Chemical Name          

CAS-Number

ICSC Short Term Exposure

ICSC Long Term Exposure

ICSC Routes of Exposure and Symptoms

US NIOSH Target Organs & Routes of Entry

US NIOSH Symptoms

BENZAL CHLORIDE         98-87-3

eyes; skin; resp tract;CNS

Inhalation: cough, laboured breathing, nausea, sore throat

Skin: redness, irritant pain, irritant

Eyes: redness, irritant pain

Ingestion: burning sensation, vomiting

BENZATHONIUM CHLORIDE     121-54-0

eyes; skin; resp tract

skin

Inhalation: cough, sore throat

Skin: redness

Eyes: redness, corneal damage

Ingestion: diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting, collapse, convulsions, coma

BENZENE CHLORIDE      108-90-7

lungs

skin; CNS; blood; liver; kidneys; malformations in human babies

Inhalation: drowsiness, headache, nausea, unconsciousness

Skin: may be absorbed, dry skin, redness, roughness

Eyes: redness

Ingestion: abdominal pain

resp sys; eyes; skin; CNS; liver Inh; ing; con

Irrit eyes, skin, nose; drow, inco; CNS depres; in animals: liver, lung, kidney inj

BENZYL CHLORIDE         100-44-7

eyes; skin; resp tract; CNS

liver; kidneys; human reproduction

Inhalation: Burning sensation, cough, nausea, headache, shortness of breath, dizziness.

Skin: Redness, pain may be absorbed

Eyes: Redness, pain, blurred vision, corneal injury or permanent eye damage, severe deep burns.

Ingestion: Abdominal pain, diarrhoea, vomiting, burning sensation behind the breastbone.

Eyes; resp sys; skin; CNS Inh; ing; con

Irrit eyes, skin, nose; weak; irrity; head; skin eruption, pulm edema

CHLORINATED CAMPHENE     8001-35-2

CNS

Skin: may be absorbed, redness

Eyes: redness

Ingestion: convulsions, dizziness, nausea, vomiting

Skin; CNS (in animals: liver cancer) Inh; abs; ing; con

Nau, conf, agitation, tremor, convuls, uncon; dry, red skin; (carc)

COUMARIN        91-64-5

blood

DDT      50-29-3

CNS; kidneys; liver; skin; eyes; PNS (in animals: liver, lung & lymphatic tumors) Inh; abs; ing; con

Irrit eyes, skin; pares tongue, lips, face; tremor; appre, dizz, conf, mal, head, ftg; convuls; paresis hands; vomit; (carc)

p-DICHLOROBENZENE    106-46-7

eyes; skin; resp tract; liver; kidneys

liver; kidneys; lungs; skin

Inhalation: burning sensation, cough, drowsiness, headache, nausea, shortness of breath, vomiting

Skin: redness

Eyes: pain

Ingestion: burning sensation, convulsions, diarrhoea

Liver; resp sys; eyes; kidneys; skin (in animals: liver & kidney cancer) Inh; abs; ing; con

Irrit eyes, swell periorb; profuse rhinitis; head, anor, nau, vomit; low-wgt, jaun, cirr; in animals: liver, kidney inj; (carc)

HEXACHLOROBENZENE  118-74-1

liver; skin; CNS

Skin: may be absorbed

PENTACHLOROBENZENE     608-93-5

CNS

kidneys; liver; reproduction system

Inhalation: see ingestion

Ingestion: vomiting, weakness, tremor

PENTACHLORONAPHTHALENE     1321-64-8

eyes; skin; resp tract

skin; liver

Inhalation: sore throat

Skin: redness

Eyes: redness, pain

Liver; skin; CNS Inh; abs; ing; con

Head, ftg, verti, anor; pruritus, acne-form skin eruptions; jaun, liver nec

POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL (AROCLOR 1254)     11097-69-1

eyes

skin; liver

Skin: may be absorbed, dry skin, redness, chloracne

Eyes: redness, pain

Ingestion: headache, numbness, fever

Skin; eyes; liver; repro sys (in animals: tumors of the pituitary gland & liver, leukemia) Inh; abs; ing; con

Irrit eyes; chloracne; liver damage; repro effects; (carc)

TEREPHTHALOYL CHLORIDE     100-20-9

eyes; skin; resp tract

Inhalation: cough, nausea

Skin: redness

Eyes: redness, pain

Ingestion: burning sensation, cough, vomiting

1,2,4,5-TETRACHLOROBENZENE 95-94-3

skin; resp tract

Inhalation: burning sensation,cough shortness of breath

Ingestion: dizziness, nausea, unconsciousness, vomiting, weakness

1,2,4-TRICHLOROBENZENE     120-82-1

eyes; skin; resp tract

skin

Inhalation: cough, sore throat

Skin: Redness, roughness

Eyes: redness, pain

Ingestion: vomiting

Eyes; skin; repro sys; liver; resp sys Inh; abs; ing; con

Irrit eyes, skin, muc memb; in animals: liver, kidney damage; possible terato effects

1,3,5-TRICHLOROBENZENE     108-70-3

skin; resp tract; lungs

skin; liver;kidneys

Inhalation: cough, dullness, shortness of breath, sore throat

Skin: may be absorbed, redness, pain, defats the skin

Eyes: redness, pain

Ingestion: abdominal pain, nausea, sore throat

TRICHLOROMETHYLBENZENE     98-07-7

eyes; skin; resp tract; lungs

Inhalation: cough, dullness, shortness of breath, sore throat, unconsciousness, symptoms of delayed effects

Skin: redness, pain

Eyes: redness, pain, blurred vision, loss of vision

TRICHLORONAPHTHALENE     1321-65-9

eyes; skin

skin; liver

Skin: may be absorbed, redness

Eyes: redness, pain

Ingestion: nausea, vomiting

Skin; liver Inh; abs; ing; con

Anor, nau; verti; jaun, liver inj

 

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Chemical Formula

Chemical

Synonyms
UN Code

CAS-Number

98873

BENZAL CHLORIDE

Benzyl dichloride;
Benzylene chloride;
Benzylidene chloride;
Chlorobenzal
UN1886

98-87-3

121540

BENZATHONIUM CHLORIDE

Benzethonium;
BZT;
DIAPP;
Diisobutylphenoxyethoxyethyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride

121-54-0

108907

BENZENE CHLORIDE

Chlorbenzene;
Chlorbenzol;
Chlorobenzene;
Monochlorbenzene;
Monochlorobenzene;
Phenyl chloride
UN1134

108-90-7

98884

BENZOYL CHLORIDE

Benzenecarbonyl chloride;
Benzoic acid chloride;
Benzoyl chloride
UN1736

98-88-4

100390

BENZYL BROMIDE

a-Bromotoluene (bromomethyl)benzene;
Bromophenylmethane;
p-(Bromomethyl)nitrobenzene
UN1737

100-39-0

100447

BENZYL CHLORIDE

Chloromethylbenzene;
Chlorophenylmethane;
a-Chlorotoluene;
Tolyl chloride
UN1738

100-44-7

501531

BENZYL CHLOROFORMATE

Benzylcarbonyl chloride;
Benzyl chlorocarbonate;
Benzyl chloroformate;
BZCF;
Carbobenzoxy chloride
UN1739

501-53-1

108861

BROMOBENZENE

Bromobenzene;
monobromobenzene;
Phenyl bromide
UN2514

108-86-1

8001352

CHLORINATED CAMPHENE

Toxaphene ;
Chlorocamphene;
Octachlorocamphene;
PCC

8001-35-2

510156

CHLOROBENZILATE

4,4'-Dichlorobenzilate;
4,4'-Dichlorobenzilic acid ethyl ester;
Ethyl p,p'-dichlorobenzilate;
Ethyl 4,4'-dichlorobenzilate

510-15-6

1667114

4-CHLOROMETHYL BIPHENYL

4-(Chloromethyl)-1'-biphenyl;
4-CMB;
p-Phenylbenzyl chloride;
4-Phenylbenzyl chloride

1667-11-4

90131

1-CHLORONAPHTHALENE

a-Chloronaphthalene

90-13-1

95498

o-CHLOROTOLUENE

1-Chloro-2-methylbenzene;
2-Chloro-1-methylbenzene;
o-Chlorotoluene;
2-Chlorotoluene;
1-Methyl-2-chlorobenzene;
2-Methylchlorobenzene
UN2238

95-49-8

91645

COUMARIN

91-64-5

50293

DDT

Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane ;
2,2-Bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-Tri­chloroethane;
Chlorophenothane;
Diphenyltrichloroethane;
Parachlorocidum;
Trichlorobis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane

50-29-3

95501

o-DICHLOROBENZENE

1,2-Xichlorobenzene;
Orthodichlorobenzene;
Orthodichlorobenzol
UN1591

95-50-1

541731

m-DICHLOROBENZENE

1,3-Dichlorobenzene;
m-Dichlorobenzol;
m-Phenylenedichloride

541-73-1

106467

p-DICHLOROBENZENE

p-Chlorophenyl chloride;
Dichloricide;
p-Dichlorobenzene;
1,4-Dichlorobenzene;
p-Dichlorobenzol;
Paradichlorobenzene;
Paradichlorobenzol;
1592

106-46-7

118741

HEXACHLOROBENZENE

Granox NM;
HCB;
Hexa C.B.;
Julin's carbon chloride;
Pentachlorophenyl chloride;
Perchlorobenzene;
Phenyl perchloryl
UN2729

118-74-1

1335871

HEXACHLORONAPHTHALENE

Halowax 1014

1335-87-1

70304

HEXACHLOROPHENE

Bis(2-hydroxy-3,5,6-trichlorophenyl)me­thane;
Bis(3,5,6-trichloro-2-hydroxyphenyl)me­thane;
2,2'-Methylenebis(3,4,6-trichlorophenol)
UN2875

70-30-4

27858077

OCTABROMOBIPHENYL

Octabromodiphenyl

27858-07-7

2234131

OCTACHLORONAPHTHALENE

2234-13-1

1321648

PENTACHLORONAPHTHALENE

1321-64-8

608935

PENTACHLOROBENZENE

PCB;
QCB

608-93-5

59536651

POLYBROMINATED BIPHENYLS

Biphenyl, hexabromo- (technical grade);
Hexabromobiphenyl (technical grade);
PBBs

59536-65-1

53469219

POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL (AROCLOR 1242)

Chlorodiphenyl (42% chlorine)

53469-21-9

11097691

POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL (AROCLOR 1254)

Chlorodiphenyl (54% chlorine) ;
Chlorodiphenyl (54% chlorine);
PCB

11097-69-1

100209

TEREPHTHALOYL CHLORIDE

1,4-Benzenedicarbonyl chloride;
1,4-Benzenedicarbonyl dichloride;
p-Phenylenedicarbonyl dichloride;
Terephthalic acid chloride;
Terephthalic acid dichloride

100-20-9

95943

1,2,4,5TETRACHLOROBENZENE

Benzene tetrachloride;
sym-Tetrachlorobenzene

95-94-3

1335882

TETRACHLORONAPHTHALENE

Halowax;
Tetrachloronaphthalene

1335-88-2

1746016

2,3,7,8TETRACHLORODIBENZO-p-DI­OXIN

Dioxine;
TCDBD;
TCDD;
2,3,7,8-TCDD;
2,3,7,8-Ttetrachlorodibenzo-1,4-dioxin;
Tetradioxin

1746-01-6

87616

1,2,3-TRICHLOROBENZENE

vic-Trichlorobenzene;
1,2,6-Trichlorobenzene

87-61-6

120821

1,2,4-TRICHLOROBENZENE

1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene;
1,2,5-Trichlorobenzene;
1,3,4-Trichlorobenzene;
1,2,4-Trichlorobenzol

120-82-1

108703

1,3,5-TRICHLOROBENZENE

sym-Trichlorobenzene

108-70-3

98077

TRICHLOROMETHYLBENZENE

Benzenyl chloride;
Benzenyl trichloride;
Benzoic trichloride;
Benzotrichloride;
Benzylidyne chloride;
Benzyl trichloride
UN2226

98-07-7

1321659

TRICHLORONAPHTHALENE

Halowax;
Nibren wax;
Seekay wax;
Trichloronaphthalene

1321-65-9

 

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Chemical Name
CAS-Number

Colour/Form

Boiling Point (°C)

Melting Point (°C)

Molecular Weight

Solubility in Water

Relative Density (water=1)

Relative Vapour Density (air=1)

Vapour Pressure/ (Kpa)

Inflam.
Limits

Flash Point (°C)

Auto Ignition Point (°C)

BENZENE
71-43-2

clear, colourless liquid; rhombic prisms

80

5.5

78.11

sl sol

0.8765

2.7

10

1.3 ll
7.1 ul

-11cc

500

BIPHENYL
92-52-4

white scales; leaflets from dil alcohol; colourless leaflets

256

69

154.20

insol

1.041

5.31

@ 71 °C

@ 232 mm Hg 5.8

113 cc

540

p-tert-BUTYLTOLUENE
98-51-1

clear, colourless liquid

193

-52

148.2

insol

0.8612

4.62

@ 25 °C

o-CHLOROSTYRENE
2039-87-4

liquid

188.7

-63.1

138.60

1.1000

@ 25 °C

CUMENE
98-82-8

colourless liquid

152.4

-96.0

120.19

insol

0.862

4.2

@ 38.3 °C

0.9 ll
6.5 ul

p-CYMENE
99-87-6

colourless liquid

177.1

-67.94

134.2

insol

0.8573

4.62

0.2

0.7 ll
5.6 ul

47 cc

436

DECAHYDRONAPH­THALENE
91-17-8

clear colourless liquid

155.5

-43

138.24

0.9 ppm

0.8965

4.8

@ 25 °C

@ 100 °C ul

58 cc

250; 255 trans-isomer

DIETHYLBENZENE
25340-17-4

liquid

181-184

<-20

insol

0.9

4.6

0.13

0.8 ll
5 ul

56

395-450

DIVINYLBENZENE
1321-74-0

colourless liquid

195

-66.9- -52

130.19

insol

0.9

4.48

@ 32.7 °C

1.1 ll
6.2 ul

169 oc

500

DODECYLBENZENE
123-01-3

colourless liquid

328

3

246.4

insol

0.9

8.47

< 10 Pa

1406

ETHYLBENZENE
100-41-4

colourless liquid

136

-95

106.16

insol

0.8670

3.66

0.9

1.6 ll
7 ul

128 cc

432

1-ETHYLNAPHTHALENE
1127-76-0

258.6

-13.9

156.22

insol

1.0082

2-ETHYLNAPHTHALENE
939-27-5

258

-7.4

156.22

insol

0.9922

INDENE
95-13-6

liquid; yellow needles

182

-1.8

116.15

insol

0.9968

D-LIMONENE
5989-27-5

liquid

178

-74.35

136.23

insol

0.8411

4.7

@ 14.4 °C

@ 302 °C ul

48

237

L-LIMONENE
5989-54-8

177.5

136.23

0.8422

LIMONENE
138-86-3

colourless mobile liquid

175.5-176.5

-95.5

136.23

@ 25 °C

0.8402

4.7

@ 68.2 °C

0.7 ll
6.1 ul

45 cc

237

METHYLSTYRENE
25013-15-4

colourless liquid

170-171

-76.67

118.18

insol

@ 25 °C /25 °C

4.08

0.15

0.8 ll
11 ul

544

494

a-METHYLSTYRENE
98-83-9

colourless liquid

164

-23.2

118.2

insol

0.91

4.08

29 Pa

0.9 ll
6.6 ul

8389 cc

574

o-METHYLSTYRENE
611-15-4

liquid

170

-69

118.17

insol

0.91

4.1

51

m-METHYLSTYRENE
100-80-1

liquid

172

-86.3

118.17

insol

0.91

4.1

p-METHYLSTYRENE
622-97-9

colourless liquid

173

-34

118.2

insol

0.8764

4.1

<0.1

1.1 ll
5.3 ul

45

515

NAPHTHALENE

white, crystalline flakes or solid; white scales, balls, powder or cakes; monoclinic plates from alcohol

217.9

80.2

128.16

insol

1.0253

4.42

0.01

0.9 ll
5.9. ul

526

METHYLNAPHTHALENE
1321-94-4

colouless liquid

241-244

-22

142.21

insol

1.0

82-97

PROPENYLBENZENE
873-66-5

liquid

175

-29.3

118.2

insol

0.911

4.1

0.9 ll
? ul

53

n-PROPYLBENZENE
103-65-1

colorless liquid

159.2 ° C at 760 mm Hg

-99.2

120.19

0.06 g/l

@ 20 ° C/4 ° C

4.14

1 mm Hg at 6.3 ° C

0.8-6%

STYRENE
100-42-5

colourless to yellowish, oily liquid; viscous liquid; solventy, rubbery

145

-31

104.14

insol

0.906

3.6

0.7

0.9 ll
6.8 ul

344-367

490

1,2,3,4-TETRAHY­DRONAPHTHALENE
119-64-2

colourless liquid

207.6

-35.7

132.20

insol

0.9702

4.6

@ 25 °C

@ 150 °C ul

77 oc
82 cc

TOLUENE
108-88-3

colourless liquid

111

-95

92.13

insol

0.866

3.2

2.9

1.2 ll
7.1 ul

4 cc

480

1,3,5-TRIMETHYL­BENZENE
108-67-8

liquid; clear, colourless

164.7

-44.7

120.19

insol

0.8637

1.006

1.86 mm Hg

o-XYLENE
95-47-6

colourless liquid

144

-25

106.16

insol

0.880

3.7

0.7

1.0 ll
7.0 ul

32 cc

463

m-XYLENE
108-38-3

clear, colourless liquid; mobile

139.3

-47.8

106.17

insol

@ 15 °C/4 °C

3.7

@ -47.9 °C

1.1 ll
7.0 ul

27 cc

527

p-XYLENE
106-42-3

colourless plates or prisms at low temp; colourless liquid

138.3

13

106.2

insol

0.861

3.7

0.9

1.1 ll
7.0 ul

27 cc

528

 

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Chemical Name
CAS-Number

Physical

Chemical

UN Class or Division /  Subsidiary Risks

BENZENE
71-43-2

The vapour is heavier than air and may travel along the ground; distant ignition possible

Reacts violently with oxidants and halogens causing fire and explosion hazard

3

BIPHENYL
92-52-4

Dust explosion possible if in powder or granular form, mixed with air

The substance decomposes on heating producing toxic gases and acrid smokes, and fumes • Reacts with oxidants causing fire and explosion hazard

p-tert-BUTYLTOLUENE
98-51-1

6.1

CUMENE
98-82-8

3

p-CYMENE
99-87-6

The vapour is heavier than air

Reacts with oxidants • Attacks rubber

3

DECAHYDRONAPHTHALENE
91-17-8

3

DIETHYLBENZENE
25340-17-4

As a result of flow, agitation, etc, electrostatic charges can be generated

Reacts with strong oxidants causing fire and explosion hazard

3

DIVINYL BENZENE
1321-74-0

The substance can polymerize due to heating with fire or explosion hazard • Reacts violently with oxidants

DODECYL BENZENE
123-01-3

The vapour is heavier than air

ETHYL BENZENE
100-41-4

3

D-LIMONENE
5989-27-5

On combustion, forms toxic gases Cox • Tends to oxidize on prolonged exposure

L-LIMONENE
5989-54-8

3

p-METHYLSTYRENE
622-97-9

The vapour is heavier than air

The substance if not stabilized will polymerize • The substance decomposes on heating producing toxic gases and fumes (carbon monoxide) • The substance is a strong oxidant and reacts with combustible and reducing materials • The substance is a strong reducing agent and reacts with oxidants • Reacts with strong oxidants and strong acids

3

METHYLNAPHTHALENE
1321-94-4

The substance decomposes on heating producing irritating fumes

METHYLSTYRENE
25013-15-4

The substance if not stabilized will polymerize with generation of heat • Catalysts such as peroxides, strong acids, or aluminum chloride should be avoided • The substance decomposes on heating producing toxic gases and fumes (carbon monoxide) • The substance is a strong reducing agent and reacts violently with oxidants

3

a-METHYLSTYRENE
98-83-9

The vapour is heavier than air and may travel along the ground; distant ignition possible

The substance decomposes on heating producing carbon monoxide • Reacts with strong oxidants

3

o-METHYLSTYRENE
611-15-4

The substance if not stabilized will polymerize • The substance decomposes on heating producing toxic gases and fumes (carbon monoxide) • Reacts with strong oxidants and strong acids

3

m-METHYLSTYRENE
100-80-1

The substance if not stabilized will polymerize • The substance decomposes on heating producing toxic gases and fumes (carbon monoxide) • Reacts with strong oxidants and strong acids

3

PROPENYLBENZENE,
873-66-5

The vapour is heavier than air

The substance decomposes on heating producing toxic gases and fumes (carbon monoxide) • Reacts with strong oxidants

STYRENE
100-42-5

As a result of flow, agitation, etc, electrostatic charges can be generated

The substance can form explosive peroxides • The substance may polymerize due to warming, under the influence of light and on contact with many compounds such as oxygen, oxidizing agents, peroxides and strong acids with fire or explosion hazard • The substance decomposes on burning producing toxic fumes, styrene oxide • Attacks copper and copper alloys

3

TOLUENE
108-88-3

The vapour is heavier than air and may travel along the ground; distant ignition possible • As a result of flow, agitation, etc, electrostatic charges can be generated

Reacts violently with strong oxidants causing fire and explosion hazard

3

1,3,5-TRIMETHYLBENZENE
108-67-8

3

o-XYLENE
95-47-6

As a result of flow, agitation, etc, electrostatic charges can be generated

Reacts violently with strong oxidants causing fire and explosion hazard

3

m-XYLENE
108-38-3

As a result of flow, agitation, etc, electrostatic charges can be generated

Reacts violently with strong oxidants such as nitric acid

3

p-XYLENE
106-42-3

As a result of flow, agitation, etc, electrostatic charges can be generated

Reacts violently with strong oxidants such as nitric acid

3

For UN Class: 1.5 = very insensitive substances which have a mass explosion hazard; 2.1 = flammable gas; 2.3 = toxic gas; 3 = flammable liquid; 4.1 = flammable solid; 4.2 = substance liable to spontaneous combustion; 4.3 = substance which in contact with water emits flammable gases; 5.1 = oxidizing substance; 6.1 = toxic; 7 = radioactive; 8 = corrosive substance

 

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Tuesday, 09 August 2011 00:49

Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: Health Hazards

Chemical Name    

CAS-Number

ICSC Short-Term Exposure

ICSC Long-Term Exposure

ICSC Routes of Exposure and Symptoms

US NIOSH Target Organs & Routes of Entry

US NIOSH Symptoms

BENZENE          71-43-2

skin; resp tract; lungs; CNS

skin; blood; liver; immune system

Inhalation: dizziness, drowsiness, headache, nausea, shortness of breath, convulsions, unconsciousness

Skin: may be absorbed, dry skin

Ingestion: abdominal pain, sore throat, vomiting

blood; CNS; skin; bone marrow; eyes; resp sysinh, abs, ing, con

Irrit eyes, skin, nose, resp sys; gidd; head, nau, staggered gait; ftg, anor, lass; derm; bone marrow depres; (carc)

BIPHENYL         92-52-4

eyes; skin; resp tract; liver

skin; CNS ; liver

Inhalation: cough, nausea, vomiting

Eyes: redness, pain

liver; skin; CNS; upper resp sys; eyesinh, abs, ing, con

Irrit eyes, throat; head, nau, ftg, numb limbs; liver damage

p-tert-BUTYLTOLUENE 98-51-1

CVS; CNS; skin; bone marrow; eyes; upper resp sys; liver; kidneysinh, ing, con

Irrit eyes, skin; dry nose, throat; head; low BP, tacar, abnor CVS stress; CNS, hemato depres; metallic taste; liver, kidney inj

CUMENE            98-82-8

eyes; upper resp sys; skin; CNSinh, abs, ing, con

Irrit eyes, skin, muc memb; derm; head, narco, coma

p-CYMENE         99-87-6

eyes; skin

Inhalation: dizziness, drowsiness, vomiting, inhalation

DIETHYLBENZENE     25340-17-4

eyes; skin; resp tract; lungs; CNS

skin; kidneys; liver

Inhalation: dizziness, dullness, headache, nausea

Skin: dry skin, redness

Eyes: redness, pain

Ingestion: abdominal cramps, dizziness, dullness, headache, nausea

DIVINYL BENZENE     1321-74-0

eyes; skin; resp tract; lungs

skin

Inhalation: cough, sore throat

Skin: redness

Eyes: redness

eyes; skin; resp sys; bloodinh, ing, con

Irrit eyes, skin, resp sys; skin burns; in animals: CNS depres

DODECYL BENZENE     123-01-3

skin; eyes

skin

Inhalation: cough, sore throat

Skin: may be absorbed, redness, irritant

Eyes: redness, irritantIngestion: nausea

ETHYL BENZENE     100-41-4

eyes; skin; resp tract; lungs; CNS

skin

eyes; upper resp sys; skin; CNSinh, ing, con

Irrit eyes, skin, muc memb; head; derm; narco; coma

D-LIMONENE     5989-27-5

eyes; skin; resp tract

skin

Inhalation: cough

Skin: redness

Eyes: redness

METHYL NAPHTHALENE      1321-94-4

eyes; resp tract

Inhalation: cough

Skin: redness

Eyes: redness

METHYLSTYRENE     25013-15-4

eyes; skin; resp tract; CNS

skin; liver

Inhalation: dizziness, drowsiness, dullness, headache, sore throat

Skin: may be absorbed, redness, pain

Eyes: redness, pain

Ingestion: abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting

eyes; skin; resp tract inh, ing, con

Eyes, skin, resp sys, CNS

a-METHYL STYRENE     98-83-9

eyes; skin; resp tract

Inhalation: cough, sore throat

eyes; resp tract; skininh, ing, con

Eyes, skin, resp sys, CNS

o-METHYLSTYRENE     611-15-4

eyes; skin; resp tract; kidneys; CNS

skin

Inhalation: dizziness, drowsiness, dullness, headache, sore throat

Skin: may be absorbed, redness, irritant

Eyes: redness

Ingestion: abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting

m-METHYLSTYRENE     100-80-1

eyes; skin; resp tract; CNS

skin

Inhalation: dizziness, drowsiness, dullness, headache, sore throat

Skin: may be absorbed, redness

Eyes: redness

Ingestion: abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting

p-METHYLSTYRENE      622-97-9

eyes; skin; resp tract; CNS

skin

Inhalation: dizziness, drowsiness, dullness, headache, sore throat

Skin: may be absorbed, redness, skin irritant

Eyes: redness

Ingestion: abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting.

NAPHTHALENE   91-20-3

eyes; blood; liver; kidneys; skin; CNSinh, abs, ing, con

Irrit eyes; head, conf, excitement, mal; nau, vomit, pain; irrit bladder; profuse sweat; jaun; hema, hemog, renal shutdown; derm; optical neuritis, corn damage

PROPENYLBENZENE     873-66-5

skin

STYRENE          100-42-5

eyes; skin; resp tract; lungs

skin; lungs; CNS

Inhalation: dizziness, drowsiness, headache, nausea, weakness

Skin: redness

Eyes: redness, pain

Ingestion: abdominal pain

CNS; resp sys; eyes; skininh, abs, ing, con

Irrit eyes, nose; resp sys; head, ftg, dizz, conf, mal, drow, weak, unsteady gait; narco; defatting derm; possible liver inj, repro effects

TOLUENE          108-88-3

eyes; resp tract; lungs; CNS; CVS

skin; CNS ; heart

Inhalation: dizziness, drowsiness, headache, nausea, unconsciousness

Skin: dry skin, redness

Eyes: redness, pain

Ingestion: abdominal pain, burning sensation

CNS; liver; kidneys; skin; eyes; resp sysinh, abs, ing, con

Irrit eyes, nose; ftg, weak, conf, euph, dizz, head; dilated pupils, lac; ner, musc ftg, insom; pares; derm; liver, kidney damage

o-XYLENE          95-47-6

throat; eyes; lungs; CNS

skin; lungs ; CNS

Inhalation: dizziness, drowsiness, headache, unconsciousness

Skin: dry skin, redness

Eyes: redness, pain

Ingestion: abdominal pain, burning sensation

Eyes; skin; resp sys; CNS; GI tract; blood; liver; kidneysinh, abs, ing, con

Irrit eyes, skin, nose, throat; dizz, excitement, drow, inco, staggering gait; corn vacuolization; anor, nau, vomit, abdom pain; derm

m-XYLENE         108-38-3

throat; eyes; lungs; CNS

skin; lungs; CNS

Inhalation: dizziness, drowsiness, headache, unconsciousness

Skin: dry skin, redness

Eyes: redness, pain

Ingestion: abdominal pain, burning sensation

Eyes; skin; resp sys; CNS; GI tract; blood; liver; kidneysinh, abs, ing, con

Irrit eyes, skin, nose, throat; dizz, excitement, drow, inco, staggering gait; corn vacuolization; anor, nau, vomit, abdom pain; derm

p-XYLENE          106-42-3

throat; eyes; lungs; CNS

skin; lungs; CNS

Inhalation: dizziness, drowsiness, headache, unconsciousness

Skin: dry skin, redness

Eyes: redness, pain

Ingestion: abdominal pain, burning sensation

Eyes; skin; resp sys; CNS; GI tract; blood; liver; kidneysinh, abs, ing, con

Irrit eyes, skin, nose, throat; dizz, excitement, drow, inco, staggering gait; corn vacuolization; anor, nau, vomit, abdom pain; derm

 

Back

Chemical Formula

Chemical

Synonyms
UN code

CAS-Number

71432

BENZENE

Phenyl hydride;
Pyrobenzol;
Pyrobenzole
UN1114

71-43-2

92524

BIPHENYL

Bibenzene;
1,1'-Biphenyl;
Diphenyl;
Lemonene;
Phenylbenzene

92-52-4

98511

p-tert-BUTYLTOLUENE

p-Methyl-tert-butylbenzene;
1-Methyl-4-tert-butylbenzene;
TBT

98-51-1

98828

CUMENE

Isopropyl benzene;
(1-Methylethyl)benzene;
2-Phenylpropane
UN1918

98-82-8

99876

p-CYMENE

p-Isopropylmethylbenzene;
4-Isopropyl-1-methylbenzene;
p-Isopropyltoluene;
p-Methylisopropyl benzene

99-87-6

91178

DECAHYDRONAPHTHALENE

Decahydronaphthalene;
Naphthalane;
Naphthane;
Perhydronaphthalene
UN1147

91-17-8

25340174

DIETHYL BENZENE

Diethyl benzene;
Diethylbenzol
UN2049

25340-17-4

1321740

DIVINYL BENZENE

Vinylstyrene

1321-74-0

123013

DODECYL BENZENE

1-Phenyldodecane

123-01-3

100414

ETHYL BENZENE

Ethyl benzene;
Ethylbenzol;
Phenylethane
UN1175

100-41-4

1127760

1-ETHYLNAPHTHALENE

1127-76-0

939275

2-ETHYLNAPHTHALENE

939-27-5

95136

INDENE

Indonaphthene

95-13-6

138863

LIMONENE

Dipentene;
p-Mentha-1,8-diene ;
p-Menthane;
1-Methyl-4-isopropenyl-1-Cyclohexene;
Nesol
UN2052

138-86-3

5989275

D-LIMONENE

Cyclohexene, 4-Isopropenyl-1-methyl-;
Cyclohexene, 1-Methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)

5989-27-5

5989548

L-LIMONENE

Cyclohexene, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)-, (s)-;
p-Mentha-1,8-diene, (s)-(-)

5989-54-8

1321944

METHYL NAPHTHALENE

1321-94-4

25013154

METHYLSTYRENE

Vinyltoluene
UN2618

25013-15-4

98839

a-METHYL STYRENE

Isopropenylbenzene;
2-Phenylpropene;
2-Phenylpropylene;
b-Phenylpropylene
UN2303

98-83-9

611154

o-METHYLSTYRENE

1-Ethenyl-2-methylbenzene;
2-Methylstyrene;
o-vinyltoluene;
2-Vinyltoluene

611-15-4

100801

m-METHYL STYRENE

1-Ethenyl-3-methylbenzene;
3-Methylstyrene;
m-Vinyltoluene;
3-Vinyltoluene

100-80-1

622979

p-METHYLSTYRENE

1-Ethenyl-4-methylbenzene;
1-p-Tolylethene;
p-vinyltoluene;
4-Vinyltoluene

622-97-9

91203

NAPHTHALENE

Naphthalin;
Naphthaline;
Naphthene
UN1334
UN2304

91-20-3

132274

SODIUM-o-PHENYLPHENOL

2-Hydroxybiphenyl sodium salt;
2-Phenylphenol sodium salt;
Sodium, (2-biphenylyloxy)-;
Sodium 2-hydroxydiphenyl;
Sodium o-phenylphenate;
Sodium 2-phenylphenate

132-27-4

873665

PROPENYLBENZENE

trans-1-Phenylpropene;
trans-1-Propenylbenzene

873-66-5

103651

n-PROPYLBENZENE

103-65-1

100425

STYRENE

Ethenylbenzene;
Phenylethene;
Phenylethylene;
Vinylbenzene
UN2055;

100-42-5

119642

1,2,3,4-TETRAHYDRONAPHTHALENE

Naphthalene 1,2,3,4-tetrahydride;
d(sup 5,7,9)-naphthantriene;
Tetrahydronaphthalene

119-64-2

108883

TOLUENE

Methylbenzene;
Methylbenzol;
Phenylmethane
UN1294

108-88-3

108678

1,3,5-TRIMETHYLBENZENE

1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene;
Trimethyl benzene;
Mesitylene;
Trimethylbenzol
UN2325

108-67-8

95476

o-XYLENE

o-Dimethylbenzene;
1,2-Dimethylbenzene;
o-Methyltoluene;
1,2-Xylene
UN1307

95-47-6

108383

m-XYLENE

m-Dimethylbenzene;
1,3-Dimethylbenzene;
1,3-Xylene
UN1307

108-38-3

106423

p-XYLENE

p-Dimethylbenzene;
1,4-Dimethylbenzene;
p-Methyltoluene;
1,4-Xylene
UN1307

106-42-3

 

Back

Chemical Name
CAS-Number

Colour/Form

Boiling Point (°C)

Melting Point (°C)

Molecular Weight

Solubility in Water

Relative Density (water=1)

Relative Vapour Density (air=1)

Vapour Pressure/ (Kpa)

Inflam.
Limits

Flash Point (ºC)

Auto Ignition Point (º C)

cis-2-BUTENE
590-18-1

colourless gas

3.73

-139.3

56.10

insol

0.6213

1.94

@ 21 °C

1.7 ll
9.0 ul

324

trans-2-BUTENE
624-64-6

liquefied gas

0.8

-105

56.10

0.60

1.94

@ 21 °C

1.8 ll
9.7 ul

324

BICYCLOHEPTADIENE
121-46-0

89.5

-19.1

92.13

insol

0.9064

1,3-BUTADIENE
106-99-0

colourless gas

-4.5

-108.9

54.09

insol

0.6211

1.87

245

2.0 ll
11.5 ul

76

414

CYCLOHEXENE
110-83-8

colourless liquid

82.98

-103.5

82.14

insol

0.8102

2.8

8.9

1.2 ll
4.8 ul

-6 cc

310

CYCLOPENTADIENE
542-92-7

colourless liquid

41

-85

66.11

insol

0.8021

2.3

@ 25 °C

25 oc

640

ETHYLENE
74-85-1

colourless gas

-104

-169

28.05

insol

@ 25 ºC

0.978

@ 15 °C

2.7 ll
36.0 ul

450

ETHYLIDENE NORBORNENE
16219-75-3

colourless liquid; white liquid

67

-80

120.21

insol

0.8958

4.1

0.61

38 oc

1-HEXENE
592-41-6

colourless liquid

63.35

-139.8

84.16

insol

0.6731

3.0

@ 38 °C

1.2 ll
6.9 ul

-26

ISOPRENE
78-79-5

colourless liquid

34.067

-146

68.13

insol

0.681

2.4

61.8

1.5 ll
8.9 ul

54 cc

427

1-OCTENE
111-66-0

colourless liquid

121.3

-101.7

112.22

insol

0.7149

3.87

@ 38 °C

0.7 ll
3.9 ul

21

230

2,4,4-TRIMETHYL-1-­PENTENE
107-39-1

colourless liquid

101.4

-93.5

112.22

insol

0.7150

3.8

@ 38 °C

0.8 ll
4.8 ul

-5

391

2,4,4-TRIMETHYL-2-­PENTENE
107-40-4

colourless liquid

104.91

-106.3

112.22

insol

0.7218

3.8

@ 38 °C

0.9 ll
? ul

17 oc

305

 

Back

Chemical Name
CAS-Number

Physical

Chemical

UN Class or Division /  Subsidiary Risks

cis-2-BUTENE
590-18-1

The gas is heavier than air and may travel along the ground; distant ignition possible, and may accumulate in low ceiling spaces causing deficiency of oxygen • As a result of flow, agitation, etc, electrostatic charges can be generated

trans-2-BUTENE
624-64-6

The gas is heavier than air and may travel along the ground; distant ignition possible, and may accumulate in low ceiling spaces causing deficiency of oxygen • As a result of flow, agitation, etc, electrostatic charges can be generated

1,3-BUTADIENE
106-99-0

The gas is heavier than air, and may travel along the ground; distant ignition possible • Liquid 1,3-butadiene floats and boils on water

The substance can under specific circumstances form peroxides, initiating explosive polymerization • The substance may polymerize due to warming with fire or explosion hazard • Shock-sensitive compounds are formed with copper and its alloys • The substance decomposes explosively on rapid heating under pressure • Reacts vigorously with oxidants and many other substances, causing fire and explosion hazard

2.1

n-BUTENE
106-98-9

The gas is heavier than air, and may travel along the ground; distant ignition possible

The substance may polymerize • May explode on heating • Reacts violently with oxygen and oxidants, causing fire and explosion hazard

2.1

2-BUTENE
107-01-7

The vapour is heavier than air and may travel along the ground; distant ignition possible • As a result of flow, agitation, etc, electrostatic charges can be generated

The substance can polymerize in contact with organic and inorganic acids, halogens and halogenic substances

1,3-CYCLOHEXADIENE
592-57-4

The vapour is heavier than air

The substance can form explosive peroxides on exposure to air • On combustion, forms toxic gases • Reacts with strong oxidants causing fire and explosion hazard

CYCLOHEXENE
110-83-8

The vapour is heavier than air and may travel along the ground; distant ignition possible • As a result of flow, agitation, etc, electrostatic charges can be generated

The substance can form explosive peroxides • The substance may polymerize under certain conditions • Reacts with strong oxidants causing fire and explosion hazard

3

CYCLOPENTADIENE
542-92-7

The vapour is heavier than air

Reacts with nitric acid, sulfuric acid and strong oxidants, causing fire and explosion hazard • The substance dimerizes spontaneously or on contact with peroxides or trichloroacetic acid

ETHYLENE
74-85-1

The gas is lighter than air

The substance may polymerize to form aromatic compounds due to heating up to 600°C • Reacts violently with chlorine in sunlight causing fire and explosion hazard • Reacts with oxidants causing explosive hazard

ETHYLIDENE NORBORNENE
16219-75-3

As a result of flow, agitation, etc, electrostatic charges can be generated

The substance may polymerize • Reacts violently with strong oxidants

1-HEXENE
592-41-6

The vapour is heavier than air and may travel along the ground; distant ignition possible, and may accumulate in low ceiling spaces causing deficiency of oxygen

Reacts vigorously with oxidants

3

SOBUTENE
115-11-7

The gas is heavier than air and may travel along the ground; distant ignition possible, and may accumulate in low ceiling spaces causing deficiency of oxygen • As a result of flow, agitation, etc, electrostatic charges can be generated

The substance can presumably form explosive peroxides • The substance is able to polymerize with fire or explosion hazard • Reacts violently with oxidants, chlorine, fluorine, nitrogen oxides, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen bromide, causing fire and explosion hazard • Attacks some plastics and natural rubber

ISOPRENE
78-79-5

The vapour is heavier than air and may travel along the ground; distant ignition possible • As a result of flow, agitation, etc, electrostatic charges can be generated

The substance can readily form explosive peroxides • The substance polymerizes with fire or explosion hazard • Heating may cause violent combustion or explosion • Reacts with strong oxidants, strong reductants, strong acids, strong bases, acid chlorides, alcohols, alkali metals

2.1

1,7-OCTADIENE
3710-30-3

The vapour is heavier than air and may travel along the ground; distant ignition possible

The substance may polymerize under the influence of radical generating substances • On combustion, forms toxic and irritating fumes • Reacts with oxidants

3

1-OCTENE
111-66-0

The vapour mixes well with air, explosive mixtures are easily formed • As a result of flow, agitation, etc, electrostatic charges can be generated

The substance can presumably form explosive peroxides • Reacts violently with strong oxidants • Reacts with acids

2,4,4-TRIMETHYL-1-PENTENE
107-39-1

The vapour is heavier than air and may travel along the ground; distant ignition possible • As a result of flow, agitation, etc, electrostatic charges can be generated

On combustion, forms toxic fumes • Upon heating, toxic fumes are formed • Reacts violently with oxidants

2,4,4-TRIMETHYL-2-PENTENE
107-40-4

The vapour is heavier than air and may travel along the ground; distant ignition possible

Upon heating, toxic fumes are formed • Reacts with oxidants

For UN Class: 1.5 = very insensitive substances which have a mass explosion hazard; 2.1 = flammable gas; 2.3 = toxic gas; 3 = flammable liquid; 4.1 = flammable solid; 4.2 = substance liable to spontaneous combustion; 4.3 = substance which in contact with water emits flammable gases; 5.1 = oxidizing substance; 6.1 = toxic; 7 = radioactive; 8 = corrosive substance

 

Back

Chemical Name    

CAS-Number

ICSC Short-Term Exposure

ICSC Long-Term Exposure

ICSC Routes of Exposure and Symptoms

US NIOSH Target Organs Routes Of Entry

US NIOSH Symptoms

1,3-BUTADIENE  106-99-0

eyes; resp tract; skin; CNS

bone marrow; liver; reproduction

Inhalation: cough; drowsiness, blurred vision, nausea, sore throat, unconsciousness, respiratory paralysis

Skin: on contact with liquid: frostbite

Eyes: redness; pain; blurred vision

Eyes; resp sys; CNS; repro sys (hemato cancer)Inh; con (liq)

Irrit eyes, nose, throat; drow, li-head; liq: frostbite; terato, repro effects; (carc)

2-BUTENE          107-01-7

resp tract

skin

Inhalation: Dizziness, unconciousness

Skin: on contact with liquid:frostbite

cis-2-BUTENE     590-18-1

resp tract

skin

Inhalation: Dizziness, unconciousness

Skin: on contact with liquid:frostbite

trans-2-BUTENE  624-64-6

resp tract

skin

Inhalation: Dizziness, unconciousness

Skin: on contact with liquid:frostbite

CYCLOHEXADIENE     592-57-4

eyes; skin; resp tract

Inhalation: cough, sore throat

Skin: redness

Eyes: redness

CYCLOHEXENE  110-83-8

eyes; skin; resp tract

Inhalation: cough

Skin: redness

Eyes: redness

Ingestion: drowsiness, laboured breathing, nausea

Eyes; skin; resp sys; CNSInh; ing; con

Irrit eyes, skin, resp sys; drow

CYCLOPENTADIENE     542-92-7

eyes; resp tract

skin

Inhalation: drowsiness

Eyes: redness, pain

Ingestion: unconsciousness

Eyes; resp sysInh; ing; con

Irrit eyes, nose

ETHYLENE         74-85-1

Inhalation: dizziness, drowsiness, headache, unconsciousness

ETHYLIDENE NORBORNENE   16219-75-3

eyes; skin; resp tract; lungs

liver; kidneys

Inhalation: confusion, cough, headache, shortness of breath, sore throat

Skin: redness, pain

Eyes: redness, pain

Ingestion: nausea, vomiting

Eyes; skin; resp sys; CNS; liver; kidneys; urogenital sys; bone marrowInh; abs; ing; con

Irrit eyes, skin, nose, throat; head; cough, dysp; nau, vomit; olfactory, taste changes; chemical pneu (aspir liq); in animals: liver, kidney, urogenital inj; bone marrow effects

1-HEXENE         592-41-6

mucous membranes; CNS

Inhalation: dizziness, unconciousness, vomiting

Skin: redness

Eyes: redness

ISOPRENE         78-79-5

eyes; skin; resp tract

Inhalation: dizziness, unconciousness, vomiting

Skin: redness

Eyes: redness

1,7-OCTADIENE  3710-30-3

eyes; skin; resp tract

skin; lungs

Inhalation: confusion, dizziness, drowsiness, headache, nausea, unconsciousness

Skin: may be absorbed, redness, skin burns, pain, blisters

Eyes: redness, pain, blurred vision, severe deep burns

1-OCTENE         111-66-0

may effect CNS

skin

Skin: dry skin

Eyes: redness

2,4,4,-TRIMETHYL-1-PENTENE          107-39-1

eyes; skin; resp tract; lungs

Inhalation: confusion, dizziness, drowsiness, dullness, headache

Skin: redness

Eyes: redness, pain

2,4,4,-TRIMETHYL-2-PENTENE          107-40-4

skin; CNS

Skin: redness, pain

Eyes: redness, pain

 

Back

Chemical Formula

Chemical

Synonyms
UN Code

CAS-Number

106990

1,3-BUTADIENE

Biethylene;
Bivinyl;
Buta-1,3-diene;
Divinyl;
Vinylethylene

106-99-0

107017

2-BUTENE

b-Butylene

107-01-7

110838

CYCLOHEXENE

Benzenetetrahydride;
Hexanaphthylene;
Tetrahydrobenzene;
1,2,3,4-Tetrahydrobenzene
UN2256

110-83-8

542927

CYCLOPENTADIENE

1,3-Cyclopentadiene;
Pentole;
Pyropentylene

542-92-7

74851

ETHYLENE

Acetene;
Ethene
UN1038
UN1962

74-85-1

16219753

ETHYLIDENE NORBORNENE

5-Ethylidenebicyclo(2.2.1)hept-2-ene;
5-Ethylidene-2-norbornene

16219-75-3

592416

1-HEXENE

592-41-6

78795

ISOPRENE

b-Methylbivinyl;
2-Methylbutadiene;
2-Methyl-1,3-butadiene
UN1218

78-79-5

115117

ISOBUTENE

Isobutylene;
2-Methyl propene
UN1055

115-11-7

3710303

1,7-OCTADIENE

3710-30-3

111660

1-OCTENE

111-66-0

107391

2,4,4-TRIMETHYL-1-PENTENE

107-39-1

107404

2,4,4-TRIMETHYL-2-PENTENE

Diisobutylene

107-40-4

 

Back

Page 8 of 122

" DISCLAIMER: The ILO does not take responsibility for content presented on this web portal that is presented in any language other than English, which is the language used for the initial production and peer-review of original content. Certain statistics have not been updated since the production of the 4th edition of the Encyclopaedia (1998)."

Contents

Preface
Part I. The Body
Part II. Health Care
Part III. Management & Policy
Part IV. Tools and Approaches
Part V. Psychosocial and Organizational Factors
Part VI. General Hazards
Part VII. The Environment
Part VIII. Accidents and Safety Management
Part IX. Chemicals
Part X. Industries Based on Biological Resources
Part XI. Industries Based on Natural Resources
Part XII. Chemical Industries
Part XIII. Manufacturing Industries
Part XIV. Textile and Apparel Industries
Part XV. Transport Industries
Part XVI. Construction
Part XVII. Services and Trade
Education and Training Services
Emergency and Security Services
Entertainment and the Arts
Health Care Facilities and Services
Ergonomics and Health Care
The Physical Environment and Health Care
Healthcare Workers and Infectious Diseases
Chemicals in the Health Care Environment
The Hospital Environment
Health Care Facilities and Services Resources
Hotels and Restaurants
Office and Retail Trades
Personal and Community Services
Public and Government Services
Transport Industry and Warehousing
Part XVIII. Guides

Health Care Facilities and Services References

Abdo, R and H Chriske. 1990. HAV-Infektionsrisiken im Krankenhaus, Altenheim und Kindertagesstätten. In Arbeitsmedizin im Gesundheitsdienst, Band 5, edited by F Hofmann and U Stössel. Stuttgart: Gentner Verlag.

Acton, W. 1848. On the advantages of caouchoue and gutta-percha in protecting the skin against the contagion of animal poisons. Lancet 12:588.

Ahlin, J. 1992. Interdisciplinary case studies in offices in Sweden. In Corporate Space and Architecture. Vol. 2. Paris: Ministére de l’équipment et du logement.

Akinori, H and O Hiroshi. 1985. Analysis of fatigue and health conditions among hospital nurses. J Science of Labour 61:517-578.

Allmeers, H, B Kirchner, H Huber, Z Chen, JW Walter, and X Baur. 1996. The latency period between exposure and the symptoms in allergy to natural latex: Suggestions for prevention. Dtsh Med Wochenschr 121 (25/26):823-828.

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