergonomic and social factors


                    Hazards related to working postures, man-machine interactions, lifting, mental or physical stress, nuisance and discomfort (e.g., sick building syndrome, poor illumination, air pollution from sources not related to workplace, human relations, violence, biorhythms, bad smells, vibration affecting specific body organ, e.g., carpal tunnel syndrome, etc.)




                    – Special alerts

                    – Statistical data (e.g., “increased risk of ...”; “excess mortality...”, etc.)

                    – Synergistic effects

                    – Special circumstances or combinations of factors

                    – Any important relevant information not included elsewhere



                    List of chemicals, etc.



                    Wednesday, 06 April 2011 16:56

                    Ambulance Driver (Medical Services)

                    Synonyms: Ambulance driver (government services); Red Cross (or similar organization) ambulance driver

                    Job profile

                    Definition and/or description


                    Drives ambulance to transport sick, injured or convalescent persons. Places patients on stretcher and loads stretcher into ambulance, usually with help of ambulance attendant (medical services). Takes sick or injured persons to hospital, or convalescent to destination, using knowledge and skill to avoid sudden motions detrimental to patients. Changes soiled linen on stretcher. Administers first aid as needed. May shackle violent patients. May report facts concerning accident or emergency to hospital personnel or law enforcement officials (DOT). Also: a person who drives a medical emergency vehicle, ambulance or hospital services (civil or military) vehicle; may assist in delivering babies inside the ambulance.

                    Related and specific occupations


                    Ambulance attendant; ambulance-team/nursing aid; funeral car/hearse driver/ chauffeur; hospital/clinic driver; medical services driver; military ambulance driver; motor-vehicle driver (medical services); police ambulance driver; private ambulance driver.



                    Administering (medicines, oxygen, etc.); assisting; carrying; changing; cleaning; communicating; driving; documenting; handling; honking; lifting; loading; locating; logging; maintaining; mending; operating; placing; pulling and pushing; repairing; reporting; restraining; reviving; servicing; shackling; stretching; transporting; warning; writing.


                    Accident hazards


                    – Increased risk of road accidents due to high driving speeds under emergency conditions (including crossing intersections during red traffic light, driving on sidewalks and steep slopes while trying to reach destination through traffic jams);

                    – Slips, trips and falls (on stairs or on the level) while carrying stretchers and loads or assisting patients;

                    – Injuries as a result of carrying out various functions (field repair tasks, tyre changes, etc.) of a vehicle driver (see truck driver, chauffeur, etc.);

                    – Sudden release of compressed gases (e.g., oxygen or anaesthetic gases) inside the ambulance.

                    Physical hazards


                    – Exposure to high noise levels from the emergency horn;

                    – Exposure to radioactive isotopes (in some countries where ambulance are used for the transport of radioisotopes to hospitals).

                    Chemical hazards


                    – Exposure to anaesthetic gases administered to patients inside the ambulance;

                    – Dermatitis caused by excessive use of rinsing, cleaning and disinfecting agents.

                    Biological hazards


                    – Exposure to contagious diseases from patients;

                    – Potential exposure to body fluids of patients (e.g., blood from wounds).

                    Ergonomic and social factors


                    – Back pains and other musculoskeletal problems resulting from overexertion and wrong postures during lifting and otherwise moving of patients, driving over bumpy roads, repairing vehicles on road, etc.;

                    – Psychological stress due to dangerous driving under time pressure, contact with accident victims, terminal patients and dead bodies, unusual working schedules, prolonged states of alertness, etc.



                    International Occupational Safety and Health Information Centre (CIS). 1995. International Safety Datasheets on Occupations. Steering Committee meeting, 9-10 March. Geneva: ILO.



                    Wednesday, 06 April 2011 17:08

                    Animal Handler

                    Synonyms: Animal attendant; animal breeder; animal caretaker; animal husbandry worker; animal keeper; animal laboratory worker; animal propagator; animal raiser; farmworker, animal; farmworker, livestock; etc.

                    Job profile

                    Definition and/or description


                    Performs any combination of following duties to attend animals, such as mice, canaries, guinea pigs, mink, dogs and monkeys, on farms and in facilities, such as kennels, pounds, hospitals and laboratories. Feeds and waters animals according to schedules. Cleans and disinfects cages, pens and yards and sterilizes laboratory equipment and surgical instruments. Examines animals for signs of illness and treats them according to instructions. Transfers animals between quarters. Adjusts controls to regulate temperature and humidity of animals’ quarters. Records information according to instructions, such as genealogy, diet, weight, medications, food intake and licence number. Anaesthetizes, inoculates, shaves, bathes, clips and grooms animals. Repairs cages, pens or fenced yards. May kill and skin animals, such as fox and rabbit, and pack pelts in crates. May be designated according to place worked such as Dog-Pound Attendant (government ser.); Farmworker, Fur (agriculture); Helper, Animal Laboratory (pharmaceut.); Kennel Attendant (agriculture); Pet Shop Attendant (retail trade); Veterinary-hospital Attendant (medical ser.) (DOT).

                    Related and specific occupations


                    Abattoir worker; butcher; farmer/cattle; farmworker, skilled/cattle (also: farmworker, skilled/dairy; –/domestic fur-bearing animals; –/fish; –/mixed animal husbandry; –/non-domesticated fur-bearing animals; –/pigs; –/poultry; –/sheep); veterinarian, etc. (ISCO)); animal herder; animal shelter supervisor; apiarist; artificial inseminator; beekeeper; cattleman; cowboy; fur farmer; herder; lamber; livestock farmer; livestock rancher; livestock yard attendant; milker; pelter; poultry farmer/ breeder; shepherd; stable attendant; stock raiser; supervisor, kennel; etc. (DOT and ISCO); animal propagation worker (RHAJ); animal hairdresser; gaucho; groom; stableman; zoo attendant/worker; etc.



                    Adjusting (controls); administering; anaesthetizing; applying (medications); apportioning; assisting (veterinarian); attaching; attending; bagging; bailing; bathing; bedding; binding; branding; breaking (horse); breeding; bridling; brushing; building (fences, sheds, etc.); bundling; butchering; buying and selling; caging; calculating; candling; caponizing; caring; carrying; castrating; catching; changing; clamping; cleaning; clipping; collecting (fees, donations, etc.); combing; conditioning; confining; constructing; corraling; crating; cultivating; culturing; curing (meat); debeaking; dehorning; delivering; demonstrating (animals to customers, viewers, etc.); dipping (utensils); disinfecting; distributing; docking; domesticating (animals); drenching; dressing; driving; documenting; enclosing; engaging; erecting; examining (animals); exercising; exhibiting (for commercial, educational or entertainment purposes); exterminating; farming; fattening; feeding; filling; flushing; foddering; folding; formulating; fumigating; gathering; goading; grazing; greasing; grinding; grooming; growing; guarding; guiding; handling; harnessing; harvesting; hatching; hauling; helping; herding; hiring; hitching (animals); identifying; incubating; informing; injecting; inoculating; inseminating; inspecting; investigating; isolating; keeping; killing; labelling; lashing; littering; loading and unloading; lubricating; maintaining; managing; marking; marketing; measuring; medicating; milking; milting; mixing; mounting and dismounting; moving; netting; notching; notifying; nurturing; observing; oiling; opening; operating; ordering; pacifying; packing; painting; performing; placing; planting; pouring; preparing; preserving; pricking; producing; propagating (animals); pumping; punching (cattle); purchasing; quarantining; racking; raising; ranching; rearing; recording; regulating; removing; renting; repairing; replenishing; reporting; restraining; riding; rounding up; saddling; scattering; scraping; segregating; selecting; separating; sexing (poultry); sharpening; shaving; shipping; shearing; shoeing; shovelling; showing (animals to customers, viewers, etc.); skinning; slaughtering; snipping; sorting; sowing; spawning; spraying; spurring; sterilizing; stocking; storing; stripping; supervising; tagging; taming; tattooing; tendering; tending; training (police and army dogs for drugs and explosives sniffing); transferring; transporting; treating; trimming; tying; using; vaccinating; walking (dogs); washing; watering; weighing; whipping; wrangling; yoking.


                    Accident hazards


                    – Slips, trips and falls (on slippery surfaces, stairs, etc.); colliding with scattered objects, etc.;

                    – Cuts and pricks caused by sharp objects, broken glass and syringes;

                    – Injuries caused by swinging doors;

                    – Bites, goring and/or being attacked by domestic or wild animals;

                    – Kicks, bites, scratches and stings caused by laboratory animals (primates, dogs, cats, goats, rabbits, guinea pigs, rats, mice, hamsters and other rodents, snakes, wasps, etc.), domestic animals, fur animals, honeybees, zoo animals and other animals kept for their educational, commercial, entertainment, game, sports or other value, or for research purposes;

                    – Falls from horses and other riding animals;

                    – Road accidents while transporting animals;

                    – Accidental injury caused by firearms while hunting animals (for zoos, etc.);

                    – Fire hazard at animal-waste rendering plants;

                    – Fires and explosions caused by inflammables and explosives;

                    – Eye injury caused by metallic splinters (e.g., in farriers while horseshoeing, or while branding);

                    – Burns from hot metal objects (e.g., in farriers while horseshoeing);

                    – Electric shocks caused by defective or incorrectly operated electric and electromechanical equipment;

                    – Explosions of animal-food dust-air mixtures.

                    Physical hazards


                    – Exposure to ionizing radiation emitted by veterinary x-ray equipment and by laboratory animals investigated or treated with radioisotopes;

                    – Exposure of skin and eyes to ultraviolet radiation used for sterilization and other purposes in laboratories and animal quarters;

                    – Exposure to excessive noise, heat stress and hand-arm mechanical shocks and vibrations during forging and related operations (in farriers);

                    – Cold or heat stress (resulting in effects ranging from temperature discomfort to frostbite or heat stroke, respectively) and exposure to frequent abrupt temperature changes (when entering or leaving climate-controlled rooms) in animal handlers working mostly or partly outdoors under severe climatic conditions;

                    – Health problems (e.g., rheumatic, etc.) due to conditions in animal quarters such as high humidity, concrete floors, etc.

                    Chemical hazards


                    – Intoxication due to contact with chemicals, such as pesticides (especially insecticides, germicides and herbicides), solvents, strong acids and alkalis, detergents, etc.;

                    – Dermatoses due to contact with chemicals, such as pesticides, solvents, detergents, deodorants, animal medications, etc.;

                    – Allergies due to contact with formaldehyde and other synthetic or natural allergenic substances;

                    – Health hazards caused by inhaling formaldehyde vapours;

                    – Health hazards caused by exposure to metallic, solvent and other fumes during forging, shoeing and other hoof-care operations (especially in farriers);

                    – Systemic and gastrointestinal effects caused by exposure to cytotoxic agents (especially in laboratory animal handlers);

                    – Exposure to various carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic agents (especially in laboratory animal handlers);

                    – Mercury poisoning (in fur-processing workers).

                    Biological hazards


                    – Infection due to contact with sick or pathogen- carrying animals or due to exposure to airborne pathogens, resulting in development of communicable diseases (zoonoses), including: anthrax, blastomycosis, brucellosis (undulant fever), B-virus (simian B disease), cat-scratch fever, echinococcosis (hydatidosis), encephalitis, enteritis (zoonotically acquired), erysipeloid, glanders, hookworm diseases, leptospirosis, Orf virus disease, ornithosis, pasteurellosis, plague, pseudocowpox, psittacosis, pyogenic infections, Q-fever, rabies, rat-bite fever, rift-valley fever, ringworm diseases, salmonellosis, swineherd’s disease, tapeworm diseases, toxoplasmosis, tuberculosis (bovine), tularaemia, typhus fever, etc., as well as other diseases related to protozoan parasites, rickettsia and chlamydia, viral and fungal infections, etc.;

                    – Laboratory-animal allergies (LAA) (including: occupational asthma, allergic alveolitis, bronchitis, pneumonitis, rhinitis, skin rashes, etc.) and diseases of the airways caused by inhalation of animal-food dust containing various micro-organisms and their spores, animal hair (causing furrier’s lung), bird-droppings residues (causing pigeon- breeder’s lung), etc.;

                    – Pulmonary dysfunctions in animal confinement workers caused by various agents, including hydrogen sulphide toxicity, bronchitis, non-allergic asthma, organic-dust toxic syndrome (ODTS), mucous membrane irritation, and by bioaerosols and endotoxins;

                    – Dust- and endotoxin-related respiratory effects in animal-feed workers and in fur-farm workers;

                    – Exposure to carcinogenic afflatoxins (causing primary liver cancer) of animal-feed workers;

                    – Cancer hazards due to carcinogens present in pesticides, animal medicines, etc.;

                    – Acute health effects caused by various flea-control products used by animal handlers;

                    – Increased risk of laboratory-acquired haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) caused by infected laboratory rats;

                    – Occupational eczemas and contact dermatitis;

                    – Increased risk of developing chronic lymphatic leukaemia (CLL) and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) in animal breeders;

                    – Various septic infections;

                    – Development of the mad-cow syndrome (viral) disease.

                    Ergonomic and social factors


                    – Musculoskeletal problems (particularly of back and knees) in animal handlers engaged in lengthy horse-riding and/or leaning on their knees (especially on concrete floors) during work (e.g., in farriers);

                    – Job dissatisfaction related to the working environment (dirt, smells, etc.) and to the mainly physical character of work;

                    – Exposure to attacks by cattle robbers, valuable-pet thieves, etc.;

                    – Exposure to protest, and possibly violence, by animals’ rights groups;

                    – Danger of developing drugs addiction facilitated by easy availability of animal medications.



                    Benenson, AS (ed.). 1990. Control of Communicable Diseases in Man, 15th edition. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association.

                    Worksafe Australia. 1995. Agriculture and Services to Agriculture Industries. Occupational Health and Safety Performance Overviews. Selected Industries, Issue No. 9. Canberra: Government of Australia.

                    World Health Organization (WHO). 1979. Parasitic Zoonoses. Report of a WHO Expert Committee with the Participation of FAO. Technical Report Series No. 637. Geneva: WHO.



                    Wednesday, 06 April 2011 17:14

                    Automobile Mechanic

                    Synonyms: Automotive machinist; garage mechanic; motor-vehicle mechanic

                    Job profile

                    Definition and/or description


                    Repairs, services and overhauls automobiles and assimilated motor vehicles; examines vehicle to ascertain nature, extent and location of defects; plans work, using charts and technical manuals; dismantles engine, transmission, differential or other parts requiring attention; repairs or replaces parts such as pistons, rods, gears, valves, bearings, breaker points or gaskets and accessories such as spark plugs; relines and adjusts brakes, solders leaks in radiator, rebushes steering mechanism and carries out other repairs; tunes motor by adjusting ignition, carburettor, valves and timing mechanism; tests repaired vehicles in workshop or on road. May rebuild parts using lathes, shapers, welding equipment and hand tools. May do electrical and body repairs and spray painting. May specialize in repairing a particular type of engine, such as diesel automobile engines, and be designated accordingly (ISCO).

                    Related and specific occupations


                    Similar occupations designated according to a speciality: bus mechanic; diesel- engine mechanic; motor- truck mechanic; engine-repair mechanic; motor or bus repairer; differential repairer; compressor mechanic; engine-head repairer, etc., or according to a title: garage supervisor; bus inspection mechanic; transmission mechanic; brake repairer; diesel-mechanic helper, etc. (DOT).



                    Abrading; adjusting; aligning; assembling and disassembling; bolting; bonding; boring; brazing; brushing; burning; calibrating; cementing; chipping; clamping; cleaning; cutting; diagnosing; dipping; disassembling; dis- mantling; drilling; driving; examining; fabricating; fastening; filing; filling; finishing; fitting; flame-cutting; forging; grinding; gluing; hammering; heating; insert- ing; inspecting; installing; laminating; lifting; lubricating; machining; maintaining; measuring (with instruments); melting; mending; milling; overhauling; painting; piercing; planning; positioning; pressing; pulling; pumping; pushing; raising; reboring; rebushing; recharging; reconditioning; relining; removing; repairing; replacing; riveting; rewiring; rubbing (compounds); sanding; scraping; servicing; setting; soldering; spraying; squeezing; stapling; tapping; testing; threading; tightening; tuning; verifying (dimensions); welding.


                    Accident hazards


                    – Injuries during work with mechanized equipment, such as lathes, drills, boring and honing machines, discs, shapers and various cutting and hand tools (e.g. cutters, wrenches, screwdrivers, chisels, sledgehammers, etc.);

                    – Injuries resulting from collapse, setting or slipping of jacking, lifting or hoisting equipment and falling vehicles;

                    – Stabs and cuts caused by knives, sharp objects, hand tools, banging on metal pieces, loose bolts, etc. during dismantling, repair and assembly operations;

                    – Slips, trips and falls from ladders, stairs, elevated platforms, etc. and falls into inspection pits (especially when carrying loads);

                    – Falls on level surfaces, especially on wet, slippery or greasy floors;

                    – Crushing of toes as a result of heavy objects falling on feet;

                    – Burns and scorches as a result of contact with hot surfaces, exhaust pipes or hot-melt chemicals; sudden release of hot water and steam from steam lines, radiator and cooling system pipes; soldering, brazing and welding operations, etc.;

                    – Eye injury from splinters and flying objects during grinding, machining, abrading, polishing, boring and similar operations or while operating compressed-air equipment for drum and brake cleaning and similar operations;

                    – Bursting of compressed-air lines or containers; accidental injection of material/compressed air either through the skin or body orifices;

                    – Bursting of tyres;

                    – Accidents due to poorly installed and inappropriately maintained steam and water pressure cleaners;

                    – Injuries caused by rolling-road/brakes testing equipment;

                    – Electrocution as a result of defects, short circuits or incorrect use of electromechanical equipment, or contact with live wires (e.g., electric shocks from portable power tools);

                    – Fires and explosions of flammable and explosive substances (e.g., liquid petroleum gas, gasoline, solvents, oils etc.), accumulating as a result of spills, leaks, neglect, etc., or by ignition of hydrogen released from batteries, or by flames originating from flame cutting and welding operations, etc;

                    – Carbon monoxide poisoning of inspection-pit workers;

                    – Road accidents during testing and driving of repaired vehicles.

                    Physical hazards


                    – Excessive noise (greater than 90 dBA), especially in car body work;

                    – Exposure to direct and reflected ultraviolet and infrared radiation;

                    – Exposure to microwave and radiofrequency radiation, especially in such activities as heat-sealing of panels and upholstery, drying of trim base panels etc.;

                    – Exposure to low temperatures and winds, especially in open-shed garages, resulting in colds (the use of improvised heating may also cause fire and carbon monoxide poisoning);

                    – Exposure to x rays and radioisotopes in automobile manufacturing/non-destructive testing;

                    – Development of vibration white finger (VWF) as a result of vibrating power-driven tools.

                    Chemical hazards


                    – Chronic poisoning as a result of exposure to a wide range of industrial chemicals, including heavy metals (e.g., brake fluids, degreasers, detergents, lubricants, metal cleaners, paint removers, thinners etc.) (see Appendix);

                    – Skin diseases and conditions (various types of dermatitis, skin sensitization, eczema, oil acne, etc.) caused by various chemicals (e.g., adhesives, asbestos, antifreeze and brake fluids, epoxy resins, gasoline, oils, nickel, colophony, etc.);

                    – Eye irritation, dizziness, nausea, breathing problems, headaches, etc., caused by contact with chemical irritants, dusts, fumes, antiknock agents (such as methylpentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT)), ketone solvents (such as methyl isobutyl ketone (MIK)), etc.;

                    – Asbestosis and mesothelioma caused by asbestos dust from brake-drum cleaning and processing operation;

                    – Lead poisoning;

                    – Haematological changes as a result of exposure to solvents, such as benzene and its homologues, toluene, xylene, etc.;

                    – Increased risk of cancer due to inhalation of diesel exhaust fumes or contact with certain heavy metals and their compounds, asbestos, benzene, etc.;

                    – Increased risk of organic brain damage due to inhalation of diesel exhaust fumes;

                    – Acute eye and mucous membrane irritation, headaches, breathing difficulties, chest tightness, etc., caused by inhalation of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and respirable particulates;

                    – Increased risk of abortion or damage to fœtus or embryo in pregnant women exposed to organo-halogen solvents;

                    – Gastrointestinal disturbances as a result of accidental or chronic ingestion of adhesives;

                    – Nuisance due to bad smells when working with certain solvent-based adhesives;

                    – Splashes of corrosive and reactive chemicals that may cause eye and skin injuries, etc.

                    Biological hazards


                    Infections as a result of micro-organism contamination and growth in certain adhesives.

                    Ergonomic and social factors


                    – Acute musculoskeletal injuries (intervertebral disk rupture, tendon rupture, hernia, etc.) caused by physical overexertion and incorrect combination of weight and posture during lifting and moving of heavy loads;

                    – Cumulative trauma disorders, including carpal tunnel syndrome, caused by long-time repetitive work;

                    – Tiredness and general ill feeling;

                    – Danger of being attacked by individuals (including dissatisfied customers) in work places open to the public;

                    – Psychological stress when working under time pressure.



                    Health and Safety Executive (HSE). 1991. Health and Safety in Tyre and Exhaust Fitting Premises. HS (G) 62. London: HSE Books.

                    —. 1991. Health and Safety in Motor Vehicle Repair. HS (G) 67. London: HSE Books.



                    Principal substances to which automobile mechanics may be exposed:

                    – Abrasive dusts

                    – Acrolein

                    – Adhesives

                    – Alkalis

                    – Antifreeze fluids

                    – Asbestos

                    – Benzene

                    – Bisphenol A

                    – Brake fluids

                    – Butanol

                    – Butyl acetate

                    – Carbon monoxide

                    – Chlorinated hydrocarbons (e.g., solvents)

                    – Colophony (rosin)

                    – Cutting fluids

                    – Degreasers

                    – Diacetone alcohol

                    – Dichromates

                    – Dioxane

                    – Detergents (synthetic)

                    – Epoxy resins

                    – Ethyl acetate

                    – Ethylene glycol

                    – Flame retardants

                    – Gasoline and additives

                    – Glass fibres

                    – Graphite

                    – Greases

                    – Hydraulic fluids

                    – Hydroquinone

                    – Isocyanates

                    – Isopropanol

                    – Kerosene

                    – Lead and its compounds

                    – Lubricants

                    – Metal cleaners

                    – Methanol

                    – Methyl isobutyl ketone

                    – Molybdenum disulphide

                    – Nickel

                    – Nitrogen oxides

                    – Oils (including used oils)

                    – Oxalic acid

                    – Paint removers

                    – Paint thinners (e.g., turpentine)

                    – Phthalic anhydride

                    – Plastics

                    – Polyester resins

                    – Rubber antioxidants and accelerators

                    – Soldering fluxes

                    – Solvents (different types)

                    – Tetraethyl lead

                    – Thimerosol

                    – Tricarbonyl

                    – Toluene

                    – White spirit

                    – Xylene



                    Wednesday, 06 April 2011 17:23

                    Boiler Operator

                    Synonyms: Boiler attendant; boiler-room worker; boiler water treater; firer; steam-boiler operator; steam generator operator; steam power plant operator; steam-supply operator

                    Job profile

                    Definition and/or description


                    Operates fuel-fired boilers to generate steam for supply to industrial processes, buildings, etc. Lights gas, oil or solid-fuel fed boilers using torch; regulates flow of fuel and water into the boiler. Observes control panel and regulates temperature, pressure, draft and other operation parameters. Observes boiler and auxiliary units to detect malfunctions and make repairs. Changes burners, pipes and fittings. Tests and treats boiler feed water, using special chemicals, ion-exchange columns, etc. Activates pumps or pressure flow to remove fly ash from hoppers, contaminated water from boiler system, and flush slurry into ash grinder. Assists boiler maintenance crews in maintenance and repair work.



                    Activating (pumps); adjusting; assembling and disassembling; charging; checking; cleaning (valves, fuel tanks); detecting (malfunctions); filling; firing; fixing; flushing (slurry); installing; lighting; loading and unloading (fuel); maintaining (insulation, etc.); measuring; monitoring, operating; regenerating (ion exchanger resins); regulating (flow, temperature); removing (ash, wastes); repairing; sealing (leaks); screwing; stoking; testing (feed water); treating (feed water); wrenching.

                    Industries in which this occupation is common


                    Manufacturing plants and services which require steam for operation, e.g., chemical industry; plastics industry; electrical power plants; steam laundries; hospitals; food industries; shipping; desalination plants; etc.


                    Accident hazards


                    – Slips and falls on level surfaces, particularly on floors made slippery by water, fuel, oils, etc.;

                    – Mechanical accidents when operating pulverizer and stoker in coal-fired boilers;

                    – Bursting of boilers (because of overheating and overpressure, failure of structural components due to metal fatigue, etc.) with possible fires; injury by the explosion wave, by flying fragments, flames, steam, etc.;

                    – Fires and explosions of fuel (particularly from fuel leaks); rags soaked with fuel; explosions of gas-air mixtures within the boiler;

                    – Soot fires;

                    – Burns from hot surfaces, hot water and escaping steam;

                    – Electrocution or electric shocks;

                    – Asphyxia due to breathing oxygen- depleted air;

                    – Poisoning by carbon monoxide or by other combustion products in the air, particularly in the case of faulty ventilation or inadequate air supply to the burners (acute carbon monoxide poisoning may cause headaches, dizziness, nausea, unconsciousness, coma and death);

                    – Splashes of hydrazine and its derivatives on the skin may cause penetrating burns and severe dermatitis;

                    – Splashes into the eyes of chemicals used in the regeneration of ion exchange columns, in derusting and descaling; particularly, splashes of hydrazine and its derivatives may cause permanent corneal lesions.

                    Physical hazards


                    Excessive noise levels (as high as 94 dBA).

                    Chemical hazards


                    – Pneumoconioses from exposure to vanadium-containing dust and to asbestos from the insulation, particularly during maintenance and repair work, and from exposure to respirable fly ash;

                    – Dermatoses from exposure to fuels and to corrosion inhibitors (various organic or metallo-organic compounds) and other water additives;

                    – Irritation of eyes, respiratory tract and skin as a result of exposure to hydrazine and its derivatives, used as additives to boiler water; severe exposure may cause temporary blindness;

                    – Irritation of the upper respiratory tract and coughing, as a result of inhalation of sulfur dioxide, particularly when burning high-sulfur fuels;

                    – Exposure to water-treating chemicals and formulations, particularly corrosion inhibitors and oxygen scavengers such as hydrazine; ion-exchange-resin regeneration chemicals, including acids and bases; cleaning, derusting and descaling products and solvents; carbon monoxide; carbon dioxide; nitrogen oxides; sulfur dioxide; dusts containing refractory oxides and vanadium oxide.

                    Biological hazards


                    Development of fungi and growth of bacteriae in the boiler room due to the elevated temperature and humidity.

                    Ergonomic and social factors


                    – Heat stress;

                    – General tiredness as a result of physical work in a noisy, warm and humid environment.




                    1. According to published reports, boiler attendants may be at increased risk of breast or nasopharyngeal cancer; exposure of boiler operators to hydrazine and its derivatives may cause damage to the lung, liver and kidneys.
                    2. Special hazards are encountered when wastes are used as the fuel; the boiler operator may be exposed to a wide variety of hazardous chemicals present in the waste or formed during its burning (e.g., furans, dioxide derivatives, metal fumes, mineral fibres, etc.). Also, the operator may be exposed to bites or stings from parasites, insects and even small animals (e.g., snakes, scorpions) present in the wastes and to bacterial infections.
                    3. As boiler rooms are frequently located in basements, a radon exposure hazard may exist in some regions.



                    American National Standards Institute (ANSI). 1987. Gas-fired Low-pressure Steam and Hot Water Boilers. ANSI Standard Z21.13-87. New York: ANSI.

                    Parsons, RA (ed.). 1988. Boilers. In ASHRAE Handbook: Equipment. Atlanta, GA: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-conditioning Engineers.



                    Wednesday, 06 April 2011 17:35


                    Synonyms: Private chauffeur; chauffeur, private motor-car; also used as an alternate title to “bus driver” (DOT); also: limousine driver; managerial driver; pool-car driver

                    Job profile

                    Definition and/or description


                    Drives automobile to transport office personnel and visitors to commercial or industrial establishments. Performs miscellaneous errands, such as carrying mail to and from post office. May make overnight drives and extended trips requiring irregular hours. May be required to have a chauffeur’s licence. May clean vehicles and make minor repairs or adjustments (DOT).

                    Related and specific occupations


                    Bus driver; taxi (cab) driver; truck driver; lorry and van driver; etc.



                    Adjusting; arranging; assisting; carrying; changing; checking; cleaning; collecting; communicating; commuting; directing; driving; documenting; handling; inspecting; lifting; loading and unloading; locating; maintaining; mending; operating; organizing; performing; placing; pulling and pushing; regulating; repairing; reporting; servicing; transporting.


                    Accident hazards


                    – Increased risk of road accidents as a result of overnight drives and extended trips during irregular hours;

                    – Slips, trips and falls while carrying luggage and packages;

                    – Injuries as a result of accomplishing various functions (e.g., field repair work, tyre change, etc.) of a vehicle driver (see also truck driver; bus driver, etc.).

                    Physical hazards


                    May be exposed to physical hazards when working under some specific conditions (e.g., to radiation when transporting mail containing radioisotopes, etc.).

                    Chemical hazards


                    May develop mild dermatitis due to use of cleansers and detergents.

                    Biological hazards


                    Potential exposure to infectious diseases when transporting sick passengers.

                    Ergonomic and social factors


                    – Low back pain and pains in the joints (of legs and hands/arms) due to extended driving, sometimes over bumpy roads;

                    – Psychological stress and job dissatisfaction as a result of performing a subordinate role and of a need to cater for various, sometimes unexpected, demands of passengers;

                    – In case of fulfilling an additional duty of a bodyguard, various hazards typical for this function;

                    – Visual discomfort and eye problems caused by inadequate illumination and eyestrain (especially when driving at dark time on interurban roads).



                    Wednesday, 06 April 2011 17:39

                    Electrical Appliance Repairer

                    Synonyms: Appliance-service representative; small-appliance repairer

                    Job profile

                    Definition and/or description


                    Repairs electrical appliances, such as toasters, cookers, percolators, lamps and irons, using hand-tools and electrical testing instruments. Examines appliances for mechanical defects and disassembles appliances. Tests wiring for broken or short circuits, using voltmeters, ohmmeters and other circuit testers. Replaces defective wiring and parts, such as toaster elements and percolator coils, using hand-tools, soldering irons and spot-welding equipment. May compute charges for labour and materials. May assist Electrical-appliance Servicer (any industry) in repairing such appliances as refrigerators and stoves (DOT).

                    Related and specific occupations


                    Appliance repairer (and occupations according to specific appliances, e.g., food-mixer repairer; heating-element repairer; toaster-element repairer; vacuum-cleaner repairer; etc.); assembler (household appliances); electrical-appliance preparer (and occupations according to specific appliances, e.g., coffee-maker preparer; electric-refrigerator preparer; washing-machine preparer; etc.); electrical-appliance servicer (and occupations according to specific appliances); fixer; household-appliance installer; maintenance man; mender; repairman; serviceman; troubleshooter; uncrater.



                    Adjusting; advising (customers); aligning; applying; assembling, disassembling and reassembling; assisting; bending; bolting; boring; brazing; calculating (costs, wiring parameters, etc.); calibrating; checking; cleaning; computing (charges, etc.); connecting; cutting; demonstrating (appliances in operation); determining (repair requirements); drilling; driving; earthing; estimating (costs); examining (appliances); fastening; filing; fitting; fixing; gluing; hammering; handling; identifying (defects); installing; inserting; insulating; joining; keeping (records); lifting; loading and unloading; locating (shorts and grounds, etc.); lubricating; maintaining (stock of parts); marking; measuring (dimensions, electric parameters); mending; mounting; moving (heavy appliances); observing (appliance in operation, instrument readings); operating (appliances, equipment); painting; placing; polishing; preparing; recording (details of repair); repairing; replacing; removing; screwing and unscrewing; sealing; selecting; servicing; setting; soldering; splicing (cables); stripping (wires); testing; touching up (paint defects); tracing (electrical circuits); transporting; troubleshooting; uncrating; using (tools, skills, etc.); washing; welding; wiring; wrapping (wires with tape).


                    Accident hazards


                    – Cuts and stabs caused by working tools, sharp edges of parts of appliances under repair, etc.;

                    – Slips, trips and falls on level surfaces, especially on wet, slippery and greasy floors, while moving heavy appliances;

                    – Falls from height while installing or repairing outdoor units of “split” air conditioners, ceiling fans, etc.;

                    – Mechanical injuries caused by exposed rotating parts of appliances under repair (e.g., ventilators);

                    – Acute poisoning and/or chemical burns as a result of using solvents, adhesives and other chemicals;

                    – Fire risk due to use of inflammables;

                    – Burns caused by contact with hot elements of appliances under repair (e.g., irons), molten metals (while soldering) or as a result of sudden release of vapours from appliances under repair (e.g., from coffee-makers);

                    – Electric shocks caused by contact with live wires;

                    – Risk of road accidents while driving to/from customer premises.

                    Physical hazards


                    – Exposure to microwave radiation while repairing microwave ovens;

                    – Increased exposure to radiation.

                    Chemical hazards


                    – Chronic toxicological effects associated with welding and soldering operations;

                    – Chronic poisoning as a result of exposure to fluorocarbons, methyl chloride and other substances used in refrigerators, air conditioners, etc.

                    Biological hazards


                    Biological hazards may be encountered while repairing appliances that were used by sick persons (e.g., hair dryers, electrical tooth brushes, electrical shavers, etc.), or were operated in a contaminated atmosphere (e.g., vacuum cleaners).

                    Ergonomic and social factors


                    – Acute musculoskeletal injuries caused by physical overexertion and awkward posture while moving and installing heavy appliances;

                    – Cumulative trauma disorders, including carpal tunnel syndrome, caused by long-time repetitive work involving primarily hand, arm and finger movements (in appliance repairers engaged in repair work on assembly lines or in repetitive workbench operations);

                    – Tiredness and general ill feeling;

                    – Visual discomfort and eye strain as a result of viewing small parts of appliances under poor illumination conditions (e.g., inside an appliance);

                    – Psychological stress as a result of working under time pressure and dealing with dissatisfied customers.




                    1. Conflicting opinions exist as to whether very-low and extremely-low frequency electromagnetic radiation is hazardous.



                    Wednesday, 06 April 2011 17:44


                    Synonyms: Garden caretaker; greenskeeper; groundskeeper; horticulturist; landscape specialist; park worker

                    Job profile

                    Definition and/or description


                    Makes, or works in, a garden. Maintains grounds of public, private, industrial or commercial property, performing any combination of the following tasks: conditions soil by digging, turning, ploughing, fertilizing, etc; plants grass, flowers, shrubs and trees; waters lawn, flowers and shrubs; cuts lawns; trims and edges around walks, flower beds and walls; prunes shrubs and trees; sprays lawn, shrubs and trees with insecticides, herbicides and fertilizers; cleans and disinfects or sterilizes gardening tools and equipment; formulates and prepares pesticide, herbicide, fertilizer, soil additive or other solutions or mixtures; removes damaged leaves, branches or twigs; rakes and bags leaves; cleans grounds and removes litter; carts away or burns litter, leaves, paper, etc; shovels snow from walks and driveways; may sharpen gardening tools; may make minor repairs of equipment; may repair and/or paint fences, walls, gates and walks; may clean drainage ditches and culverts; may measure moisture level in soil.



                    Bagging (leaves); bailing; budding; burning; carting; cleaning; clipping; conditioning (soil); cropping; culling; cutting; detasselling; digging; disinfecting; draining; drying; dusting; edging; fertilizing; formulating; fumigating; gathering; grading (terrain); grafting; harrowing; harvesting; hoeing; husking; irrigating; maintaining; making; measuring (moisture, etc.); mending; mowing; mulching; painting; performing (tasks); picking; planting; plowing; potting; preparing (mixtures, etc.); propagating; pruning; raking; reaping; repairing; removing; sawing; sharpening; shearing; shelling; shovelling; sorting; sowing; spading; spiking; spraying; spreading; sterilizing; stringing; thinning; threshing; tilling; transplanting; trimming; turning (soil); watering; weeding; winnowing.

                    Primary equipment used


                    Lawn mower (manual or power-operated); clippers; weed cutters; edging tools; shears; ploughs; pruners; saws; spades; sprayers; sprinklers; spreaders; rakes; brooms; spiked sticks; shovels; trowels; knives; cultivators; hoses and watering cans; forks and aerator forks; thatchers; carts; tractors with various appendages; water sensor gauges.


                    Accident hazards


                    – Falls from heights (e.g., ladders, platforms or roofs), slips and falls on level ground (on mud or on wet soil or grass) or trips and falls on uneven soils or over various gardening implements, causing bruises, concussion, cuts or bone breakage;

                    – Overturning with, or falls from, tractors and other field vehicles or towed platforms;

                    – Clothing, hair or beard entanglement between moving parts of electrical or engine-driven machinery;

                    – Accidents with gardening tools (cutters, clippers, shears, rakes, hoes, etc.) as a result of tool slippage, inattention, breakage, stepping or falling on tools, etc., causing stabs, scratches, pinches, contusions, wounds, amputation of fingers, etc.;

                    – Ejection of flying particles (sand, stones, wood pieces, rubber or nylon cord, etc.) during work with power-driven mowers, saws, etc., causing injury to the eyes, contusions, etc.;

                    – Stabs from thorny plants;

                    – Snake, scorpion, bee, wasp, rodent, insect and dog bites or stings, causing wounds, pain, swelling, local or general poisoning, etc.;

                    – Electrocution or electric shock from contact with exposed live wires (e.g., overhead power lines when transporting metal piping) or during work with faultily insulated electrical equipment;

                    – Spillage of acids (e.g., nitric acid used for disinfecting tools) or other corrosive chemicals on the skin or clothing, or into eyes, causing chemical burns, rashes, severe eye injuries, etc.;

                    – Acute poisoning by accidental ingestion or inhalation of pesticides or other toxic agricultural chemicals.

                    Physical hazards


                    – Excessive noise levels from mechanized equipment (mowers, saws, etc.), causing damage to the eardrum with possible loss of hearing;

                    – Overexposure to sunlight causing sunburn, heatstroke, skin melanomas, etc.;

                    – Exposure to harsh weather (cold, rain, snow, wind) causing frostbite, colds (with possible complications if work is continued under such conditions), etc.

                    Chemical hazards


                    – Dermatitis and other skin ailments as a result of prolonged contact with agrochemicals or solvents or by systemic effects due to inhalation of chemicals;

                    – Chronic poisoning as a result of prolonged inhalation, ingestion or absorption through the skin of agricultural chemicals containing heavy metals, (e.g., cadmium, mercury, lead and arsenic), organophosphorous compounds, amines, etc.;

                    – Increased damage to skin presensitized by chemical exposures through exposure to sunlight (cytophotochemical effects).

                    Biological hazards


                    – Contact with allergenic plants, flowers, weeds, etc. (e.g., Ficus benjamina, various cacti, etc.) causing dermatoses, asthma, etc.;

                    – Inhalation of allergenic dust, pollen, oils, vapours, etc., of plant origin, causing hay fever, asthma, etc.;

                    – Contact of open wounds with manure, parasites, bird and animal excretions, insects, etc, causing local or general infections including tetanus, anthrax, etc.;

                    – Zoonotic diseases (e.g., spotted fever, Q-fever);

                    – Leptospirosis as a result of penetration of leptospirae through broken skin;

                    – Fungal diseases, caused by fungi present in the soil or on plant leaves (e.g., allergic aspergillosis, histoplasmosis (a pulmonary infection), etc.);

                    – Parasitic diseases caused by tick, chigger and mite bites (e.g., straw itch) or by larvae penetrating through broken skin (e.g., hookworm disease, ascariasis). In some cases, the infections may develop into neurotoxic effects and paralysis.

                    Ergonomic and social factors


                    Repetitive hand motions, incorrect postures (e.g., when planting flowers), lifting and carrying of heavy loads, etc., may cause low back pain, upper and lower limb ailments and other musculoskeletal problems.




                    1. This occupation is commonly encountered in municipal services and on public, industrial, commercial or private grounds.
                    2. According to published reports, as a result of exposure to various agrochemicals, gardeners may be at increased risk of carcinogenic and mutagenic effects; pregnant female gardeners may be at increased risk of spontaneous abortions and fœtotoxic or teratogenic effects.
                    3. Chemicals to which a gardener may be exposed include a great variety of agricultural chemicals and formulations, including insecticides (organophosphorous, organochlorine, carba- mates, pyridyl, arsenicals, etc.), rodenticides, fungicides, liquid and gas fumigants (e.g., dibromoethane, methyl bromide), herbicides, fertilizers, etc.; fuels and lubricating oils; acids, cleaning and sterilizing compounds, solvents (particularly kerosene in pesticide formulations), etc.



                    International Labour Organization (ILO). 1979. Guide to Health and Hygiene in Agricultural Work. Geneva: ILO.

                    Worksafe Australia. 1995. Agriculture and Services to Agriculture Industries. Occupational Health and Safety Performance Overviews. Selected Industries, Issue No. 9. Canberra: Government of Australia.



                    Wednesday, 06 April 2011 17:49


                    Synonyms: Glass installer; glass setter; glass-worker

                    Job profile

                    Definition and/or description


                    Installs glass (including mirrors, stained and other specially treated glass) in openings (windows, doors, show- cases, frames, etc.) and on surfaces (walls, ceilings, screens, tabletops, etc.). May cut, tint, decorate or otherwise treat glass before setting. If occupied in construction and designated Glazier (construction): installs glass in windows, skylights, store fronts and display cases or on surfaces, such as building fronts, interior walls, ceilings and tabletops. Marks outline or pattern on glass and cuts glass, using glasscutter. Breaks off excess glass by hand or with notched tool. Fastens glass panels into wood sash with glazier’s points and spreads and smooths putty around edge of panes with knife to seal joints. Installs mirrors or structural glass on building fronts, walls, ceilings or tables, using mastic, screws or decorative moulding. Bolts metal hinges, handles, locks and other hardware to prefabricated glass doors. Sets glass doors into frame and fits hinges. May install metal window and door frames into which glass panels are to be fitted. May press plastic adhesive film to glass or spray glass with tinting solution to prevent light glare. May install stained glass windows. May assemble and install metal-framed glass enclosures for showers and be designated Shower-enclosure Installer (construction). May be designated according to type of glass installed as Glazier, Structural Glass (construction); Plate-glass Installer (construction) (DOT).

                    Related and specific occupations


                    Glazier, glass installer or glass setter designated according to industry (glazier (construction); glazier, metal furniture (furniture); refrigerator glazier (svc. ind. mach.); glass installer (automotive ser.); glass installer (woodworking)) or to a type of material used (mirror installer (construction); glazier, stained glass (glass products)). Also: edger, hand (glass mfg.; glass products); edger, touch-up (glass products); framer (glass products; wood prod., n.e.c.); frame repairer (glass products); glass cutter (any industry); glass decorator (glass mfg.; glass products); glass etcher (glass mfg.; glass products); glass finisher (glass products); glass sander, belt (glass products); glass tinter (glass products) (DOT).



                    Adjusting; aligning; applying; assembling; bolting; boring; breaking-off; calculating; checking; cleaning; coating; colouring; connecting; covering; cutting; decorating; determining; drilling; driving; edging; estimating; etching; fastening; filing; finishing; fitting; framing; glazing; gluing; hammering; handling; installing; inserting; joining; laying; lifting; loading and unloading; marking; measuring; moving; operating (equipment); pencil-edging; placing; polishing; positioning; preparing; pressing; preventing; puttying; reinforcing; repairing; replacing; removing; sanding; screwing; scribing; sealing; selecting; setting; shaping; sketching; smoothing; soldering; spraying; spreading; staining; tacking; tapping; tinting; touching up; transporting; weatherproofing; wiping.


                    Accident hazards


                    – Injuries, especially severe cuts to hands and feet and crushing of toes, caused by glass sheets and their sharp edges during cutting, moving, setting, and other handling operations;

                    – Cuts and stabs caused by working tools, such as chisels, glass-cutters, knives, etc.;

                    – Falls from heights while setting glass in windows, on walls and ceilings, etc., resulting in heavy traumas and sometimes death;

                    – Risk of being crushed under the weight of collapsed heavy glass sheet or pile of glass sheets;

                    – Slips, trips and falls on level surfaces, especially on wet, slippery and greasy floors, while moving glass sheets;

                    – Eye and skin injuries from glass splinters;

                    – Acute poisoning and/or chemical burns as a result of using strong reactives (e.g., hydrofluoric acid) for etching glass and similar purposes;

                    – Fire risk due to use of inflammables;

                    – Electric shocks caused by contact with defective electromechanical equipment.

                    Physical hazards


                    – Exposure of skin and eyes to ultraviolet radiation while working under direct solar rays;

                    – Cold or heat stress (resulting in effects ranging from temperature discomfort to frostbite or heatstroke, respectively) while working outdoors;

                    – Health effects (e.g., rheumatic, problems of airways, etc.) due to drafts, prolonged standing on concrete floors, etc.

                    Chemical hazards


                    – Chronic poisoning and/or skin diseases as a result of exposure to splinters of glass, containing lead, arsenic and other toxic elements;

                    – Chronic poisoning and/or dermatologic conditions (e.g., dermatitis) caused by putties, sealants, adhesives, solvents (e.g., when removing glass from its frame), cleansers, etc.;

                    – Chronic toxicological effects of exposure to fumes of strong reactives (e.g., hydrofluoric acid).

                    Biological hazards


                    Biological hazards may be encountered by glaziers working in an environment where they are potentially exposed to micro-organisms, allergenic plants, hair, fur, etc.

                    Ergonomic and social factors


                    – Acute musculoskeletal injuries caused by physical overexertion and awkward posture while carrying and otherwise handling bulky glass sheets;

                    – Cumulative trauma disorders, including carpal tunnel syndrome, caused by long-time repetitive work involving primarily hand, arm, and finger movements;

                    – Tiredness and general ill feeling;

                    – Psychological stress resulting from the fear of falling from heights, or fear of failure while cutting, handling and setting expensive glass sheets, etc.



                    Wednesday, 06 April 2011 17:53


                    Synonyms: Adhesive worker; bonder; cementer; floor-layer and wall-coverer (construction ind.); gluing worker; adhesives applicator; adhesive joiner; veneer worker (furniture)

                    Job profile

                    Definition and/or description


                    Glues materials such as paper, cloth, leather, wood, metal, glass, rubber or plastic together, following specified procedures. Applies adhesive to surface or material by brushing, spraying, dipping, rolling, holding material against rotating saturated brush or feeding part between saturated rollers. Presses glued materials together manually, presses material with hand roller or clamps materials in fixture to bond material together and set glue. May perform limited assembly of preglued material. May trim excess material from cemented parts. May wipe surplus adhesive from seams, using cloth or sponge. May visually inspect completed work. May be designated according to article glued as Arrow-point Attacher (toy-sport equip.); Gasket Attacher (machinery mfg.); Nock Applier (toy-sport equip.); Pad Attacher (any industry); Sample Mounter (any industry); or according to gluing method used as Adhesive Sprayer (any industry). May also be designated: Box Coverer, Hand (paper goods); Glue Spreader (furniture); Paper-cone Maker (electron. comp.); Rubber Attacher (toy-sport equip.).

                    Related and specific occupations


                    Adhesive applicator; –/joiner; –/sprayer; bonding-machine operator; floor coverer; glue-bone worker; glue-jointer worker; glue-machine operator; glue-mill operator; glue mixer; –/spreader; gluing-machine operator; etc.



                    Affixing; applying (adhesives); aspirating (solvents); assembling; attaching (pads); binding (books); bonding; brushing; carpeting; carrying; cementing; clamping; cleaning and conditioning; climbing (ladders, scaffolding, etc.); coating; covering; cutting (carpets, wallpaper edges, etc.); dipping; dispensing (glue); driving; disposing (of waste); drying; documenting; feeding (machines); fitting; forming; gluing; handling; heating (glue); holding (tools); injecting (glue); inspecting; installing; insulating; joining (surfaces); kneeling (while carpeting, etc.); laminating; laying (floors); lifting and lowering; loading and unloading; maintaining; manufacturing; mixing (two-part glues, etc.); moulding; mounting; opening (containers, etc.); operating (equipment); ordering (materials); packing and unpacking; pasting; performing; positioning; pouring; preparing; pressing; regulating (spray flow, etc.); repairing; sealing; securing; selecting; setting; smoothing (surfaces); spraying; spreading; squeezing; storing; supervising; taping; testing (glue joints); transporting; trimming; unclogging (nozzles); upholstering; using (tools); washing (equipment, hands, etc.); wearing (personal protective equipment); weighing; wiping.

                    Primary equipment used


                    Hand brushes; rollers (hand-held or mechanized); spraying equipment (air pressure or airless; hand-held or automated); hot-melt jet pistols; drop dispensers; squeeze dispensers.

                    Industries in which this occupation is common


                    Adhesive tapes; air conditioning (manufacturing and installation); aircraft manufacturing and maintenance; appliances assembly; bookbinding; car manufacturing and maintenance; construction (floorlaying and wall covering); corrugated cardboard; disposable diapers; electronics; foam mattresses; footwear; furniture; jewellery; labelling and packaging in miscellaneous industries and services; lamination (paper and cardboard); leathergoods; plumbing (PVC and other plastic pipes); refrigeration; rubber goods; toys manufacturing; upholstering.


                    Accident hazards


                    – Injuries during work with mechanized equipment used for the mixing or application of glues (e.g., hair, beard, clothing or fingers entanglement in mechanical mixers or in presses);

                    – Falls from ladders (particularly in the case of wall coverers);

                    – Dropping of heavy glue containers on the toes or feet;

                    – Cuts during opening of glue containers of certain types;

                    – Bursting of clogged pressure-spraying nozzles, with particular hazard of eye damage, particularly in airless spraying;

                    – Bursting of pressurized containers;

                    – Burns and eye damage in the case of work with (particularly spraying of) hot-melt adhesives; burns from heated surfaces (e.g., of dryers or activation heaters).

                    – Splashing of irritants, allergens and otherwise hazardous fluids (solvents, thinners, liquid glues, strongly alkaline emulsions, etc.) into eyes or on skin, with possible ingestion, during mixing, transport or application of glues;

                    – Poisoning by phosgene (see note 1);

                    – Bonding of fingers (see note 2).

                    – Electric shock or electrocution risk, because of the use of hand-held electric tools (e.g., hot-melt pistols, electric fans, some spraying tools), particularly in work with water-based glues;

                    – High risk of fires and explosions because of the presence of flammable solvents and other flammable materials (e.g., paper and cardboard in bookbinding, wood and wood dust in furniture making, some flammable foams in insulation gluing, etc.) and the accumulation of solvent vapours, particularly in small and inadequately aerated premises (see Appendix);

                    – Explosions of hydrogen-air mixtures formed if highly alkaline glues are accidentally or mistakenly allowed to come into contact with aluminium surfaces.

                    Physical hazards


                    – Exposure to microwave radiation, IR or UV light, if used in the drying of glues;

                    – High noise levels, particularly in spraying operations.

                    Chemical hazards


                    – Erythema, skin sensitization, contact and systemic dermatoses as a result of exposure to many solvents and their vapours and to other glue components, particularly to epoxy resins, n-hexane, toluene, vinyl chloride, etc.;

                    – Contact skin depigmentation (vitiligo) in workers exposed to neoprene glues;

                    – Blistering of skin in contact with glues containing epichlorohydrin (e.g., epoxy glues);

                    – Eye irritation by glues or vapours containing epichlorohydrin, chlorinated solvents, toluene or xylene;

                    – Asphyxia in the case of exposure to high concentrations of n-hexane;

                    – Irritation of mouth, throat and nasal cavity by toluene, trichloroethylene or xylene;

                    – Respiratory tract irritation by solvent vapours, particularly n-hexane;

                    – Carbon monoxide poisoning from overheated hot-melt adhesives;

                    – Pneumoconioses from exposure to dust or fibres of some inorganic insulating materials being glued;

                    – Pulmonary oedema as a result of inhalation of vapours of mixed aliphatic solvents and gasoline;

                    – Pulmonary oedema, chemical pneumonitis and haemorrhages as a result of aspiration of liquid benzene or xylene;

                    – Gastrointestinal disturbances as a result of the ingestion of minute amounts of various glues, in particular during brushing of vinyl glues;

                    – Polyneuropathy, in particular by n-hexane;

                    – Depression of the central nervous system with possible headaches, dizziness, incoordination, stupor and coma as a result of inhalation of acrylonitrile, cyclohexane, toluene, xylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane and trichloroethylene;

                    – Risk of spontaneous abortion or damage to the foetus in pregnant women exposed to organohalogen solvents;

                    – Blood changes and anaemia from exposure to benzene;

                    – Elevated blood pressure from exposure to dimethylformamide;

                    – Damage to the liver by dimethylformamide, tetrahydrofuran or vinyl chloride;

                    – Carcinogenicity. The following glue constituents or solvents have been classified as animal carcinogens (Category A3) by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH): acrylamide; chloroform; dinitrotoluene; epichlorohydrin; hexachloroethane; methylene chloride; 2-nitropropane. Acrylonitrile and ethyl acrylate have been classified as suspected human carcinogens (Category A2). Benzene has been classified as a confirmed human carcinogen (Category A1).

                    Biological hazards


                    – Exposure to pathogenic micro-organisms which may grow in certain types of glues (e.g., bone or casein glue).

                    Ergonomic and social factors


                    – Wrist, hand and arm problems (e.g., tenosynovitis as a result of repetitive motion when glues are applied by brushing or by squeeze-dispensing);

                    – Tiredness (in particular leg tiredness) in gluers continuously working in a standing position, as in a spraying station;

                    – Leg cramps and damage to knees in the case of floorlayers (carpet, parquet and strip layers); use of knees to move carpets during carpetlaying may cause bursitis (known in this case as “carpetlayer’s knee”);

                    – Strains and sprains caused by the lifting of heavy glue containers;

                    – Exposure to obnoxious smells, particularly from glues containing certain bactericides.




                    1. Severe and even fatal poisonings by phosgene have been reported for gluers who smoked while working with glues containing organohalogen solvents. When inhaled through a burning cigarette, such solvents are decomposed and partially converted into phosgene.
                    2. A hazard peculiar to gluers is the possible bonding of finger-to-finger, particularly when working with cyanoacrylate and some epoxy glues.
                    3. Severe injury may be caused, in particular during airless spray gluing, by high-pressure cutaneous injection of glue into the hands or arms.
                    4. “Glue sniffing”, and the related intoxication and neurotoxic effects, are a significant hazard because of the easy access to glues.
                    5. The use of benzene as a glue solvent has been banned in many countries.
                    6. Eye injuries have been caused by bursting of glue (in particular cyanoacrylate) during hard squeezing of tubes whose opening was clogged by a small amount of hardened glue.
                    7. Increased incidences of sinonasal cancer, rectal cancer and multiple sclerosis have been reported for gluers.



                    Chemical substances commonly used as glue constituents or solvents:

                    – Acetone

                    – Acrylamide polymers

                    – Acrylonitrile

                    – Adipic acid

                    – Aliphatic amines

                    – Benzene

                    n-Butyl acetate

                    n-Butyl acrylate

                    – Butylated hydroxytoluene


                    – Chloroacetamide

                    – Chlorobenzene

                    – Collagen

                    – Colophony (rosin)

                    – Cyclohexane

                    – Cyclohexanone

                    – Diaminodiphenylmethane

                    – Dibutyl maleinate


                    – 1,1-Dichloroethane

                    – Dichloromethane (methylene chloride)

                    – Dichloropropane

                    – 2,2-Dimethylbutane

                    – Epoxy resins

                    – Ethanol

                    – Ethyl acetate

                    – Ethyl butyl ketone

                    – Ethylcyanoacrylate

                    – Ethylvinyl acrylate

                    – Formaldehyde



                    – 2-Hydroxypropyl methacrylate

                    – Isobutyl alcohol

                    – Isophoronediamine

                    – Isopropyl acetate

                    – Isopropyl alcohol

                    – Kerosene

                    – Maleic anhydride

                    – Methanol

                    – Methyl butyl ketone

                    – Methylene chloride

                    – Methyl chloroform (1,1,1-trichloroethane)

                    – Methyl cyanoacrylate

                    – Methyl ethyl ketone

                    – Methyl isobutyl ketone

                    – Methyl methacrylate

                    – Methyl pentanes

                    – Naphtha solvent

                    – Naphtha VM&P

                    – Natural latex

                    – Neoprene

                    – Nitrobenzene

                    – 2-Nitropropane

                    – Pentachlorophenol

                    – Pentane

                    – Perchloroethylene

                    – Phenol-formaldehyde resins

                    – Polyamide resins

                    – Polyester resins

                    – Polyimide resins

                    – Polyoxyalkene glycols

                    – Polyurethane resins

                    – Polyvinyl acetate

                    – Polyvinyl alcohol

                    – Polyvinyl chloride

                    – Stoddard’s solvent

                    – Styrene acrylate

                    – Tetrachloroethylene (perchloethylene)

                    – Tetrahydrofuran

                    – Toluene

                    – Toluene diisocyanate

                    – 1,1,1-Trichloroethane

                    – Trichloroethylene

                    – Vinyl acetate

                    – Xylene



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                    Guide to Occupations References

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                    Commission of the European Communities (CEC). 1991-93. International Chemical Safety Cards. 10 vols. Luxembourg: CEC.

                    —. 1993. Compiler’s Guide for the Preparation of International Chemical Safety Cards (First Revision). Luxembourg: CEC International Programme on Chemical Safety (UNEP/ILO/WHO).

                    Donagi, AE et al. 1983. Potential Hazards in Various Occupations, a Preliminary List [card file]. Tel-Aviv: Tel-Aviv University School of Medicine, Research Institute of Environmental Health.

                    Donagi, AE (ed.). 1993. A Guide to Health and Safety Hazards in Various Occupations: The Health System. 2 vols. Tel-Aviv: Israel Institute for Occupational Safety and Hygiene.

                    Haddon, W, EA Suchman, and D Klein. 1964. Accident Research: Methods and Approaches. New York: Harpers and Row.

                    International Labour Organization (ILO). 1978. International Standard Classification of Occupations, revised edition. Geneva: ILO.

                    —. 1990. International Standard Classification of Occupations: ISCO-88. Geneva: ILO.

                    International Occupational Safety and Health Information Centre (CIS). 1995. International Safety Datasheets on Occupations. Steering Committee meeting, 9-10 March. Geneva: International Labour Organization.

                    National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). 1977. Occupational Diseases: A Guide to Their Recognition. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 77-181. Cincinnati, OH: NIOSH.

                    Stellman, JM and SM Daum. 1973. Work Is Dangerous to Your Health. New York: Vintage Books.

                    United Nations. 1971. Indexes to the International Standard Classification of All Economic Activities. UN Publication No. WW.71.XVII, 8. New York: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs.

                    US Department of Labor (DOL). 1991. Dictionary of Occupational Titles, 4th (revised) edition. Washington, DC: DOL.

                    —. 1991. The Revised Handbook for Analyzing Jobs. Washington, DC: DOL.