Thursday, 18 August 2011 05:02

Nitrocompounds, Aromatic: Physical & Chemical Properties

Written by ILO Content Manager

Chemical Name
CAS-Number

Colour/Form

Boiling Point (°C)

Melting Point (°C)

Molecular Weight

Solubility in Water

Relative Density (water=1)

Relative Vapour Density (air=1)

Vapour Pressure/ (Kpa)

Inflam.
Limits

Flash Point (ºC)

Auto Ignition Point (ºC)

1-AMINO-2-METHYL-­5-NITROBENZENE
99-55-8

yellow monoclinic prisms from alcohol

105.5

152.2

sl sol

1.3x
10- 5 mm Hg

4-AMINO-2-NITRO­PHENOL
119-34-6

dark red plates or needles from water & alcohol

131

154.1

sol

1-CHLORO-2,4-DINI­TROBENZENE
97-00-7

yellow crystals

315

53

202.6

insol

1.7

6.98

2.0 ll
22.0 ul

1-CHLORO-3-NITRO­BENZENE
88-73-3

yellow crystals; monoclinic needles

245-246

32-33

157.56

insol

1.305

261

2-CHLORO-3-NITRO­BENZENE
121-73-3

pale-yellow orthorhombic prisms from alcohol

236

46

157.6

insol

1.534

1-CHLORO-4-NITRO­BENZENE
100-00-5

monoclinic prisms; yellow crystals

242

83.5

157.6

insol

1.3

5.44

@ 30 ºC

127 cc

510

2,4-DICHLORO-1-NI­TROBENZENE
611-06-3

258.5

34

192.00

insol

@ 80 ºC

1,2-DICHLORO-4-NI­TROBENZENE
99-54-7

needles from alcohol & carbon tetrachloride; liquid; solid

255.5

43

192.00

insol

@ 75 ºC/4 ºC

6.63

0.014 mm Hg

3,5-DINITRO-p-TOL­UIDINE
19406-51-0

171

197.14

2,3-DINITROTOLUENE
602-01-7

yellow crystals

250-300

63

182.1

insol

1.3

6.28

2,6-DINITROTOLUENE
606-20-2

rhombic needles from alcohol; yellow to red solid

285

66

182.1

@ 111 ºC

6.28

5.67x
10- 4 mm Hg

207 cc

3,4-DINITROTOLUENE
610-39-9

crystals or needles

250-300

58

182.1

insol

1.26

6.28

>110

DINITROBENZENE
25154-54-5

pale yellow solid; white crystalline solid

300

75-85

168

insol

1.6

5.8

<0.1

150

1,3-DINITROBENZENE
99-65-0

yellowish crystals; rhombohedral plates from alcohol; pale yellow solid

300-303

90

168.1

sl sol

@ 18 ºC/4 ºC

5.8

<0.1

149

o-DINITROBENZENE
528-29-0

colourless or yellow crystals, needles or plates; needles from benzene, plates; white crystals;pale yellow solid

319

118

168.1

insol

1.3119  120

5.79

<0.1

150 cc

p-DINITROBENZENE
100-25-4

white crystals; needles from alc; colourless to yellow monoclinic needles; pale yellow solid; yellow crystals

299

174

168.1

insol

@ 18 ºC/4 ºC

5.8

<0.1

150

3,5-DINITROBENZOYL CHLORIDE
99-33-2

196

74

230.56

1,5-DINITRONAPH­TALENE
605-71-0

219

218.16

insol

2,3-DINITROPHENOL
66-56-8

144.5

184.10

sl sol

1.681

2,4-DINITROPHENOL
51-28-5

yellowish to yellow orthorhombic crystals

112-114

184.1

sl sol

@ 24 ºC

6.35

@ 25 ºC

DINITROTOLUENE
25321-14-6

oily liquid

250-300

54-93

182.14

insol

1.3

6.28

0.13

207 cc

2,4-DINITROTOLUENE
121-14-2

crystals or oily liquid

300

71

182.1

insol

@ 71 ºC

6.27

@ 103 ºC

207 oc

2,5-DINITROTOLU­ENE
619-15-8

52.5

182.13

@ 111

1-FLUORO-2,4-DINI­TROBENZENE
70-34-8

pale yellow crystals from alcohol

296

25.8

186.10

@ 84 ºC

2-METHYL-1-NITRO­ANTHRAQUINONE
129-15-7

pale-yellow needles

270.5

267.2

insol

N-METHYL-N-NITRO­SOANILINE
614-00-6

225

14.7

136.15

insol

1.1240

5-NITROACENAPH­THENE
602-87-9

103.5

199.2

sol

NITROBENZENE
98-95-3

greenish-yellow crystals or yellow, oily liquid

210.8

5.7

123.11

sl sol

1.2037

4.3

20 Pa

1.8 ll
40 ul

88 cc

480

4-NITRODIPHENYL
92-93-3

yellow needles; white needles

340

114

199.2

insol

NITROFEN
1836-75-5

white solid; crystals; crystalline solid; yellow crystalline solid; free-flowing solid, dark brown color

@ 0.25 mm Hg

70-71

284.10

insol

@ 90 ºC

@ 40 ºC

5-NITRO-o-ANISIDINE
99-59-2

orange-red needles from alc, ether, water

118

168.2

sol

@ 156 ºC

@ 25 ºC

1-NITRONAPHTHALENE
86-57-7

yellow crystals

304

61.5

173.2

insol

1.332

@ 25 ºC

164 cc

2-NITRONAPHTHALENE
581-89-5

312.5

79

173.16

insol

o-NITROPHENOL
88-75-5

light yellow needles or prisms; monoclinic

216

44.8

139.1

sl sol

@ 14 ºC

@ 49.3 ºC

m-NITROPHENOL
554-84-7

monoclinic prisms from ether & dilute hydrochloric acid; colourless to yellow monoclinic form

@ 70 mm Hg

97

139.1

sl sol

@ 100 ºC/4 ºC

0.75 torr

p-NITROPHENOL
100-02-7

colourless to slightly yellow crystals;yellow monoclinic prisms from toluene; yellow to brown solid

279

113.8

139.1

sl sol

1.270

4.8

0.0032 Pa

169

4-NITROPHENYLBEN­ZANAMINE
836-30-6

yellow needles or tablets from carbon tetrachloride

@ 30 mm Hg

133.5

214.23

insol

7.4

2-NITRO-p-PHENYL­ENEDIAMINE
5307-14-2

almost black needles with dark-green luster

137

153.1

sol

p-NITROSODIPHEN­YLAMINE
156-10-5

green plates with bluish luster (from benzene) or steel-blue prisms or plates (from ether water); yellow liquid plates; greenish crystals

143

198.2

sl sol

m-NITROTOLUENE
99-08-1

yellow liquid

232

15.5

137.1

insol

1.1581

4.73

@ 25 ºC

106

o-NITROTOLUENE
88-72-2

yellowish liquid

222

-10

137.13

insol

1.1629

4.73

@ 50 ºC

2.2 ll
? ul

106 cc

p-NITROTOLUENE
99-99-0

yellowish crystals; colourless rhombic needles; orthorhombic crystals from alcohol & ether

238.3

53-54

137.1

insol

@ 75 /4 ºC

4.72

@ 65 ºC

106

PICRIC ACID
88-89-1

yellow crystals

300

122.5

229.1

sl sol

1.763

7.90

< 1 torr

150

300

TETRYL
479-45-8

colourless to yellow, solid; monoclinic crystals; yellow prisms from alcohol

187

131.5

287.15

insol

1.57

<0.1 Pa

187

2,4,7-TRINITRO­FLUOREN-9-ONE
129-79-3

pale yellow needles from acetic acid or benzene

176

315.19

sl sol

2,4,6-TRINITROTOLUENE
118-96-7

monoclinic rhombohedra; commercial crystals (needles) are yellow; colourless or light yellow solid in form of crystals, flakes, pellets, cast blocks & cast slabs; crushed flake

240

80.1

227.13

insol

1.654

7.85

<0.1 Pa

 

Back

Thursday, 18 August 2011 05:00

Nitrocompounds, Aromatic: Physical & Chemical Hazards

Written by ILO Content Manager

Chemical Name
CAS-Number

Physical

Chemical

UN Class or Division /  Subsidiary Risks

1-AMINO-2-METHYL-5-NITROBENZENE
99-55-8

6.1

1-CHLORO-2,4-DINITROBENZENE
97-00-7

Heating may cause violent combustion or explosion at about 149 °C • May explode on heating under confinement or by shock • The substance decomposes on heating producing toxic gases (oxides of nitrogen, chlorine, hydrogen chloride, phosgene) • The substance is a strong oxidant and reacts with combustible and reducing materials • The substance is a strong reducing agent and reacts with oxidants • Reacts with strong oxidants and strong bases

6.1

1-CHLORO-2-NITROBENZENE
88-73-3

Dust explosion possible if in powder or granular form, mixed with air

The substance decomposes on heating or on burning producing toxic and corrosive fumes (nitrogen oxides, chlorine, hydrogen chloride, phosgene) • Reacts violently with reducing materials, causing fire and explosion hazard

6.1

1-CHLORO-3-NITROBENZENE
121-73-3

6.1

1-CHLORO-4-NITROBENZENE
100-00-5

The substance decomposes on heating producing toxic gases (nitrogen oxides, hydrochloric acid, phosgene and chlorine) • The substance is a strong oxidant and reacts violently with combustible and reducing materials • Reacts with many substances causing fire and explosion hazard

2,3-DINITROTOLUENE
602-01-7

Dust explosion possible if in powder or granular form, mixed with air

May explode on heating • The substance decomposes on heating producing carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen • Reacts with strong bases, oxidants, and reducing agents

6.1

2,6-DINITROTOLUENE
606-20-2

Dust explosion possible if in powder or granular form, mixed with air

May explode on heating • The substance decomposes on heating producing carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen • Reacts with strong bases, oxidants, and reducing agents

6.1

3,4-DINITROTOLUENE
610-39-9

Dust explosion possible if in powder or granular form, mixed with air

May explode on heating • The substance decomposes on heating producing carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen • Reacts with strong bases, oxidants, and reducing agents

6.1

DINITROBENZENE
25154-54-5

Dust explosion possible if in powder or granular form, mixed with air

May explode on heating under confinement • On combustion, forms toxic gases and fumes • Reacts violently with strong oxidants, strong bases, and reducing agents, causing fire and explosion hazard • Mixtures with nitric acid are highly explosive!

6.1

1,3-DINITROBENZENE
99-65-0

Dust explosion possible if in powder or granular form, mixed with air

May explode on heating under confinement • On combustion, forms toxic gases and fumes • Reacts violently with strong oxidants, strong bases, and reducing metals (tin and zinc), causing fire and explosion hazard • Mixtures with nitric acid are highly explosive!

6.1

o-DINITROBENZENE
528-29-0

Dust explosion possible if in powder or granular form, mixed with air

May explode on heating under confinement • On combustion, forms toxic gases and fumes • Reacts violently with strong oxidants, strong bases, and reducing metals, eg, zinc and tin, fire and explosion hazard • Mixtures with nitric acid are highly explosive!

6.1

p-DINITROBENZENE
100-25-4

Dust explosion possible if in powder or granular form, mixed with air

May explode on heating under confinement • On combustion, forms toxic gases and fumes • Reacts violently with strong oxidants, strong bases, and metals eg, tin and zinc, causing fire and explosion hazard • Mixtures with nitric acid are highly explosive!

6.1

2,4-DINITROPHENOL
51-28-5

Dust explosion possible if in powder or granular form, mixed with air

May explosively decompose on shock, friction, or concussion • May explode on heating

DINITROTOLUENE
25321-14-6

The vapour is heavier than air • Dust explosion possible if in powder or granular form, mixed with air

The substance can form explosive peroxides • May explode on heating or exposure to flames • The substance decomposes on heating producing toxic gases and fumes (carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen) • Reacts violently with strong oxidants causing fire and explosion hazard • Reacts with strong bases and metals such as tin and zinc and may cause evolution of heat and increase in pressure • Attacks some forms of plastics, rubber, and coatings

6.1

2,4-DINITROTOLUENE
121-14-2

Dust explosion possible if in powder or granular form, mixed with air

May explode on heating • The substance decomposes on heating producing carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen • Reacts with strong bases, oxidants, and reducing agents

6.1

5-NITRO-o-ANISIDINE
99-59-2

6.1

NITROBENZENE
98-95-3

On combustion, forms corrosive fumes including nitrogen oxides • Reacts violently with strong oxidants and reducing agents, causing fire and explosion hazard • Attacks many plastics • Forms explosive (thermally unstable) substances or mixtures with many organic and inorganic compounds like oxidants, aluminium chloride with phenol, potassium hydroxide anhydrous or with small amounts of methanol, aniline with glycerol, phosphoruspentachloride, nitric acid, sulphuric acid, potassium

6.1

4-NITRODIPHENYLAMINE
836-30-6

The substance decomposes on heating or on burning producing toxic fumes (nitrogen oxides) • Reacts with strong oxidantsIncompatibility: strong oxidizing agents and strong bases

1-NITRONAPHTHALENE
86-57-7

4.1

o-NITROPHENOL
88-75-5

6.1

m-NITROPHENOL
554-84-7

6.1

p-NITROPHENOL
100-02-7

Dust explosion possible if in powder or granular form, mixed with air

May explode on heating • The substance decomposes on heating or on burning producing toxic fumes including nitrogen oxides, causing fire and explosion hazard • The substance is a strong oxidant and reacts violently with combustible and reducing materials • Mixtures with potassium hydroxide are explosive

6.1

o-NITROTOLUENE
88-72-2

The substance decomposes on contact with strong oxidants, sulfuric acid, reducing agents, acids or bases producing toxic fumes, causing fire and explosion hazard • Attacks some forms of plastics, rubber, and coatings

6.1

m-NITROTOLUENE
99-08-1

6.1

p-NITROTOLUENE
99-99-0

The substance decomposes on heating producing toxic fumes (nitrogen oxides) • Reacts violently with strong oxidizers or sulfuric acid causing fire and explosion hazard • Attacks some forms of plastics, rubber and coatings

6.1

PICRIC ACID
88-89-1

May explosively decompose on shock, friction, or concussion • May explode on heating • Shock-sensitive compounds are formed with metals, particularly copper, lead, mercury and zinc • On combustion, forms toxic carbon and nitrogen oxides • Reacts vigorously with oxidants and reducing materials

1.1D

TETRYL
479-45-8

Dust explosion possible if in powder or granular form, mixed with air

May explosively decompose on shock, friction, or concussion • The substance decomposes explosively on heating to 187 °C • Contact of tetryl with some oxidizable materials may cause fire and explosions • Detonates spontaneously on contact with trioxygendifluoride • T gases and vapours (such as nitrogen oxides) may be released on burning/exploding

1.1D

2,4,6-TRINITROTOLUENE
118-96-7

May explosively decompose on shock, friction, or concussion • Upon heating, toxic fumes are formed • Reacts violently with reducing agents causing fire and explosion hazard • Reacts with heavy metals • Explodes on heating to 240 °C

1.1D

For UN Class: 1.5 = very insensitive substances which have a mass explosion hazard; 2.1 = flammable gas; 2.3 = toxic gas; 3 = flammable liquid; 4.1 = flammable solid; 4.2 = substance liable to spontaneous combustion; 4.3 = substance which in contact with water emits flammable gases; 5.1 = oxidizing substance; 6.1 = toxic; 7 = radioactive; 8 = corrosive substance

 

Back

Thursday, 18 August 2011 04:59

Nitrocompounds, Aromatic: Health Hazards

Written by ILO Content Manager

Chemical Name

CAS-Number

ICSC Short-Term Exposure

ICSC Long-Term Exposure

ICSC Routes of Exposure and Symptoms

US NIOSH Target Organs & Routes of Entry

US NIOSH Symptoms

1-CHLORO-2,4-DINITROBEN­ZENE    97-00-7

eyes; skin; resp tract

skin; eyes

Inhalation: blue lips or finger nails, blue skin, dizziness, headache, laboured breathing, nausea, vomiting, disturbed vision 

Skin: may be absorbed, redness, pain  

Eyes: redness, pain  

Ingestion: abdominal pain, blue skin, dizziness, headache, laboured breathing, nausea, vomiting

1-CHLORO-2-NITROBENZENE 88-73-3

eyes; skin; resp tract; blood

blood; liver; kidneys; spleen

Inhalation: blue lips or finger nails, blue skin, dizziness, headache, nausea, shortness of breath

Skin: may be absorbed, redness

Eyes: redness, pain

1-CHLORO-4-NITROBENZENE 100-00-5

blood

skin; blood

Inhalation: headache, faintness, vertigo, weakness    

Skin: may be absorbed

Blood; liver; kidneys; CVS; spleen; bone marrow; repro sys (in animals: vascular & liver tumors) Inh; abs; ing; con

Anoxia; unpleasant taste; anemia; methemo; in animals: hema, hemog; spleen, kidney, bone marrow changes; repro effects; (carc)

1,2-DICHLORO-3-NITROBEN­ZENE    3209-22-1

blood

skin; liver; kidneys

Inhalation: blue lips or finger nails  

Skin: may be absorbed, redness, blue lips, blue fingernails

Ingestion: blue lips or fingernails, blue skin, confusion, headache, vomiting, weakness

1,2-DICHLORO-4-NITROBEN­ZENE    99-54-7

eyes; skin; resp tract; lungs

skin; kidneys; liver

Inhalation: blue lips or finger nails, burning sensation of the throat, headache, shortness of breath

Skin: may be absorbed, redness, burning sensation, pain, blue lips or fingernails  

Eyes: redness, pain      

Ingestion: blue lips or fingernails

2,4-DICHLORO-1-NITROBEN­ZENE    611-06-3

blood

liver; kidneys

Inhalation: blue lips or finger nails

Skin: may be absorbed, redness, blue lips, blue fingernails    

Eyes: redness

Ingestion: blue lips or fingernails, blue skin, confusion, headache, vomiting, weakness

1,3-DINITROBENZENE     99-65-0

eyes; skin; resp tract

liver; may impair male fertility

Inhalation: blue lips or finger nails, blue skin, dizziness, headache, laboured breathing, weakness, burning sensation in the mouth, dry throat, thirst, disturbed vision  

Skin: may be absorbed, redness, skin burns, yellowing of skin

Eyes: redness, burns      

Ingestion: abdominal pain, blue skin, diarrhoea, dizziness, headache, laboured breathing, nausea, vomiting

Blood; liver; CVS; eyes; CNS; skin Inh; abs; ing; con

Anoxia, cyan; vis dist, central scotomas; bad taste, burning mouth, dry throat, thirst; yellowing hair, skin; anemia; liver damage

DINITROBENZENE     25154-54-5

eyes; skin; resp tract; lungs; blood

liver; may impair male fertility

Inhalation: blue lips or finger nails, blue skin, burning sensation, dizziness, headache, laboured breathing, sore throat, weakness, disturbed vision

Skin: may be absorbed, redness, yellowing of skin

Eyes: redness

Ingestion: abdominal pain, blue skin, diarrhoea, dizziness, headache, laboured breathing, nausea, vomiting

o-DINITROBENZENE     528-29-0

eyes; skin; resp tract; lungs; blood

liver

Inhalation: blue lips or finger nails, blue skin, burning sensation, dizziness, headache, laboured breathing, weakness, disturbed vision

Skin: may be absorbed      

Eyes: redness

Ingestion: Abdominal pain, blue skin, diarrhoea, dizziness, headache, laboured breathing, nausea, vomiting

Blood; liver; CVS; eyes; CNS; skin Inh; abs; ing; con

Anoxia, cyan; vis dist, central scotomas; bad taste, burning mouth, dry throat, thirst; yellowing hair, skin; anemia; liver damage

p-DINITROBENZENE     100-25-4

eyes; skin; resp tract

Inhalation: blue lips or finger nails, blue skin, dizziness, headache, laboured breathing, weakness, burning sensation in the mouth, dry throat, thirst, disturbed vision

Skin: may be absorbed, redness, yellowing of skin

Eyes: redness, burns      

Ingestion: abdominal pain, blue skin, diarrhoea, dizziness, headache, laboured breathing, nausea, vomiting

Blood; liver; CVS; eyes; CNS; skin Inh; abs; ing; con

Anoxia, cyan; vis dist, central scotomas; bad taste, burning mouth, dry throat, thirst; yellowing hair, skin; anemia; liver damage

2,4-DINITROPHENOL       51-28-5

GI tract

skin; CNS; blood; eyes;

Inhalation: sweating, palpitations, nausea, vomiting, collapse and death Skin: may be absorbed

DINITROTOLUENE     25321-14-6

blood

liver; male and female fertility

Inhalation: drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, weakness    

Skin: may be absorbed, blue lips or fingernails, blue skin, methemoglobin skin

Blood; liver; CVS; repro sys (in animals: liver, skin & kidney tumors) Inh; abs; ing; con

Anoxia, cyan; anemia, jaun; repro effects (carc)

2,3-DINITROTOLUENE     602-01-7

CNS; CVS; blood

Skin: may be absorbed

Ingestion: blue lips or fingernails; headache, nausea, sore throat; vomiting

2,4-DINITROTOLUENE     121-14-2

CNS; CVS; blood

Inhalation: blue lips or fingernails, headache, nausea, sore throat, vomiting  

Skin: may be absorbed Ingestion: blue lips or fingernails, headache, nausea, sore throat, vomiting

2,6-DINITROTOLUENE     606-20-2

blood

possibly carcinogenic to humans

Inhalation: blue lips or finger nails, blue skin, diarrhoea, dizziness, drowsiness    

Skin: may be absorbed

3,4-DINITROTOLUENE     610-39-9

CNS; CVS; blood;

Skin: may be absorbed

Ingestion: blue lips or fingernails, headache, nausea, sore throat, vomiting

NITROBENZENE 98-95-3

eyes; blood; CNS

skin; blood; liver; CNS; spleen; may impair male fertility

Inhalation: blue lips or finger nails, blue skin, dizziness, headache, nausea, unconsciousness, weakness  

Skin: may be absorbed

Blood; liver; kidneys; CVS; skin; eyes; repro sys Inh; abs; ing; con

Irrit eyes, skin, anoxia; derm; anemia; methemo; in animals: liver, kidney damage; testicular effects

4-NITRODIPHENYLAMINE     836-30-6

eyes; skin; resp tract; blood; brain

blood

Inhalation: burning sensation, cough, sore throat, see ingestion    

Skin: see ingestion    

Eyes: redness, pain    

Ingestion: blue lips or fingernails, blue skin, dizziness, headache, laboured breathing

NITROFEN         1836-75-5

eyes; skin; resp tract

skin; blood; CNS; human reproduction system

Inhalation: cough, laboured breathing, sore throat        

Skin: redness, pain          

Eyes: redness, pain, blurred vision  

Ingestion: abdominal pain

o-NITROTOLUENE           88-72-2

eyes; skin; resp tract; blood

liver; blood

Inhalation: blue lips or finger nails, blue skin, cough, dizziness, headache, laboured breathing, sore throat        

Skin: may be absorbed, redness, pain

Eyes: redness, pain    

Ingestion: abdominal pain, blue lips or fingernails, blue skin, dizziness, headache, laboured breathing

Blood; CNS; CVS; skin; GI tract Inh; abs; ing; con

Anoxia, cyan; head, weak, dizz; ataxia; dysp; tacar; nau, vomit

p-NITROPHENOL     100-02-7

eyes; skin; resp tract; CNS; blood; kidneys

CNS; liver; kidneys; blood;

Inhalation: blue skin, dizziness, headache, fever, nausea, shortness of breath, weakness, perspiration

Skin: may be absorbed, redness, scabs

Eyes: redness, pain    

Ingestion: burning pain in mouth and throat, abdominal pain, dizziness, unconsciousness

p-NITROTOLUENE           99-99-0

eyes; skin; resp tract

liver; kidneys

Inhalation: blue lips or finger nails, blue skin, cough, dizziness, headache, laboured breathing, sore throat        

Skin: may be absorbed, redness, pain

Eyes: redness, pain    

Ingestion: abdominal pain, blue lips or fingernails, blue skin, dizziness, headache, laboured breathing, sore throat, unconsciousness

Blood; CNS; CVS; skin; GI tract Inh; abs; ing; con

Anoxia, cyan; head, weak, dizz; ataxia; dysp; tacar; nau, vomit

PICRIC ACID      88-89-1

eyes; skin

skin

Inhalation: cough, sore throat, weakness

Skin: may be absorbed, redness    

Eyes: redness, pain    

Ingestion: diarrhoea, dizziness, headache, nausea, vomiting

Kidneys; liver; blood; skin; eyes Inh; abs; ing; con

Irrit eyes, skin; sens derm; yellow-stained hair, skin; weak, myalgia, anuria, polyuria; bitter taste, GI dist; hepatitis, hema, album, neph

TETRYL 479-45-8

eyes; skin; resp tract; kidneys; liver; blood

skin

Inhalation: sleeplessness, cough, headache, sore throat, nosebleeds

Skin: redness, yellow stains of skin and hair

Eyes: redness, pain    

Ingestion: abdominal pain, dizziness, headache, nausea

Resp sys; eyes; CNS; skin; liver; kidneys Inh; abs; ing; con

Sens derm, itch, eryt; edema on nasal folds, cheeks, neck; kera; sneez; anemia; ftg; cough, coryza; irrity; mal, head, lass, insom; nau, vomit; liver, kidney damage

2,4,6-TRINITROTOLUENE     118-96-7

eyes; skin; resp tract; blood

liver; blood; eyes

Eyes: redness, pain

Blood; liver; eyes; CVS; CNS; kidneys; skin; resp sys Inh; abs; ing; con

Irrit skin, muc memb; liver damage, jaun; cyan; sneez; cough, sore throat; peri neur, musc pain; kidney damage; cataract; sens derm; leucyt; anemia; card irreg

 

Back

Thursday, 18 August 2011 04:57

Nitrocompounds, Aromatic: Chemical Identification

Written by ILO Content Manager

Chemical Formula

Chemical

Synonyms;
UN code

CAS-Number

99558

1-AMINO-2-METHYL-5-NITROBENZENE

2-Amino-4-nitrotoluene;
2-Methyl-5-nitroaniline;
6-Methyl-3-nitroaniline;
2-Methyl-5-nitro-benzeneamine

99-55-8

119346

4-AMINO-2-NITROPHENOL

4-Hydroxy-3-nitroaniline;
o-Nitro-p-aminophenol;
2-Nitro-4-aminophenol

119-34-6

97007

1-CHLORO-2,4-DINITROBENZENE

4-Chloro-1,3-dinitrobenzene;
6-Chloro-1,3-dinitrobenzene;
1,3-Dinitro-4-Chlorobenzene;
2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene

97-00-7

88733

1-CHLORO-2-NITROBENZENE

Chloro-o-nitrobenzene;
o-Chloronitrobenzene;
2-Chloronitrobenzene;
o-Nitrochlorobenzene
UN1578

88-73-3

121733

1-CHLORO-3-NITROBENZENE

Chloro-m-nitrobenzene;
m-Nitrochlorobenzene
UN1578

121-73-3

100005

1-CHLORO-4-NITROBENZENE

p-Chloronitrobenzene;
4-Chloronitrobenzene;
4-Chloro-1-Nitrobenzene;
p-Nitrochlorobenzene
UN1578

100-00-5

3209221

1,2-DICHLORO-3-NITROBENZENE

2,3-Dichloronitrobenzene

3209-22-1

99547

1,2-DICHLORO-4-NITROBENZENE

3,4-Dichloronitrobenzene

99-54-7

611063

2,4-DICHLORO-1-NITROBENZENE

2,4-Dichloronitrobenzene

611-06-3

35572782

3,5-DINITRO-o-TOLUIDINE

2-Amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene;
2-Methyl-3,5-dinitrobenzenamine

35572-78-2

19406510

3,5-DINITRO-p-TOLUIDINE

Amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene;
Benzenamine, 3,5-Dinitro-4-methyl-;
4- 4-Methyl-3,5-dinitrobenzenamine

19406-51-0

25154545

DINITROBENZENE

UN1597

25154-54-5

528290

o-DINITROBENZENE

1,2-Dinitrobenzene
UN1597

528-29-0

99650

m-DINITROBENZENE

1,3-Dinitrobenzene;
2,4-Dinitrobenzene
UN1597

99-65-0

100254

p-DINITROBENZENE

UN1597

100-25-4

99332

3,5-DINITROBENZOYL CHLORIDE

3,5-Dinitrobenzoic acid chloride

99-33-2

27478348

DINITRONAPHTHALENE

27478-34-8

605710

1,5-DINITRONAPHTHALENE

605-71-0

75321209

1,3-DINITROPYRENE

75321-20-9

42397648

1,6-DINITROPYRENE

42397-64-8

66568

2,3-DINITROPHENOL

66-56-8

51285

2,4-DINITROPHENOL

2,4-DNP;
1-Hydroxy-2,4-dinitrobenzene

51-28-5

42397659

1,8-DINITROPYRENE

42397-65-9

25321146

DINITROTOLUENE

Dinitrophenylmethane;
Methyldinitrobenzene
UN2038

25321-14-6

602017

2,3-DINITROTOLUENE

1-Methyl-2,3-dinitrobenzene

602-01-7

121142

2,4-DINITROTOLUENE

Dinitrotoluene;
2,4-Dinitrotoluol;
1-Methyl-2,4-dinitrobenzene

121-14-2

619158

2,5-DINITROTOLUENE

2-Methyl-1,4-dinitrobenzene

619-15-8

606202

2,6-DINITROTOLUENE

2-Methyl-1,3-dinitrobenzene

606-20-2

610399

3,4-DINITROTOLUENE

4-Methyl-1,2-dinitrobenzene

610-39-9

70348

1-FLUORO-2,4-DINITROBENZENE

2,4-Dinitrofluorobenzene;
2,4-Dinitro-1-fluorobenzene;
1,2,4-Fluorodinitrobenzene

70-34-8

6393426

4-METHYL-2,6-DINITROANILINE

4-Amino-3,5-Dinitrotoluene;
Benzenamine, 4-Methyl-2,6-dinitro-;
2,6-Dinitro-p-toluidine

6393-42-6

129157

2-METHYL-1-NITROANTHRAQUINONE

2-Methyl-1-nitro-9,10-anthracenedione;
1-Nitro-2-methylanthraquinone

129-15-7

614006

N-METHYL-N-NITROSOANILINE

Methylnitrosoaniline;
N-Methyl-N-nitrosobenzenamine;
Methylphenylnitrosamine;
Nitrosomethylaniline;
N-Nitroso-N-methylaniline

614-00-6

602879

5-NITROACENAPHTHENE

1,2-Dihydro-5-nitro-acenaphthylene;
5-Nitronaphthalene ethylene

602-87-9

98953

NITROBENZENE

Nitrobenzene;
Nitrobenzol
UN1662

98-95-3

92933

4-NITRODIPHENYL

4-Nitrobiphenyl;
p-Nitrodiphenyl;
p-Phenyl-nitrobenzene;
4-Phenyl-nitrobenzene

92-93-3

836306

4-NITRODIPHENYLAMINE

Benzenamine, 4-Nitro-N-phenyl-;
p-Nitrodiphenylamine;
p-Nitrophenylphenylamine

836-30-6

5307142

2-NITRO-p-PHENYLENEDIAMINE

4-Amino-2-nitroaniline;
1,4-Diamino-2-nitrobenzene;
2-Nitro-1,4-benzenediamine;
2-Nitro-1,4-diaminobenzene;
2-Nitro-1,4-phenylenediamine

5307-14-2

1836755

NITROFEN

2',4'-Dichloro-4-nitrobiphenyl ether;
2,4-Dichloro-4'-nitrodiphenyl ether;
2,4-Dichloro-1-(4-nitrophenoxy)benzene;
2,4-Dichlorophenyl-p-nitrophenyl ether

1836-75-5

86577

1-NITRONAPHTHALENE

a-Nitronaphthalene

86-57-7

581895

2-NITRONAPHTHALENE

b-Nitronaphthalene

581-89-5

99592

5-NITRO-o-ANISIDINE

2-Amino-1-methoxy-4-nitrobenzene;
3-Amino-4-methoxynitrobenzene;
2-Amino-4-nitroanisole;
2-Methoxy-5-nitroaniline

99-59-2

88755

o-NITROPHENOL

2-Hydroxynitrobenzene;
2-Nitrophenol
UN1663

88-75-5

554847

m-NITROPHENOL

m-Hydroxynitrobenzene;
3-Hydroxynitrobenzene;
3-Nitrophenol
UN2648

554-84-7

100027

p-NITROPHENOL

4-Hydroxynitrobenzene;
4-Nitrophenol
UN1663

100-02-7

5522430

1-NITROPYRENE

3-Nitropyrene

5522-43-0

156105

p-NITROSODIPHENYLAMINE

4-Nitrosodiphenylamine;
p-Nitroso-N-phenylaniline;
4-Nitroso-N-phenylaniline;
4-Nitroso-N-phenylbenzenamine

156-10-5

88722

o-NITROTOLUENE

o-Methylnitrobenzene;
2-Methylnitrobenzene;
2-Nitrotoluene
UN1664

88-72-2

99081

m-NITROTOLUENE

3-Methylnitrobenzene;
m-Methylnitrobenzene;
3-Nitrotoluene
UN1664

99-08-1

99990

p-NITROTOLUENE

p-Methylnitrobenzene;
4-Methylnitrobenzene;
p-Nitrotoluene;
4-Nitrotoluene
UN1664

99-99-0

88891

PICRIC ACID

2-Hydroxy-1,3,5-trinitrobenzene;
1,3,5-Trinitrophenol;
2,4,6-Trinitrophenol
UN0154
UN1344

88-89-1

479458

TETRYL

N-Methyl-N,2,4,6-tetranitroaniline;
N-Methyl-N,2,4,6-tetranitrobenzenamine;
Trinitrophenylmethylnitramine;
2,4,6-Trinitrophenylmethylnitramine
UN0208

479-45-8

129793

2,4,7-TRINITROFLUOREN-9-ONE

2,4,7-Trinitro-9-fluorenone

129-79-3

75321196

1,3,6-TRINITROPYRENE

75321-19-6

118967

2,4,6-TRINITROTOLUENE

2-Methyl-1,3,5-trinitrobenzene;
Trinitrotoluene
UN0209
UN1356

118-96-7

 

Back

Thursday, 18 August 2011 04:52

Nitrocompounds, Aliphatic: Physical & Chemical Properties

Written by ILO Content Manager

Chemical Name
CAS-Number

Colour/Form

Boiling Point (°C)

Melting Point (°C)

Molecular Weight

Solubility in Water

Relative Density (water=1)

Relative Vapour Density (air=1)

Vapour Pressure/ (Kpa)

Inflam.
Limits

Flash Point (ºC)

Auto Ignition Point (º C)

AMYL NITRITE
110-46-3

yellowish, transparent liquid

99

117.1

sl sol

0.8828

4.0

1-CHLORO-1-NITRO­ETHANE
598-92-5

124.5

109.51

insol

1.2837

2-CHLORO-2-NITRO­PROPANE
594-71-8

liquid

133.6

123.55

@ 20 ° C

@ 20 ° C/20 ° C

4.3

@ 25 ° C

57 ° C oc

1-CHLORO-1-NITRO­PROPANE
600-25-9

liquid

143

123.54

0.5ml/100 ml

1.209

0.3

@ 25 ºC

62 oc

CHLOROPICRIN
76-06-2

slightly oily liquid; colourless; faint yellow liquid.

112

-69.2

164.4

sol

1.6558

5.7

@ 0 º C

1,1-DICHLORO-1-NI­TROETHANE
594-72-9

colourless liquid

124

143.9

0.25 ml/100 ml

1.4271

5.0

@ 25 ºC

76 oc

DIETHYLENE GLYCOL DINITRATE
693-21-0

liquid

161

-11.6

sl sol

@ 25 ºC

ETHYLENE GLYCOL DINITRATE
628-96-6

yellowish, oily liquid; colourless

197-200

-22.3

152.06

insol

1.4918

5.24

7 Pa

215 cc

114

ETHYLENE GLYCOL DINITRATE mixed with NITROGLYCERIN (1:1)
53569-64-5

pale yellow, viscous liquid

197-200

-22.3

152.06

sl sol

1.4978

218

ETHYL NITRATE
625-58-1

colourless liquid

87.2 ° C at 762 mm Hg

94.6 ° C

91.07

@ 55 ° C

1.1084 at 20 ° C/4 ° C

3.1

lower, 4.0% by vol

10

ETHYL NITRITE
109-95-5

colourless or yellowish, clear liquid

17

-50

75.07

slightly sol

@ 15 ° C/15 ° C

2.6

4.0% ll  50.0% ul by volume in air

-35 ° C

90 (decom­poses)

NITRILOTRIACETIC ACID
139-13-9

prismatic crystals from hot water; white crystalline powder

242

191.1

sl sol

> 1

NITROETHANE
79-24-3

oily liquid; colourless liquid

114

-50

75.07

sl sol

@ 25 ºC/4 ºC

2.58

2.08

4.0 ll
? ul

28

414

NITROGLYCERIN
55-63-0

pale yellow triclinic or rhombic crystals below melting point; viscous liquid; pale-yellow, oily liquid

260

13

227.1

sl sol

1.5931

7.8

0.0025 mm Hg

270

NITROMETHANE
75-52-5

colourless liquid; oily liquid

101.1

-29

61.04

sol

1.14

2.11

3.5

7.3 ll
? ul

35 cc

417

1-NITROPROPANE
108-03-2

colourless liquid

131.6

-108

89.09

sl sol

@ 25 ºC/4 ºC

3.1

7.5 mm Hg

2.2

34

2-NITROPROPANE
79-46-9

colourless liquid

120

-93

89.09

sl sol

@ 25 ºC/4 ºC

3.06

@ 25 ºC

2.6 ll
11.0 ul

24 cc

428

PENTAERYTHRITOL TETRANITRATE
78-11-5

white crystalline; prisms (acetone-alcohol)

@ 50 mm Hg

140

316.1

sl sol

1.773

PROPYL NITRATE
627-13-4

110

105.09

sl sol

1.0538

1,2-PROPYLENE GLYCOL DINITRATE
6423-43-4

colourless liquid

121

-27.7

166.09

sol

0.9234

361

TETRANITROMETHANE
509-14-8

pale yellow liquid; colourless oily fluid

126

13.8

196.0

insol

1.6229

0.8

@ 25 ºC

 

Back

Thursday, 18 August 2011 04:51

Nitrocompounds, Aliphatic: Physical & Chemical Hazards

Written by ILO Content Manager

Chemical Name
CAS-Number

Physical

Chemical

UN Class or Division /  Subsidiary Risks

ETHYLENE GLYCOL DINITRATE
628-96-6

Heating may cause violent combustion or explosion producing toxic fumes (nitrogen oxides) • May explosively decompose on shock, friction, or concussion • Reacts with acids

NITROETHANE
79-24-3

Heating may cause violent combustion or explosion • May explode on heating rapidly to high temperature • Shock-sensitive compounds are formed with strong alkalies, acids or combination of amines and heavy metal oxides • On combustion, forms toxic gases (nitrogen dioxide) • The substance decomposes on heating above 300°C producing toxic fumes (nitrogen oxides) • The substance is a strong reducing agent and reacts with oxidants • May attack some forms of plastic

3

NITROMETHANE
75-52-5

The vapour is heavier than air and may travel along the ground; distant ignition possible

May explosively decompose on shock, friction, or concussion • May explode on heating • The substance decomposes on heating producing nitrogen oxides • Reacts with alkalis causing compound formation which when dry pose explosion hazard • Forms shock sensitive mixture with amines

3

PENTAERYTHRITOL TETRANITRATE
78-11-5

1.1D

For UN Class: 1.5 = very insensitive substances which have a mass explosion hazard; 2.1 = flammable gas; 2.3 = toxic gas; 3 = flammable liquid; 4.1 = flammable solid; 4.2 = substance liable to spontaneous combustion; 4.3 = substance which in contact with water emits flammable gases; 5.1 = oxidizing substance; 6.1 = toxic; 7 = radioactive; 8 = corrosive substance

 

Back

Thursday, 18 August 2011 04:49

Nitrocompounds, Aliphatic: Health Hazards

Written by ILO Content Manager

Chemical Name

CAS-Number

ICSC Short-Term Exposure

ICSC Long-Term Exposure

ICSC Routes of Exposure and Symptoms

US NIOSH Target Organs & Routes of Entry

US NIOSH Symptoms

ETHYLENE GLYCOL DINITRATE         628-96-6

CVS

CVS

Inhalation: dizziness, headache, nausea, weakness, symptoms may be delayed        

Skin: may be absorbed

CVS; blood; skin; liver; kidneys Inh, abs, ing, con

Throb head; dizz; nau, vomit, abdom pain; hypotension, flush, palp, angina; methemo; delirium, CNS depres; irrit skin; in animals: anemia; liver, kidney damage

NITROETHANE   79-24-3

eyes; skin; resp tract

Inhalation: cough, headache

Skin: redness

Eyes: redness

Ingestion: abdominal pain, sore throat

Skin; resp sys; CNS; kidneys; liver Inh, ing, con

Derm; in animals: lac; dysp, pulm rales, edema; liver, kidney inj; narco

NITROMETHANE 75-52-5

CNS

skin; kidneys; liver

Inhalation: cough, dizziness, headache, nausea, unconsciousness, vomiting

Skin: dry skin

Eyes: redness

Eyes; skin; CNS; liver Inh, ing, con

Derm; in animals: irrit eyes, resp sys; convuls, narco; liver damage

 

Back

Thursday, 18 August 2011 04:48

Nitrocompounds, Aliphatic: Chemical Identification

Written by ILO Content Manager

Chemical Formula

Chemical

Synonyms
UN Code

CAS-Number

110463

AMYL NITRITE

Isoamyl nitrite;
3-Methylbutanol nitrite;
3-Methylbutyl nitrite;
Nitramyl;
Nitrous acid, 3-methylbutyl ester

110-46-3

598925

1-CHLORO-1-NITROETHANE

598-92-5

600259

1-CHLORO-1-NITROPROPANE

Chloronitropropane

600-25-9

594718

2-CHLORO-2-NITROPROPANE

Ethyl nitrite;
Ethyl nitrite solutions (DOT);
Nitrosyl ethoxide;
Nitrous ether;
Nitrous ethyl ether
UN1194

594-71-8

76062

CHLOROPICRIN

Nitrochloroform;
Nitrotrichloromethane;
Trichloronitromethane
UN1580
UN1583

76-06-2

594729

1,1-DICHLORO-1-NITROETHANE

Dichloronitroethane
UN2650

594-72-9

693210

DIETHYLENE GLYCOL DINITRATE

Di(hydroxyethyl) ether dinitrate
UN0075

693-21-0

625581

ETHYL NITRATE

Nitric acid, propyl ester;
Propyl nitrate;
n-Propyl nitrate

625-58-1

109955

ETHYL NITRITE

Nitric acid, propyl ester;
Propyl nitrate;
n-Propyl nitrate

109-95-5

628966

ETHYLENE GLYCOL DINITRATE

Dinitroglycol;
Ethylene dinitrate;
Ethylene nitrate;
Glycol dinitrate;
Nitroglycol

628-96-6

53569645

ETHYLENE GLYCOL DINITRATE mixed with NITROGLYCERIN (1:1)

53569-64-5

110463

AMYL NITRITE

Isoamyl nitrite;
3-Methylbutanol nitrite;
3-Methylbutyl nitrite;
Nitramyl;
Nitrous acid, 3-methylbutyl ester

110-46-3

139139

NITRILOTRIACETIC ACID

Aminotriacetic acid;
N,N-Bis(carboxymethyl)glycine;
Triglycine;
Triglycollamic acid

139-13-9

79243

NITROETHANE

UN2842

79-24-3

55630

NITROGLYCERIN

Glycerol trinitrate;
Glyceryl nitrate;
Glyceryl trinitrate;
Nitroglycerol
UN0143
UN0144
UN1204
UN3064

55-63-0

75525

NITROMETHANE

Nitrocarbol
UN1261

75-52-5

108032

1-NITROPROPANE

108-03-2

79469

2-NITROPROPANE

Dimethylnitromethane;
Isonitropropane;
Nitroisopropane

79-46-9

78115

PENTAERYTHRITOL TETRANITRATE

2,2-Bis((nitrooxy)methyl)-1,3-Propanediol dinitrate (ester);
2,2-Bis(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-Propanediol tetranitrate;
Neopentanetetrayl nitrate;
Nitropentaerythrite
UN0411

78-11-5

627134

PROPYL NITRATE

Nitric acid, propyl ester;
n-Propyl nitrate ;
UN1865

627-13-4

6423434

1,2-PROPYLENE GLYCOL DINITRATE

Propylene dinitrate;
Propylene glycol 1,2-dinitrate;
1,2-Propanediol, dinitrate

6423-43-4

509148

TETRANITROMETHANE

UN1510

509-14-8

 

Back

Friday, 12 August 2011 01:40

Peroxides, Organic & Inogarnic: Physical & Chemical Properties

Written by ILO Content Manager

Chemical Name
CAS-Number

Colour/Form

Boiling Point (°C)

Melting Point (°C)

Molecular Weight

Solubility in Water

Relative Density (water=1)

Relative Vapour Density (air=1)

Vapour Pressure/ (Kpa)

Inflam.
Limits

Flash Point (°C)

Auto Ignition Point (°C)

BENZOYL PEROXIDE
94-36-0

crystals; white, granular powder

explodes

103-106 decomp

242.2

sl sol

@ 25 °C

8.4

<0.1

80

tert-BUTYL HYDROPEROXIDE
75-91-2

water-white liquid

89 decomp

-8

90.12

sol

0.8960

2.07

3.07

5 ll
10 ul

43

238

CUMENE HYDROPEROXIDE
80-15-9

colourless to pale-yellow liquid

153

-10

152.2

sl sol

1.05

32 Pa

0.9 ll
6.5 ul

79

221

DICUMYL PEROXIDE
80-43-3

pale yellow to white granular solid

28

270.40

1.02

DIISOPROPYL PEROXYDICARBONATE
105-64-6

coarse granular crystalline solid; colorless

8-10

206.22

insol

@ 15.5 °C/4 °C

DODECANOYL PEROXIDE
105-74-8

white coarse powder; white plates

decomp

49

398.70

insol

@ 25 °C (solid)

112

HYDROGEN PEROXIDE
7722-84-1

a clear, colourless liquid; at low temperatures a crystalline solid

152

-0.43

34.02

misc

@ 0 °C/4 °C

1.0

0.2 (90%), 0.1 (70%)

 

Back

Friday, 12 August 2011 01:38

Peroxides, Organic & Inogarnic: Physical & Chemical Hazards

Written by ILO Content Manager

Chemical Name
CAS-Number

Physical

Chemical

UN Class or Division /  Subsidiary Risks

BENZOYL PEROXIDE
94-36-0

May explosively decompose on shock, friction, or concussion • May explode on heating • On combustion, forms irritating and toxic fumes and gases of benzoic acid and carbon monoxide • The substance decomposes on heating at 103 °C • The substance is a strong oxidant and reacts violently with combustible and reducing materials • Reacts violently with many organic and inorganic acids, alcohols and amines causing fire and explosion hazard • Attacks some forms of plastics, rubber or coatings; fires and explosions may result

tert-BUTYL HYDROPEROXIDE
75-91-2

May explode on heating • The substance is a strong oxidant and reacts violently with combustible and reducing materials, metallic and sulphur compounds

CUMENE HYDROPEROXIDE
80-15-9

May explode on heating at about 150 °C • On combustion, forms toxic gases • Upon heating, toxic fumes are formed • The substance is a strong oxidant and reacts violently with combustible and reducing materials, causing fire and explosion hazard • Contact with copper or lead alloys and mineral acids may lead to violent decomposition

5.2

DICUMYL PEROXIDE
80-43-3

DIISOPROPYL PEROXYDICARBONATE
105-64-6

DODECANOYL PEROXIDE
105-74-8

5.2

HYDROGEN PEROXIDE
7722-84-1

The substance decomposes on warming or under influence of light producing oxygen, which increases fire hazard • The substance is a strong oxidant and reacts violently with combustible and reducing materials causing fire and explosion hazard particularly in the presence of metals • Attacks many organic substances, eg., textile and paper

For UN Class: 1.5 = very insensitive substances which have a mass explosion hazard; 2.1 = flammable gas; 2.3 = toxic gas; 3 = flammable liquid; 4.1 = flammable solid; 4.2 = substance liable to spontaneous combustion; 4.3 = substance which in contact with water emits flammable gases; 5.1 = oxidizing substance; 6.1 = toxic; 7 = radioactive; 8 = corrosive substance

 

Back

Page 3 of 122

" DISCLAIMER: The ILO does not take responsibility for content presented on this web portal that is presented in any language other than English, which is the language used for the initial production and peer-review of original content. Certain statistics have not been updated since the production of the 4th edition of the Encyclopaedia (1998)."

Contents

Preface
Part I. The Body
Part II. Health Care
Part III. Management & Policy
Part IV. Tools and Approaches
Part V. Psychosocial and Organizational Factors
Part VI. General Hazards
Part VII. The Environment
Part VIII. Accidents and Safety Management
Part IX. Chemicals
Part X. Industries Based on Biological Resources
Part XI. Industries Based on Natural Resources
Part XII. Chemical Industries
Part XIII. Manufacturing Industries
Part XIV. Textile and Apparel Industries
Part XV. Transport Industries
Part XVI. Construction
Part XVII. Services and Trade
Education and Training Services
Emergency and Security Services
Entertainment and the Arts
Health Care Facilities and Services
Ergonomics and Health Care
The Physical Environment and Health Care
Healthcare Workers and Infectious Diseases
Chemicals in the Health Care Environment
The Hospital Environment
Health Care Facilities and Services Resources
Hotels and Restaurants
Office and Retail Trades
Personal and Community Services
Public and Government Services
Transport Industry and Warehousing
Part XVIII. Guides

Health Care Facilities and Services References

Abdo, R and H Chriske. 1990. HAV-Infektionsrisiken im Krankenhaus, Altenheim und Kindertagesstätten. In Arbeitsmedizin im Gesundheitsdienst, Band 5, edited by F Hofmann and U Stössel. Stuttgart: Gentner Verlag.

Acton, W. 1848. On the advantages of caouchoue and gutta-percha in protecting the skin against the contagion of animal poisons. Lancet 12:588.

Ahlin, J. 1992. Interdisciplinary case studies in offices in Sweden. In Corporate Space and Architecture. Vol. 2. Paris: Ministére de l’équipment et du logement.

Akinori, H and O Hiroshi. 1985. Analysis of fatigue and health conditions among hospital nurses. J Science of Labour 61:517-578.

Allmeers, H, B Kirchner, H Huber, Z Chen, JW Walter, and X Baur. 1996. The latency period between exposure and the symptoms in allergy to natural latex: Suggestions for prevention. Dtsh Med Wochenschr 121 (25/26):823-828.

Alter, MJ. 1986. Susceptibility to varicella zoster virus among adults at high risk for exposure. Infec Contr Hosp Epid 7:448-451.

—. 1993. The detection, transmission, and outcome of hepatitis C infection. Infect Agents Dis 2:155-166.

Alter, MJ, HS Margolis, K Krawczynski, FN Judson, A Mares, WJ Alexander, PY Hu, JK Miller, MA Gerber, and RE Sampliner. 1992. The natural history of community-acquired hepatitis C in the United States. New Engl J Med 327:1899-1905.

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). 1991. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices, 6th edition. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH.

—. 1994. TLVs: Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices for 1994-1995. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH.

American Hospital Association (AHA). 1992. Implementing Safer Needle Practice. Chicago, IL: AHA.

American Institute of Architects. 1984. Determining Hospital Space Requirements. Washington, DC: American Institute of Architects Press.

American Institute of Architects Committee on Architecture for Health. 1987. Guidelines for Construction and Equipment of Hospital and Medical Facilities. Washington, DC: American Institute of Acrchitects Press.

American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). 1987. Health facilities. In ASHRAE Handbook: Heating, Ventilating and Air-conditioning Systems and Applications. Atlanta, GA: ASHRAE.

Anon. 1996. New drugs for HIV infection. Medical Letter of Drugs and Therapeutics 38:37.

Axelsson, G, R Rylander, and I Molin. 1989. Outcome of pregnancy in relation to irregular and inconvenient work schedules. Brit J Ind Med 46:393-398.

Beatty, J SK Ahern, and R Katz. 1977. Sleep deprivation and the vigilance of anesthesiologists during simulated surgery. In Vigilance, edited by RR Mackie. New York: Plenum Press.

Beck-Friis, B, P Strang, and PO Sjöden. 1991. Work stress and job satisfaction in hospital-based home care. Journal of Palliative Care 7(3):15-21.

Benenson, AS (ed.). 1990. Control of Communicable Disease in Man, 15th edition. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association.

Bertold, H, F Hofmann, M Michaelis, D Neumann-Haefelin, G Steinert, and J Wölfle. 1994. Hepatitis C—Risiko für Beschäftigte im Gesundheitsdienst? In Arbeitsmedizin im Gesundheitsdienst, Band 7, edited by F Hofmann, G Reschauer, and U Stössel. Stuttgart: Gentner Verlag.

Bertram, DA. 1988. Characteristics of shifts and second-year resident performance in an emergency department. NY State J Med 88:10-14.

Berufsgenossenschaft für Gesundheitsdienst und Wohlfahrtspflege (BGW). 1994. Geschäftsbericht.

Bissel, L and R Jones. 1975. Disabled doctors ignored by peers. Presented at the American Medical Association Conference on the Imparied Physician, 11 April, San Francisco, CA.

Bitker, TE. 1976. Reaching out to the depressed physician. JAMA 236(15):1713-1716.

Blanchard, M, MM Cantel, M Faivre, J Girot, JP Ramette, D Thely, and M Estryn-Béhar. 1992. Incidence des rythmes biologiques sur le travail de nuit. In Ergonomie à l’hôpital, edited by M Estryn-Béhar, C Gadbois, and M Pottier. Toulouse: Edition Octares.

Blanpain, C and M Estryn-Béhar. 1990. Measures d’ambiance physique dans dix services hospitaliers. Performances 45:18-33.

Blaycock, B. 1995. Latex allergies: Overview, prevention and implications for nursing care. Ostomy Wound Manage 41(5):10-12,14-15.

Blazer, MJ, FJ Hickman, JJ Farmer, and DJ Brenner. 1980. Salmonella typhi: The laboratory as a reservoir of infection. Journal of Infectious Diseases 142:934-938.

Blow, RJ and MIV Jayson. 1988. Back pain. In Fitness for Work: The Medical Approach, edited by FC Edwards, RL McCallum, and PJ Taylor. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Boehm, G and E Bollinger. 1990. Significance of environmental factors on the tolerated enteral feeding volumes for patients in neonatal intensive care units. Kinderarzliche Praxis 58(6):275-279.

Bongers, P, RD Winter, MAJ Kompier, and VV Hildebrandt. 1992. Psychosocial Factors at Work and Musculoskeletal Diseases. Review of the literature. Leiden, Netherlands: TNO.

Bouhnik, C, M Estryn-Béhar, B Kapitaniak, M Rocher, and P Pereau. 1989. Le roulage dans les établissements de soins. Document pour le médecin du travail. INRS 39:243-252.

Boulard, R. 1993. Les indices de santé mentale du personnel infirmier: l’impact de la charge de travail, de l’autonomie et du soutien social. In La psychologie du travail à l’aube du XXI° siècle. Actes du 7° Congrès de psychologie du travail de langue française. Issy-les-Moulineaux: Editions EAP.

Breakwell, GM. 1989. Facing Physical Violence. London: British Psychological Society.

Bruce, DL and MJ Bach. 1976. Effects of Trace Concentrations of Anesthetic Gases on Behavioral Performance of Operating Room Personnel. DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No. 76-169. Cincinnati, OH: NIOSH.

Bruce, DL, KA Eide, HW Linde, and JE Eckenhoff. 1968. Causes of death among anesthesiologists: A 20 years survey. Anesthesiology 29:565-569.

Bruce, DL, KA Eide, NJ Smith, F Seltzer, and MH Dykes. 1974. A prospective survey of anesthesiologists’ mortality, 1967-1974. Anesthesiology 41:71-74.

Burhill, D, DA Enarson, EA Allen, and S Grzybowski. 1985. Tuberculosis in female nurses in British Columbia. Can Med Assoc J 132:137.

Burke, FJ, MA Wilson, and JF McCord. 1995. Allergy to latex gloves in clinical practice: Case reports. Quintessence Int 26(12):859-863.

Buring, JE, CH Hennekens, SL Mayrent, B Rosner, ER Greenberg, and T Colton. 1985. Health experiences of operating room personnel. Anesthesiology 62: 325-330.

Burton, R. 1990. St. Mary’s Hospital, Isle of Wight: A suitable background for caring. Brit Med J 301:1423-1425.

Büssing, A. 1993. Stress and burnout in nursing: Studies in different work structures and work schedules. In Occupational Health for Health Care Workers, edited by M Hagberg, F Hofmann, U Stössel, and G Westlander. Landsberg/Lech: Ecomed Verlag.

Cabal, C, D Faucon, H Delbart, F Cabal, and G Malot. 1986. Construction d’une blanchisserie industrielle aux CHU de Saint-Etienne. Arch Mal Prof 48(5):393-394.

Callan, JR, RT Kelly, ML Quinn, JW Gwynne, RA Moore, FA Muckler, J Kasumovic, WM Saunders, RP Lepage, E Chin, I Schoenfeld, and DI Serig. 1995. Human Factors Evaluation of Remote Afterloading Brachytherapy. NUREG/CR-6125. Vol. 1. Washington, DC: Nuclear Regulatory Commission

Cammock, R. 1981. Primary Health Care Buildings: Briefing and Design Guide for Architects and Their Clients. London: Architectural Press.

Cardo, D, P Srivastava, C Ciesielski, R Marcus, P McKibben, D Culver, and D Bell. 1995. Case-control study of HIV seroconversion in health care workers after percutaneous exposure to HIV-infected blood (abstract). Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 16 suppl:20.

Carillo, T, C Blanco, J Quiralte, R Castillo, M Cuevas, and F Rodriguez de Castro. 1995. Prevalence of latex allergy among greenhouse workers. J Allergy Clin Immunol 96(5/1):699-701.

Catananti, C and A Cambieri. 1990. Igiene e Tecnica Ospedaliera (Hospital Hygiene and Organization). Roma: II Pensiero Scientifico Editore.

Catananti, C, G Damiani, G Capelli, and G Manara. 1993. Building design and selection of materials and furnishings in the hospital: A review of international guidelines. In Indoor Air ’93, Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate 2:641-646.

Catananti, C, G Capelli, G Damiani, M Volpe, and GC Vanini. 1994. Multiple criteria evaluation in planning selection of materials for health care facilities. Preliminary identification of criteria and variables. In Healthy Buildings ’94, Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference 1:103-108.

Cats-Baril, WL and JW Frymoyer. 1991. The economics of spinal disorders. In The Adult Spine, edited by JW Frymoyer. New York: Raven Press.

Centers for Disease Control (CDC). 1982. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS): Precautions for clinical laboratory staffs. Morb Mortal Weekly Rep 31:577-580.

—. 1983. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS): Precautions for health-care workers and allied professionals. Morb Mortal Weekly Rep 32:450-451.

—. 1987a. Human immunodeficiency virus infection in health-care workers exposed to blood of infected patients. Morb Mortal Weekly Rep 36:285-289.

—. 1987b. Recommendations for prevention of HIV transmission in health-care settings. Morb Mortal Weekly Rep 36 suppl 2:3S-18S.

—. 1988a. Universal precautions for prevention of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and other bloodborne pathogens in health-care settings. Morb Mortal Weekly Rep 37:377-382,387-388.

—. 1988b. Guidelines for prevention of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus to health-care and public-safety workers. Morb Mortal Weekly Rep 37 suppl 6:1-37.

—. 1989. Guidelines for prevention of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus to health-care and public-safety workers. Morb Mortal Weekly Rep 38 suppl 6.

—. 1990. Public Health Service statement on management of occupational exposure to human immunodeficiency virus, including considerations regarding post-exposure use. Morb Mortal Weekly Rep 39 (No. RR-1).

—. 1991a. Hepatitis B virus: A comprehensive strategy for eliminating transmission in the United States through universal childhood vaccination: Recommendations of the Immunization Practices Advisory Committee (ACIP). Morb Mortal Weekly Rep 40 (No. RR-13).

—. 1991b. Recommendations for preventing transmission of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus to patients during exposure-prone invasive procedures. Morb Mortal Weekly Rep 40 (No. RR-8).

—. 1993a. Recommended infection-control practices in dentistry. Morb Mortal Weekly Rep 42 (No. RR-8):1-12.

—. 1993b. Biosafety in Microbial and Biomedical Laboratories, 3rd edition. DHHS (CDC) Publication No. 93-8395. Atlanta, GA: CDC.

—. 1994a. HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report. Vol. 5(4). Atlanta, GA: CDC.

—. 1994b. HIV/AIDS Prevention Newsletter. Vol. 5(4). Atlanta, GA: CDC.

—. 1994c. Human immunodeficiency virus in household settings—United States. Morb Mortal Weekly Rep 43:347-356.

—. 1994d. HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report. Vol. 6(1). Atlanta, GA: CDC.

—. 1994e. Guidelines for preventing the transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in health-care facilities. Morb Mortal Weekly Rep 43 (No. RR-13):5-50.

—. 1995. Case-control study of HIV seroconversion in health-care workers after percutaneous exposure to HIV-infected blood—France, United Kingdom, and United States. Morb Mortal Weekly Rep 44:929-933.

—. 1996a. HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report. Vol 8(2). Atlanta, GA: CDC.

—. 1996b. Update: Provisional Public Health Service recommendations for chemoprophylaxis after occupational exposure to HIV. Morb Mortal Weekly Rep 45:468-472.

Charney, W (ed.). 1994. Essentials of Modern Hospital Safety. Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publishers.

Chou, T, D Weil, and P Arnmow. 1986. Prevalence of measles antibodies in hospital personnel. Infec Contr Hosp Epid 7:309-311.

Chriske, H and A Rossa. 1991. Hepatitis-C-Infektionsgefährdung des medizinischen Personals. In Arbeitsmedizin im Gesundheitsdienst, Band 5, edited by F Hofmann and U Stössel. Stuttgart: Gentner Verlag.

Clark, DC, E Salazar-Gruesco, P Grabler, J Fawcett. 1984. Predictors of depression during the first 6 months of internship. Am J Psychiatry 141:1095-1098.

Clemens, R, F Hofmann, H Berthold, and G Steinert. 1992. Prävalenz von Hepatitis, A, B und C bei Bewohern einer Einrichtung für geistig Behinderte. Sozialpädiatrie 14:357-364.

Cohen, EN. 1980. Anasthetic Exposure in the Workplace. Littleton, MA: PSG Publishing Co.

Cohen, EN, JW Bellville, and BW Brown, Jr. 1971. Anesthesia, pregnancy and miscarriage: A study of operating room nurses and anesthetists. Anesthesiology 35:343-347.

—. 1974. Occupational disease among operating room personnel: A national study. Anesthesiology 41:321-340.

—. 1975. A survey of anethestic health hazards among dentists. J Am Dent Assoc 90:1291-1296.

Commission of the European Communities. 1990. Recommendation of the Commission February 21, 1990, about Protection of People against Exposure to Radon in Indoor Environments. 90/143/Euratom (Italian Translation).

Cooper, JB. 1984. Toward prevention of anesthesic mishaps. International Anesthesiology Clinics 22:167-183.

Cooper, JB, RS Newbower, and RJ Kitz. 1984. An analysis of major errors and equipment failures in anesthesia management: Considerations for prevention and detection. Anesthesiology 60(1):34-42.

Costa, G, R Trinco, and G Schallenberg. 1992. Problems of thermal comfort in an operating room equipped with laminar air flow system In Ergonomie à l’hôpital (Hospital Ergonomics), edited by M Estryn-Béhar M, C Gadbois, and M Pottier. International Symposium Paris 1991. Toulouse: Editions Octares.

Cristofari, M-F, M Estryn-Béhar, M Kaminski, and E Peigné. 1989. Le travail des femmes à l’hôpital. Informations Hospitalières 22/23:48-62.

Council of the European Communities. 1988. Directive December 21, 1988, to Draw Near the Laws of Member Countries about Building Products. 89/106/EEC (Italian translation).

de Chambost, M. 1994. Alarmes sonnantes, soignantes trébuchantes. Objectif soins 26:63-68.

de Keyser, V and AS Nyssen. 1993. Les erreurs humaines en anesthésies. Le Travail humain 56(2/3):243-266.

Decree of the President of Ministers Council. 1986. Directive to the Regions about Private Health Care Facilities Requirements. 27 June.

Dehlin, O, S Berg, GBS Andersson, and G Grimby. 1981. Effect of physical training and ergonomic counselling on the psychosocial perception of work and on the subjective assesment of low-back insuffuciency. Scand J Rehab 13:1-9.

Delaporte, MF, M Estryn-Béhar, G Brucker, E Peigne, and A Pelletier. 1990. Pathologie dermatologique et exercice professionnel en milieu hospitalier. Arch Mal Prof 51(2):83-88.

Denisco, RA, JN Drummond, and JS Gravenstein. 1987. The effect of fatigue on the performance of a simulated anesthetic monitoring task. J Clin Monit 3:22-24.

Devienne, A, D Léger, M Paillard, A Dômont. 1995. Troubles du sommeil et de la vigilance chez des généralistes de garde en région parisienne. Arch Mal Prof 56(5):407-409.

Donovan, R, PA Kurzman, and C Rotman. 1993. Improving the lives of home care workers: A partnership of social work and labor. Soc Work 38(5):579-585..

Edling, C. 1980. Anesthetic gases as an occupational hazard. A review. Scand J Work Environ Health 6:85-93.

Ehrengut, W and T Klett. 1981. Rötelnimmunstatus von Schwesternschülerinnen in Hamberger Krankenhäusern im Jahre 1979. Monatsschrift Kinderheilkdunde 129:464-466.

Elias, J, D Wylie, A Yassi, and N Tran. 1993. Eliminating worker exposure to ethylene oxide from hospital sterilizers: An evaluation of cost and effectiveness of an isolation system. Appl Occup Environ Hyg 8(8):687-692.

Engels, J, TH Senden, and K Hertog. 1993. Working postures of nurses in nursing homes. In Occupational Health for Health Care Workers, edited by M Hagberg, F Hofmann, U Stössel, and G Westlander. Landsberg/Lech: Ecomed Verlag.

Englade J, E Badet and G Becque. 1994. Vigilance et qualité de sommeil des soignants de nuit. Revue de l’infirmière 17:37-48.

Ernst, E and V Fialka. 1994. Idiopathic low back pain: Present impact, future directions. European Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 4:69-72.

Escribà Agüir, V. 1992. Nurses’ attitudes towards shiftwork and quality of life, Scand J Soc Med 20(2):115-118.

Escribà Agüir V, S Pérez, F Bolumar, and F Lert. 1992. Retentissement des horaires de travail sur le sommeil des infirmiers. In Ergonomie à l’hôpital (Hospital Ergonomics), edited by M Estryn-Béhar, C Gadbois, and M Pottier. International Symposium Paris 1991. Toulouse: Editions Octares.

Estryn-Béhar, M. 1990. Les groupes de parole: Une stratégie d’amélioration des relations avec les malades. Le concours médical 112(8):713-717.

—. 1991. Guide des risques professionnels du personnel des services de soins. Paris: Editions Lamarre.

Estryn-Béhar, M and N Bonnet. 1992. Le travail de nuit à l’hôpital. Quelques constats à mieux prendre en compte. Arch Mal Prof 54(8):709-719.

Estryn-Béhar, M and F Fonchain. 1986. Les troubles du sommeil du personnel hospitalier effectuant un travail de nuit en continu. Arch Mal Prof 47(3):167-172;47(4):241.

Estryn-Béhar, M and JP Fouillot. 1990a. Etude de la charge physique du personnel soignant, Documents pour le médecin du travail. INRS: 27-33.

—. 1990b. Etude de la charge mentale et approche de la charge psychique du personnel soignant. Analyse du travail des infirmières et aides-soignantes dans 10 services de soins. Documents pour le médecin du travail INRS 42:131-144.

Estryn-Béhar, M and C Hakim-Serfaty. 1990. Organisation de l’espace hospitalier. Techn hosp 542:55-63.

Estryn-Béhar, M and G Milanini. 1992. Concevoir les espaces de travail en services de soins. Technique Hospitalière 557:23-27.

Estryn-Béhar, M and H Poinsignon. 1989. Travailler à l’hopital. Paris: Berger Levrault.

Estryn-Béhar, M, C Gadbois, and E Vaichere. 1978. Effets du travail de nuit en équipes fixes sur une population féminine. Résultats d’une enquête dans le secteur hospitalier. Arch Mal Prof 39(9):531-535.

Estryn-Béhar, M, C Gadbois, E Peigné, A Masson, and V Le Gall. 1989b. Impact of nightshifts on male and female hospital staff, in Shiftwork: Health and Performance, edited by G Costa, G Cesana, K Kogi, and A Wedderburn. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Night and Shift Work. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.

Estryn-Béhar, M, M Kaminski, and E Peigné. 1990. Strenuous working conditions and musculoskeletal disorders among female hospital workers. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 62:47-57.

Estryn-Béhar, M, M Kaminski, M Franc, S Fermand, and F Gerstle F. 1978. Grossesse er conditions de travail en milieu hospitalier. Revue franç gynec 73(10) 625-631.

Estryn-Béhar, M, M Kaminski, E Peigné, N Bonnet, E Vaichère, C Gozlan, S Azoulay, and M Giorgi. 1990. Stress at work and mental health status. Br J Ind Med 47:20-28.

Estryn-Béhar, M, B Kapitaniak, MC Paoli, E Peigné, and A Masson. 1992. Aptitude for physical exercise in a population of female hospital workers. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 64:131-139.

Estryn Béhar, M, G Milanini, T Bitot, M Baudet, and MC Rostaing. 1994. La sectorisation des soins: Une organisation, un espace. Gestion hospitalière 338:552-569.

Estryn-Béhar, M, G Milanini, MM Cantel, P Poirier, P Abriou, and the ICU’s study group. 1995a. Interest of participative ergonomic methodology to improve an intensive care unit. In Occupational Health for Health Care Workers, 2nd edition, edited by M Hagberg, F Hofmann, U Stössel, and G Westlander. Landsberg/Lech: Ecomed Verlag.

—. 1995b. Participative ergonomic methodology for the new fitting out of a cardiologic intensive care unit. In Occupational Health for Health Care Workers, 2nd edition, edited by M Hagberg, F Hofmann, U Stössel, and G Westlander. Landsberg/Lech: Ecomed Verlag.

Estryn-Béhar, M, E Peigné, A Masson, C Girier-Desportes, JJ Guay, D Saurel, JC Pichenot, and J Cavaré. 1989a. Les femmes travaillant à l’hôpital aux différents horaires, qui sont-elles? Que décrivent-elles comme conditions de travail? Que souhaitent-elles? Arch Mal Prof 50(6):622-628.

Falk, SA and NF Woods. 1973. Hospital noise-levels and potential health hazards, New England J Med 289:774-781.

Fanger, PO. 1973. Assessment of man’s thermal comfort in practice. Br J Ind Med 30:313-324.

—. 1992. Sensory characterization of air quality and pollution sources. In Chemical, Microbiological, Health and Comfort Aspects of Indoor Air Quality—State of the Art in SBS, edited by H Knoppel and P Wolkoff. Dordrecht, NL: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Favrot-Laurens. 1992. Advanced technologies and work organization of hospital teams. In Ergonomie à l’hôpital (Hospital Ergonomics), edited by M Estryn-Béhar, C Gadbois, and M Pottier. International Symposium Paris 1991. Toulouse: Editions Octares.

—. 1992. Sensory characterization of air quality and pollution sources. In Chemical, Microbiological, Health and Comfort Aspects of Indoor Air Quality—State of the Art in Sick Building Syndrome, edited by H Koppel and P Wolkoff. Brussels and Luxembourg: EEC.

Ferstandig, LL. 1978. Trace concentrations of anesthetic gases: A critical review of their disease potential. Anesth Analg 57:328-345.

Finley, GA and AJ Cohen. 1991. Percieved urgency and the anaesthetist: Responses to common operating room monitor alarms. Can J Anaesth 38(8):958-964

Ford, CV and DK Wentz. 1984. The internship year: A study of sleep, mood states, and psychophysiologic parameters. South Med J 77:1435-1442.

Friedman, RC, DS Kornfeld, and TJ Bigger. 1971. Psychological problems associated with sleep deprivation in interns. Journal of Medical Education 48:436-441.

Friele, RD and JJ Knibbe. 1993. Monitoring the barriers with the use of patient lifts in home care as perceived by nursing personnel. In Occupational Health for Health Care Workers, edited by M Hagberg, F Hofmann, U Stössel, and G Westlander. LandsbergLech: Ecomed Verlag.

Gadbois, CH. 1981. Aides-soignantes et infirmières de nuit. In Conditions de travail et vie quotidienne. Montrougs: Agence Nationale pour l’Amélioration des Conditions de Travail.

Gadbois, C, P Bourgeois, MM Goeh-Akue-Gad, J Guillaume, and MA Urbain. 1992. Contraintes temporelles et structure de l’espace dans le processus de travail des équipes de soins. In Ergonomie à l’hôpital (Hospital Ergonomics), edited by M Estryn-Béhar, C Gadbois, and M Pottier. International Symposium Paris 1991. Toulouse: Editions Octares.

Games, WP, and W Tatton-Braen. 1987. Hospitals Design and Development. London: Architectural Press.

Gardner, ER and RC Hall. 1981. The professional stress syndrome. Psychosomatics 22:672-680.

Gaube, J, H Feucht, R Laufs, D Polywka, E Fingscheidt, and HE Müller. 1993. Hepatitis A, B und C als desmoterische Infecktionen. Gessundheitwesen und Desinfextion 55:246-249.

Gerberding, JL. N.d. Open trial of Zidovudine Postexposure-chemoprophylaxis in Health Care Workers with Occupational Exposures to Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Skript SFGH.

—. 1995. Management of occupational exposures to blood-borne viruses. New Engl J Med 332:444-451.

Ginesta, J. 1989. Gases anestésicos. In Riesgos del Trabajo del Personal Sanitario, edited by JJ Gestal. Madrid: Editorial Interamericana McGraw-Hill.

Gold, DR, S Rogacz, N Bock, TD Tosteson, TM Baum, FE Speizer, and CA Czeiler. 1992. Rotating shift work, sleep and accidents related to sleepiness in hospital nurses. Am J Public Health 82(7):1011-1014.

Goldman, LI, MT McDonough, and GP Rosemond. 1972. Stresses affecting surgical performance and learning: Correlation of heart rate, electrocardiogram, and operation simultaneously recorded on videotapes. J Surg Res 12:83-86.

Graham, C, C Hawkins, and W Blau. 1983. Innovative social work practice in health care: Stress management. In Social Work in a Turbulent World, edited by M Dinerman. Washington, DC: National Association of Social Workers.

Green, A. 1992. How nurses can ensure the sounds patients hear have a positive rather than negative effect upon recovery and quality of life. Intensive & Critical Care Nursing Journal 8(4):245-248.

Griffin, WV. 1995. Social worker and agency safety. In Encyclopaedia of Social Work, 19th edition. Washington, DC: National Association of Social Workers.

Grob, PJ. 1987. Cluster of hepatitis B transmission by a physician. Lancet 339:1218-1220.

Guardino, X and MG Rosell. 1985. Exposicion laboral a gases anestésicos. In Notas Técnicas de Prevención. No. 141. Barcelona: INSHT.

—. 1992. Exposure at work to anesthetic gases. A controlled risk? Janus 12:8-10.

—. 1995. Exposure monitoring to anesthetic gases. In Occupational Health for Health Care Workers, edited by M Hagburg, F Hoffmann, U Stössel, and G Westlander. Solna: National Institute of Occupational Health.

Hagberg, M, F Hofmann, U Stössel, and G Westlander (eds.). 1993. Occupational Health for Health Care Workers. Landsberg/Lech: Ecomed Verlag.

Hagberg, M, F Hofmann, U Stössel, and G Westlander (eds.). 1995. Occupational Health for Health Care Workers. Singapore: International Commission on Occupational Health.

Haigh, R. 1992. The application of ergonomics to the design of workplace in health care buildings in the U.K. In Ergonomie à l’hôpital (Hospital Ergonomics), edited by M Estryn-Béhar, C Gadbois, and M Pottier. International Symposium Paris 1991. Toulouse: Editions Octares.

Halm, MA and MA Alpen, 1993. The impact of technology on patient and families. Nursing Clinics of North America 28(2):443-457.

Harber, P, L Pena, and P Hsu. 1994. Personal history, training, and worksite as predictors of back pain of nurses. Am J Ind Med 25:519-526.

Hasselhorn, HM. 1994. Antiretrovirale prophylaxe nach kontakt mit HIV-jontaminierten. In Flüssigkeiten in Infektiologie, edited by F Hofmann. Landsberg/Lech: Ecomed Verlag.

Hasselhorn, HM and E Seidler.1993. Terminal care in Sweden—New aspects of the professional care of dying. In Occupational Health for Health Care Workers, edited by M Hagberg, F Hofmann, U Stössel U, and G Westlander. Landsberg/Lech: Ecomed Verlag.

Heptonstall, J, K Porter, and N Gill. 1993. Occupational Transmission of HIV: Summary of Published Reports. London: Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre AIDS Centre.

Hesse, A, Lacher A, HU Koch, J Kublosch, V Ghane, and KF Peters. 1996. Update on the latex allergy topic. Hauzarzt 47(11):817-824.

Ho, DD, T Moudgil, and M Alam. 1989. Quantitation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in the blood of infected persons. New Engl J Med 321:1621-1625.

Hodge, B and JF Thompson. 1990. Noise pollution in the operating theatre. Lancet 335:891-894.

Hofmann, F and H Berthold. 1989. Zur Hepatitis-B-Gefährdung des Krankenhauspersonals-Möglichkeiten der prae-und postexpositionellen Prophylaxe. Medizinische Welt 40:1294-1301.

Hofmann, F and U Stössel. 1995. Environmental health in the health care professions: Biological, physical, psychic, and social health hazards. Reviews on Environmental Health 11:41-55.

Hofmann, F, H Berthold, and G Wehrle. 1992. Immunity to hepatitis A in hospital personnel. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 11(12):1195.

Hofmann, F, U Stössel, and J Klima. 1994. Low back pain in nurses (I). European Journal of Physical and Medical Rehabilitation 4:94-99.

Hofmann, F, B Sydow, and M Michaelis. 1994a. Mumps—berufliche Gefährdung und Aspekte der epidemiologischen Entwicklung. Gessundheitwesen und Desinfextion 56:453-455.

—. 1994b. Zur epidemiologischen Bedeutung der Varizellen. Gessundheitwesen und Desinfextion 56:599-601.

Hofmann, F, G Wehrle, K Berthold, and D Köster. 1992. Hepatitis A as an occupational hazard. Vaccine 10 suppl 1:82-84.

Hofmann, F, U Stössel, M Michaelis, and A Siegel. 1993. Tuberculosis—Occupational risk for health care workers? In Occupational Health for Health Care Workers, edited by M Hagberg. Landsberg/Lech: Ecomed Verlag.

Hofmann, F, M Michaelis, A Siegel, and U Stössel. 1994. Wirbelsäulenerkrankungen im Pflegeberuf. Medizinische Grundlagen und Prävention. Landsberg/Lech: Ecomed Verlag.

Hofmann, F, M Michaelis, M Nübling, and FW Tiller. 1995. European Hepatitis—A Study. Publikation in Vorereitung.

Hofmann, H and C Kunz. 1990. Low risk of health care workers for infection with hepatitis-C virus. Infection 18:286-288.

Holbrook, TL, K Grazier, JL Kelsey, and RN Stauffer. 1984. The Frequency of Occurrence, Impact, and Cost of Selected Musculoskeletal Conditions in the United States. Park Ridge, Il: American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons.

Hollinger, FB. 1990. Hepatitis B virus. In Virology, edited by BN Fiedles and DM Knipe. New York: Raven Press.

Hopps, J and P Collins. 1995. Social work profession overview. In Encyclopedia of Social Work, 19th edition. Washington, DC: National Association of Social Workers.

Hubacova, L, I Borsky, and F Strelka. 1992. Work physiology problems of nurses working in inpatients departments. In Ergonomie à l’hôpital (Hospital Ergonomics), edited by M Estryn-Béhar, C Gadbois, and M Pottier. International Symposium Paris 1991. Toulouse: Editions Octares.

Hunt, LW, AF Fransway, CE Reed, LK Miller, RT Jones, MC Swanson, and JW Yunginger. 1995. An epidemic of occupational allergy to latex involving health care workers. J Occup Environ Med 37(10):1204-1209.

Jacobson, SF and HK MacGrath. 1983. Nurses under Stress. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Jacques, CHM, MS Lynch and JS Samkoff. 1990. The effects of sleep loss on cognitive performance of resident physicians. J Fam Pract 30:223-229.

Jagger, J, EH Hunt, J Brand-Elnagger, and RD Pearson. 1988. Rates of needle-stick injury caused by various devices in a university hospital. New Engl J Med 319:284-288.

Johnson, JA, RM Buchan, and J S Reif. 1987. Effect of waste anesthetic gas and vapor exposure on reproductive outcome in veterinary personnel. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 48(1):62-66.

Jonasson, G, JO Holm, and J Leegard. Rubber allergy: An increasing health problem? Tuidsskr Nor Laegeforen 113(11):1366-1367.

Kandolin, I. 1993. Burnout of female and male nurses in shiftwork. Ergonomics 36(1/3):141-147.

Kaplan, RM and RA Deyo. 1988. Back pain in health care workers. In Back Pain in Workers, edited by RA Deyo. Philadelphia, PA: Hanley & Belfus.

Katz, R. 1983. Causes of death among nurses. Occup Med 45:760-762.

Kempe, P, M Sauter and I Lindner. 1992. Special characteristics of nurses for the aged who made use of a training program aimed to reduce burn-out symptoms and first results on treatment outcome. In Ergonomie à l’hôpital (Hospital Ergonomics), edited by M Estryn-Béhar, C Gadbois, and M Pottier. International Symposium Paris 1991. Toulouse: Editions Octares.

Kerr, JH. 1985. Warning devices. Br J Anaesth 57:696-708.

Kestin, IG, RB Miller, and CJ Lockhart. 1988. Auditory alarms during anesthesia monitoring. Anesthesiology 69(1):106-109.

Kinloch-de-los, S, BJ Hirschel, B Hoen, DA Cooper, B Tindall, A Carr, H Sauret, N Clumeck, A Lazzarin, and E Mathiesen. 1995. A controlled trial of Zidovudine in primary human immunodeficiency virus infection. New Engl J Med 333:408-413.

Kivimäki, M and K Lindström. 1995. The crucial role of the head nurse in a hospital ward. In Occupational Health for Health Care Workers, edited by M Hagberg, F Hofmann, U Stössel, and G Westlander. Landsberg/Lech: Ecomed Verlag.

Klaber Moffet, JA, SM Chase, I Portek, and JR Ennis. 1986. A controlled study to evaluate the efectiveness of the back pain school in the relief of chronic low back pain. Spine 11:120-122.

Kleczkowski, BM, C Montoya-Aguilar, and NO Nilsson. 1985. Approaches to Planning and Design of Health Care Facilities in Developing Areas. Vol. 5. Geneva: WHO.

Klein, BR and AJ Platt. 1989. Health Care Facility Planning and Construction. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Kelin, R, K Freemann, P Taylor, C Stevens. 1991. Occupational risk for hepatits C virus infection among New York City dentists. Lancet 338:1539-1542.

Kraus, H. 1970. Clinical Treatment of Back and Neck Pain. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Kujala, VM and KE Reilula. 1995. Glove-induced dermal and respiratory symptoms among health care workers in one Finnish hospital. Am J Ind Med 28(1):89-98.

Kurumatani, N, S Koda, S Nakagiri, K Sakai, Y Saito, H Aoyama, M Dejima, and T Moriyama. 1994. The effects of frequently rotating shiftwork on sleep and the family life of hospital nurses. Ergonomics 37:995-1007.

Lagerlöf, E and E Broberg. 1989. Occupational injuries and diseases. In Occupational Hazards in the Health Professions, edited by DK Brune and C Edling. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Lahaye, D, P Jacques, G Moens, and B Viaene. 1993. The registration of medical data obtained by preventive medical examinations on health care workers. In Occupational Health for Health Care Workers, edited by M Hagberg, F Hofmann, F, U Stössel and G Westlander. Landsberg/Lech: Ecomed Verlag.

Lampher, BP, CC Linneman, CG Cannon, MM DeRonde, L Pendy, and LM Kerley. 1994. Hepatitis C virus infection in health care workers: Risk of exposure and infection. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 15:745-750.

Landau, C, S Hall, SA Wartman, and MB Macko. 1986. Stress in social and family relationships during medical residency. Journal of Medical Education 61:654-660.

Landau, K. 1992. Psycho-physical strain and the burn-out phenomen amongst health care professionals. In Ergonomie à l’hôpital (Hospital Ergonomics), edited by M Estryn-Béhar, C Gadbois, and M Pottier. International Symposium Paris 1991. Toulouse: Editions Octares.

Landewe, MBM and HT Schröer. 1993. Development of a new, integrated patient transfer training program—Primary prevention of low back pain. In Occupational Health for Health Care Workers, editeb by M Hagberg, F Hofmann, U Stössel, and G Westlander. Landsberg/Lech: Ecomed Verlag.

Lange, M. 1931. Die Muskelhärten (Myogelosen). Munich: JF Lehman Verlag.

Lange, W and KN Masihi. 1986. Durchseuchung mit Hepatitis-A- und B-Virus bei medizinischem Personal. Bundesgesundheitsol 29;183-87.

Lee, KA. 1992. Self-reported sleep disturbances in employed women. Sleep15(6):493-498.

Lempereur, JJ. 1992. Prévention des dorso-lombalgies. Influence du vêtement de travail sur le comportement gestuel. Spécifications ergonomiques. Cah Kinésither 156,:4.

Leppanen, RA and MA Olkinuora. 1987. Psychological stress experienced by health care personnel. Scand J Work Environ Health 13:1-8.

Lert, F, MJ Marne, and A Gueguen. 1993. Evolution des conditions de travail des infirmières des hôpitaux publics de 1980 à 1990. Revue de l’Epidémiologie et de santé publique 41:16-29.

Leslie, PJ, JA Williams, C McKenna, G Smith and RC Heading. 1990. Hours, volume, and type of work of preregistration house officers. Brit Med J 300:1038-1041.

Lettau, LA, HJ Alfred, RH Glew, HA Fields, MJ Alter, R Meyer, SC Hadler, and JE Maynard. 1986. Nosocomial transmission of delta hepatitis. Ann Intern Med 104:631-635.

Levin, H. 1992. Healthy buildings—Where do we stand, where do we go? In Chemical, Microbiological, Health and Comfort Aspects of Indoor Air Quality: State of the Art in Sick Building Syndrome, edited by H Knoppel and P Wolkoff. Brussels and Luxembourg: EEC.

Lewittes, LR and VW Marshall. 1989. Fatigue and concerns about quality of care among Ontario interns and residents. Can Med Assoc J 140:21-24.

Lewy, R. 1990. Employees at Risk: Protection and Health of Health Care Workers. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Lindström, A and M Zachrisson. 1973. Ryggbesvär och arbetssoförmaga Ryyggskolan. Ett Försok till mer rationeli fysikalist terapi. Socialmet T 7:419-422.

Lippert. 1971. Travel in nursing units. Human Factors 13(3):269-282.

Ljungberg, AS, A Kilbom, and MH Goran. 1989. Occupational lifting by nursing aides and warehouse workers. Ergonomics 32:59-78.

Llewelyn-Davies, R and J Wecks. 1979. In-patient areas. In Approaches to Planning and Design of Health Care Facilities in Developing Areas, edited by BM Kleczkowski and R Piboleau. Geneva: WHO.

Loeb, RG, BR Jones, KH Behrman, and RJ Leonard. 1990. Anesthetists cannot identify audible alarms. Anesthesiology 73(3A):538.

Lotas, MJ. 1992. Effects of light and sound in the neonatal intensive care unit environment on the low-birth-weight infant. NAACOGS Clinical Issues in Perinatal & Womens Health Nursing 3(1):34-44.

Lurie, HE, B Rank, C Parenti, T Wooley, and W Snoke. 1989. How do house officers spend their nights? A time study of internal medicine house staff on call. New Engl J Med 320:1673-1677.

Luttman, A, M Jäger, J Sökeland, and W Laurig. 1996. Electromyographical study on surgeons in urology II. Determination of muscular fatigue. Ergonomics 39(2):298-313.

Makino, S. 1995. Health problems in health care workers in Japan. In Occupational Health for Health Care Workers, edited by M Hagberg, F Hofmann, U Stössel, and G Westlander. Landsbeg/Lech: Ecomed Verlag.

Malchaire, JB. 1992. Analysis of the work load of nurses. In Ergonomie à l’hôpital (Hospital Ergonomics), edited by M Estryn-Béhar, C Gadbois, and M Pottier. International Symposium Paris 1991. Toulouse: Editions Octares.

Manuaba, A. 1992. Social-cultural approach is a must in designing hospital in developing countries, Indonesia as a case study. In Ergonomie à l’hôpital (Hospital Ergonomics), edited by M Estryn-Béhar, C Gadbois, and M Pottier. International Symposium Paris 1991. Toulouse: Editions Octares.

Maruna, H. 1990. Zur Hepatitis-B-Durchseuchung in den Berufen des Gesundheits und Fürsorgewesens der Republik Österreichs, Arbeitsmed. Präventivmed. Sozialmed 25:71-75.

Matsuda, A. 1992. Ergonomics approach to nursing care in Japan. In Ergonomie à l’hôpital (Hospital Ergonomics), edited by M Estryn-Béhar, C Gadbois, and M Pottier. International Symposium Paris 1991. Toulouse: Editions Octares.

McCall, T. 1988. The impact of long working hours on resident physicians. New Engl J Med 318(12):775-778.

McCloy, E. 1994. Hepatitis and the EEC Directive. Presented at the 2nd International Conference on Occupational Health for Health Care Workers, Stockholm.

McCormick, RD, MG Meuch, IG Irunk, and DG Maki. 1991. Epidemiology for hospital sharp injuries: A 14-year prospective study in the pre-AIDS and AIDS era. Am J Med 3B:3015-3075.

McCue, JD. 1982. The effects of stresses on physicians and their medical practice. New Engl J Med 306:458-463.

McIntyre, JWR. 1985. Ergonomics: Anaesthetists’ use of auditory alarms in the operating room. Int J Clin Monit Comput 2:47-55

McKinney, PW, MM Horowitz, and RJ Baxtiola. 1989. Susceptibility of hospital-based health care personnel to varicella zoster virus infection. Am J Infect Control 18:26-30.

Melleby, A. 1988. Exercise program for a healthy back. In Diagnosis and Treatment of Muscle Pain. Chicago, IL: Quintessence Books.

Meyer,TJ, SE Eveloff, MS Bauer, WA Schwartz, NS Hill, and PR Millman. 1994. Adverse environmental conditions in the respiratory and medical intensive care unit settings. Chest 105:1211-1216.

Miller, E, J Vurdien, and P Farrington. 1993. Shift age in chickenpox. Lancet 1:341.

Miller, JM. 1982. William Stewart Halsted and the use of the surgical rubber glove. Surgery 92:541-543.

Mitsui, T, K Iwano, K Maskuko, C Yanazaki, H Okamoto, F Tsuda, T Tanaka, and S Mishiros. 1992. Hepatitis C virus infection in medical personnel after needlestick accidents. Hepatology 16:1109-1114.

Modig, B. 1992. Hospital ergonomics in a biopsychosocial perspective. In Ergonomie à l’hôpital (Hospital Ergonomics), edited by M Estryn-Béhar, C Gadbois, and M Pottier. International Symposium Paris 1991. Toulouse: Editions Octares.

Momtahan, K, R Hétu, and B Tansley. 1993. Audibility and identification of auditory alarms in the operating room and intensive care unit. Ergonomics 36(10):1159-1176.

Momtahan, KL and BW Tansley. 1989. An ergonomic analysis of the auditory alarm signals in the operating room and recovery room. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Canadian Acoustical Association, 18 October, Halifax, NS.

Montoliu, MA, V Gonzalez, B Rodriguez, JF Quintana, and L Palenciano.1992. Conditions de travail dans la blanchisserie centrale des grands hôpitaux de Madrid. In Ergonomie à l’hôpital (Hospital Ergonomics), edited by M Estryn-Béhar, C Gadbois, and M Pottier. International Symposium Paris 1991. Toulouse: Editions Octares.

Moore, RM, YM Davis, and RG Kaczmarek. 1993. An overview of occupational hazards among veterinarians, with particular reference to pregnant women. Am J Ind Hyg Assoc 54(3):113-120.

Morel, O. 1994. Les agents des services hospitaliers. Vécu et santé au travail. Arch mal prof 54(7):499-508.

Nachemson, AL and GBJ Anderson. 1982. Classification of low back pain. Scand J Work Environ Health 8:134-136.

National Health Service (NHS). 1991a. Design Guide. The Design of Community Hospitals. London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office.

—. 1991b. Health Building Note 46: General Medical Practice Premises for the Provision of Primary Health Care Service. London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office.

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). 1975. Development and Evaluation of Methods for the Elimination of Waste Anesthetic Gases and Vapors in Hospitals. DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No. 75-137. Cincinnati, OH: NIOSH.

—. 1997a. Control of Occupational Exposure to N2O in the Dentral Operatory. DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No. 77-171. Cincinnati, OH: NIOSH.

—. 1977b. Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Exposure to Waste Anesthetic Gases and Vapors. DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No. 77-1409. Cincinnati, OH: NIOSH.

—. 1988. Guidelines for Protecting the Safety and Health of Health Care Workers. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 88-119. Cincinnati, OH: NIOSH.

—. 1994. NIOSH Alert: Request for Assistance in Controlling Exposures to Nitrous Oxide during Anesthetic Administration. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 94-100. Cincinnati, OH: NIOSH.

Niu, MT, DS Stein, and SM Schnittmann. 1993. Primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection: Review of pathogenesis and early treatment interventions in human and animal retrovirus infections. J Infect Dis 168:1490-1501.

Noweir, MH and MS al-Jiffry. 1991. Study of noise pollution in Jeddah hospitals. Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association 66 (3/4):291-303.

Nyman, I and A Knutsson. 1995. Psychosocial wellbeing and sleep quality in hospital night and day workers. In Occuaptional Health for Health Care Workers, edited by M Hagberg, F Hofmann, U Stössel, and G Westlander. Landsberg/Lech: Ecomed Verlag.

Objectif Prévention No spécial. 1994. Le lève personne sur rail au plafond: Outil de travail indispensable. Objectif Prévention 17(2):13-39.

O’Carroll, TM. 1986. Survey of alarms in an intensive therapy unit. Anaesthesia 41:742-744.

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). 1991. Occupational Exposure to Bloodborne Pathogens: Final Rule. 29 CFR Part 1910.1030. Washington, DC: OSHA.

Oëler, JM. 1993. Developmental care of low birth weight infants. Nursing Clinics of North America 28(2):289-301.

Öhling, P and B Estlund. 1995. Working technique for health care workers. In Occupational Health for Health Care Workers, edited by M Hagberg, F Hofmann, U Stössel, and G Westlander G. Landsberg/Lech: Ecomed Verlag.

Ollagnier, E and Lamarche MJ. 1993. Une intervention ergonomique dans un hôpital suisse: Impact sur la santé de l’organisation du personnel et des patients. In Ergonomie et santé, edited by D Ramaciotti and A Bousquet. Actes du XXVIIIe congrès de la SELF. Geneva: SELF.

Ott, C, M Estryn-Béhar, C Blanpain, A Astier, and G Hazebroucq. 1991. Conditionnement du médicament et erreurs de médication. J Pharm Clin 10:61-66.

Patkin, M. 1992. Hospital architecture: An ergonomic debacle. In Ergonomie à l’hôpital (Hospital Ergonomics), edited by M Estryn-Béhar, C Gadbois, and M Pottier. International Symposium Paris 1991. Toulouse: Editions Octares.

Payer, L. 1988. Medicine and Culture: The Variety of Treatment in the United States, England, West Germany and France. New York: H. Holt.

Payne, R and J Firth-Cozens (eds.). 1987. Stress in Health Professions. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

—. 1995. Determination of dinitrogen oxide (N2O) in urine as control to anesthetic exposure. In Occupational Health for Health Care Workers, edited by M Hagberg, F Hoffmann, U Stössel, and G Westlander. Solna: National Institute of Occupational Health.

Pelikan, JM. 1993. Improving occupational health for health care workers within the health promoting hospital: Experiences from the Vienna WHO model project “health and hospital”. In Occupational Health for Health Care Workers, edited by M Hagberg, F Hofmann, U Stössel, and G Westlander. Landsberg/Lech: Ecomed Verlag.

Pérez, L, R De Andrés, K. Fitch, and R Najera. 1994. Seroconversiones a VIH tras Sanitarios en Europa. Presented at the 2nd Reunión Nacional sobre el SIDA Cáceres.

Philip, RN, KRT Reinhard, and DB Lackman. 1959. Observations on a mumps epidemic in a “virgin” population. Am J Hyg 69:91-111.

Pottier, M. 1992. Ergonomie à l’hôpital-hospital ergonomics. In Ergonomie à l’hôpital (Hospital Ergonomics), edited by M Estryn-Béhar, C Gadbois, and M Pottier. International Symposium Paris 1991. Toulouse: Editions Octares.

Poulton, EC, GM Hunt, A Carpenter, and RS Edwards. 1978. The performance of junior hospital doctors following reduced sleep and long hours of work. Ergonomics 21:279-295.

Pöyhönen, T and M Jokinen. 1980. Stress and Other Occupational Health Problems Affecting Hospital Nurses. Vantaa, Finland: Tutkimuksia.

Raffray, M. 1994. Etude de la charge physique des AS par mesure de la fréquence cardiaque. Objectif soins 26:55-58.

Ramaciotti, D, S Blaire, A Bousquet, E Conne, V Gonik, E Ollagnier, C Zummermann, and L Zoganas. 1990. Processus de régulation des contraintes économiques physiologiques et sociales pour différents groupes de travail en horaires irréguliers et de nuit. Le travail humain 53(3):193-212.

Reuben, DB. 1985. Depressive symptoms in medical house officers: Effects of level of training and work rotation. Arch Intern Med 145:286-288.

Reznick, RK and JR Folse. 1987. Effect of sleep deprivation on the performance of surgical residents. Am J Surg 154:520-52.

Rhoads, JM.1977. Overwork. JAMA 237:2615-2618.

Rodary, C and A Gauvain-Piquard 1993. Stress et épuisement professionnel. Objectif soins 16:26-34.

Roquelaure, Y, A Pottier, and M Pottier. 1992. Approche ergonomique comparative de deux enregistreurs electroencéphalographiques. In Ergonomie à l’hôpital (Hospital Ergonomics), edited by M Estryn-Béhar, C Gadbois, and M Pottier. International Symposium Paris 1991. Toulouse: Editions Octares.

Rosell, MG, P Luna, and X Guardino. 1989. Evaluacion y Control de Contaminantes QuPmicos en Hospitales. Technical Document No. 57. Barcelona: INSHT.

Rubin, R, P Orris, SL Lau, DO Hryhorczuk, S Furner, and R Letz. 1991. Neurobehavioral effects of the on-call experience in housestaff physicians. J Occup Med 33:13-18.

Saint-Arnaud, L, S Gingras, R Boulard., M Vezina and H Lee-Gosselin. 1992. Les symptômes psychologiques en milieu hospitalier. In Ergonomie à l’hôpital (Hospital Ergonomics), edited by M Estryn-Béhar, C Gadbois, and M Pottier. International Symposium Paris 1991. Toulouse: Editions Octares.

Samkoff, JS, CHM Jacques. 1991. A review of studies concerning effects of sleep deprivation and fatigue on residents’ performance. Acad Med 66:687-693.

Sartori, M, G La Terra, M Aglietta, A Manzin, C Navino, and G Verzetti. 1993. Transmission of hepatitis C via blood splash into conjunctiva. Scand J Infect Dis 25:270-271.

Saurel, D. 1993. CHSCT Central, Enquete “Rachialgies” Résultats. Paris: Assistance Publique-Höpitaux de Paris, Direction du personnel et des relations sociales.

Saurel-Cubizolles, MJ, M Hay, and M Estryn-Béhar. 1994. Work in operating rooms and pregnancy outcome among nurses. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 66:235-241.

Saurel-Cubizolles, MJ, MKaminski, J Llhado-Arkhipoff, C Du Mazaubrum, M Estryn-Behar, C Berthier, M Mouchet, and C Kelfa. 1985. Pregnancy and its outcome among hospital personnel according to occupation and working condition. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 39:129-134.

Schröer, CAP, L De Witte, and H Philipsen. 1993. Effects of shift work on quality of sleep, health complaints and medical consumption of female nurses. In Occupational Health for Health Care Workers, edited by M Hagberg, F Hofmann, U Stössel, and G Westlander. Landsberg/Lech: Ecomed Verlag.

Senevirane, SR, De A and DN Fernando. 1994. Influence of work on pregnancy outcome. Int J Gynecol Obstet VOL: 35-40.

Shapiro, ET, H Pinsker and JH Shale. 1975. The mentally ill physician as practitioner. JAMA 232(7):725-727.

Shapiro, RA and T Berland. 1972. Noise in the operating room. New Engl J Med 287(24):1236-1238.

Shindo, E. 1992. The present condition of nursing ergonomics in Japan. In Ergonomie à l’hôpital (Hospital Ergonomics), edited by M Estryn-Béhar, C Gadbois, and M Pottier. International Symposium Paris 1991. Toulouse: Editions Octares.

Siegel, A, M Michaelis, F Hofmann, U Stössel, and W Peinecke. 1993. Use and acceptance of lifting aids in hospitals and geriatric homes. In Occupational Health for Health Care Workers, edited by M Hagberg, F Hofmann, U Stössel, and G Westlander. Landsberg/Lech: Ecomed Verlag.

Smith, MJ, MJ Colligan, IJ Frocki, and DL Tasto. 1979. Occupational injury rates among nurses as a function of shift schedule. Journal of Safety Research 11(4):181-187.

Smith-Coggins, R, MR Rosekind, S Hurd, and KR Buccino. 1994. Relationship of day versus night sleep to physician performance and mood. Ann Emerg Med 24:928-934.

Snook, SH. 1988a. Approaches to the control of back pain in industry. In Back Pain in Workers, edited by RA Deyo. Philadelphia: Hanley & Belfus.

—. 1988b. The costs of back pain in industry. In Back Pain in Workers, edited by RA Deyo. Philadelphia: Hanley & Belfus.

South, MA, JL Sever, and L Teratogen. 1985. Update: The congenital rubella syndrome. Teratology 31:297-392.

Spence, AA. 1987. Environmental pollution by inhalation anaesthetics. Br J Anaesth 59:96-103.

Stellman, JM. 1976. Women’s Work, Women’s Health: Myths and Realities. New York: Pantheon.

Steppacher, RC and JS Mausner. 1974. Suicide in male and female physicians. JAMA 228(3):323-328.

Sterling, DA. 1994. Overview of health and safety in the health care environment. In Essentials of Modern Hospital Safety, edited by W Charney. Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publishers.

Stoklov, M, P Trouiller, P Stieglitz, Y Lamalle, F Vincent, A Perdrix, C Marka, R de Gaudemaris, JM Mallion, and J Faure. 1983. L’exposition aux gaz anethésiques: Risques et prévention. Sem Hôs 58(29/39):2081-2087.

Storer, JS, HH Floyd, WL Gill, CW Giusti, and H Ginsberg. 1989. Effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive ability and skills of pediatrics residents. Acad Med 64:29-32.

Stubbs, DA, PW Buckle, and PM Hudson. 1983. Back pain in the nursing profession; I Epidemiology and pilot methodology. Ergonomics 26:755-765.

Sundström-Frisk C and M Hellström.1995. The risk of making treatment errors, an occupational stressor. In Occupational Health for Health Care Workers, edited by M Hagberg, F Hofmann, U Stössel, and G Westlander. Landsberg/Lech: Ecomed Verlag.

Swann-D’Emilia, B, JCH Chu, and J Daywalt. 1990. Misadministration of prescribed radiation dose. Medical Dosimetry 15:185-191.

Sydow, B and F Hofmann. 1994. Unpublished results.

Tannenbaum, TN and RJ Goldberg. 1985. Exposure to anaesthetic gases and reproductive outcome: A review of epidemiologic literature. J Occup Med 27:659-671.

Teyssier-Cotte, C, M Rocher, and P Mereau. 1987. Les lits dans les établissements de soins. Documents pour le médecin du travail. INRS 29:27-34.

Theorell, T. 1989. The psychosocial working environment. In Occupational Hazards in the Health Professions, edited by DK Brune and C Edling. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Theorell T. 1993. On the psychosocial environment in care. In Occupational Health for Health Care Workers, edited by M Hagberg, F Hofmann, U Stössel, and G Westlander. Landsberg/Lech : Ecomed Verlag.

Tintori, R and M Estryn-Béhar. 1994. Communication: Où, quand, comment? Critères ergonomiques pour améliorer la communication dans les services de soins. Gestions Hospitalières 338:553-561.

Tintori, R, M Estryn-Behar, J De Fremont, T Besse, P Jacquenot, A Le Vot, and B Kapitaniak. 1994. Evaluation des lits à hauteur variable. Une démarche de recherche en soins infirmiers. Gestions Hospitalières 332:31-37.

Tokars, JI, R Marcus, DH Culver, CA Schable, PS McKibben, CL Bandea, and DM Bell. 1993. Surveillance of HIV infection and zidovudine use among health care workers after occupational exposure to HIV-infected blood. Ann Intern Med 118:913-919.

Toomingas, A. 1993. The health situation among Swedish health care workers. In Occupational Health for Health Care Workers, edited by M Hagberg, F Hofmann, U Stössel, and G Westlander. Landsberg/Lech: Ecomed Verlag.

Topf, M. 1992. Effects of personal control over hospital noise on sleep. Research in Nursing & Health 15(1):19-28.

Tornquist, A and P Ullmark. 1992. Corporate Space and Architecture, Actors and Procedures. Paris: Ministère de l’équipement du logement et des transports.

Townsend, M. 1994. Just a glove? Br J Theatre Nurs 4(5):7,9-10.

Tran, N, J Elias, T Rosenber, D Wylie, D Gaborieau, and A Yassi. 1994. Evaluation of waste anesthetic gases, monitoring strategies and corelations between nitrous oxide levels and health symptoms. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 55(1):36-42.

Turner, AG, CH King, and G Craddock. 1975. Measuring and reducing noise. Noise profile of hospital shows that even “quiet” areas are too noisy. Hospital JAHA 49:85-89.

US Preventive Services Task Force. 1989. Guide to Clinical Preventive Services: An Assessment of the Effectiveness of 169 interventions. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.

Vaillant, GE, NC Sorbowale, and C McArthur. 1972. Some psychologic vulnerabilities of physicians. New Engl J Med 287:372-375.

Vaisman, AI. 1967. Working conditions in surgery and their effects on the health of anesthesiologists. Eskp Khir Anesteziol 12:44-49.

Valentino, M, MA Pizzichini, F Monaco, and M Governa. 1994. Latex-induced asthma in four healthcare workers in a regional hospital. Occup Med (Oxf) 44(3):161-164.

Valko, RJ and PJ Clayton. 1975. Depression in the internships. Dis Nerv Syst 36:26-29.

Van Damme, P and GA Tormanns. 1993. European risk model. In Proceedings of the European Conference on Hepatitis B as an Occupatioonal Hazard. 10-12.

Van Damme, P, R Vranckx, A Safary, FE Andre, and A Mehevs. 1989. Protective efficacy of a recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid hepatitis B vaccine in institutionalized mentally handicapped clients. Am J Med 87(3A):265-295.

Van der Star, A and M Voogd. 1992. User participation in the design and evaluation of a new model hospital bed. In Ergonomie à l’hôpital (Hospital Ergonomics), edited by M Estryn-Béhar, C Gadbois, and M Pottier. International Symposium Paris 1991. Toulouse: Editions Octares.

Van Deursen, CGL, CAM Mul, PGW Smulders and CR De Winter. 1993. Health and working situation of day nurses compared with a matched group of nurses on rotating shift work. In Occupational Health for Health Care Workers, edited by M Hagberg, F Hofmann, U Stössel, and G Westlander. Landsberg/Lech: Ecomed Verlag.

Van Hogdalem, H. 1990. Design guidelines for architects and users. In Building for People in Hospitals, Workers and Consumers. Luxembourg: European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions.

Van Wagoner, R and N Maguire. 1977. A study of hearing loss among employees in a large urban hospital. Canadian Journal of Public Health 68:511-512.

Verhaegen, P, R Cober, DE Smedt, J Dirkx, J Kerstens, D Ryvers, and P Van Daele. 1987. The adaptation of night nurses to different work schedules. Ergonomics 30(9):1301-1309.

Villeneuve, J. 1992. Une demarche d’ergonomie participative dans le secteur hôspitalier. In Ergonomie à l’hôpital (Hospital ergonomics), edited by M Estryn-Béhar, C Gadbois, and M Pottier. International Symposium Paris 1991. Toulouse: Editions Octares.

—. 1994. PARC: Des fondations solides pour un projet de rénovation ou de construction Objectif prévention (Montreal) 17(5):14-16.

Wade, JG and WC Stevens. 1981. Isoflurane: An ansaesthetic for the eighties? Anesth Analg 60(9):666-682.

Wahlen, L. 1992. Noise in the intensive care setting. Canadian Critical Care Nursing Journal, 8/9(4/1):9-10.

Walz, T, G Askerooth, and M Lynch. 1983. The new upside-down welfare state. In Social Work in a Turbulent World, edited by M Dinerman. Washington, DC: National Association of Social Workers.

Wands, SE and A Yassi. 1993. Modernization of a laundry processing plant: Is it really an improvement? Appl Ergon 24(6):387-396.

Weido, AJ and TC Sim. 1995. The burgeoning problem of latex sensitivity. Surgical gloves are only the beginning. Postgrad Med 98(3):173-174,179-182,184.

Wiesel, SW, HL Feffer, and RH Rothmann. 1985. Industrial Low Back Pain. Charlottesville,VA: Michie.

Wigaeus Hjelm, E, M Hagberg, and S Hellstrom. 1993. Prevention of musculoskeletal disorders in nursing aides by physical training. In Occupational Health for Health Care Workers, edited by M Hagberg, F Hofmann, U Stössel, and G Westlander. Landsberg/Lech: Ecomed Verlag.

Wigand, R and Y Grenner. 1988. Personaluntersuchungen auf Immunität gegen Masern, Varizellen und Röteln, Saarländ. Ärztebl 41:479-480.

Wilkinson, RT, PD Tyler and CA Varey. 1975. Duty hours of young hospital doctors: Effects on the quality of work. J Occup Psychol 48:219-229.

Willet, KM. 1991. Noise-induced hearing loss in orthopaedic staff. J Bone Joint Surg 73:113-115.

Williams, M and JD Murphy. 1991. Noise in critical care units: A quality assurance approach. Journal of Nursing Care Quality 6(1):53-59.

World Health Organization (WHO). 1990. Guidelines on AIDS and First Aid in the Workplace. WHO AIDS Series No. 7. Geneva: WHO.

—. 1991. Biosafety Guidelines for Diagnostic and Research Laboratories Working with HIV. WHO AIDS Series No. 9. Geneva: WHO.

—. 1995. Weekly Epidemiological Report (13 January).

Wugofski, L. 1995. Occupational accident in health care workers—Epidemiology and prevention. In Occupational Health for Health Care Workers, edited by M Hagberg, F Hofmann, U Stössel, and G Westlander. Singapore: International Commission on Occupational Health.

Yassi, A. 1994. Assault and abuse of health care workers in a large teaching hospital. Can Med Assoc J 151(9):1273-1279.

Yassi, A and M McGill. 1991. Determinants of blood and body fluid exposure in a large teaching hospital: Hazards of the intermittent intravenous procedure. American Journal of Infection Control 19(3):129-135.

—. 1995. Efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a needleless intravenous access system. American Journal of Infection Control 22(2):57-64.

Yassi, A, J Gaborieau, J Elias, and D Willie. 1992. Identification and control of hazardous noise levels in a hospital complex. In Ergonomie à l’hôpital (Hospital Ergonomics), edited by M Estryn-Béhar, C Gadbois, and M Pottier. International Symposium Paris 1991. Toulouse: Editions Octares.

Yassi, A, D Gaborieau, I Gi