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104. Guide to Chemicals

 


 

 

Table of Contents

General Profile


Acids, Inorganic

Chemical Identification

Health Hazards

Physical and Chemical Hazards

Physical and Chemical Properties


Alcohols

Chemical Identification

Health Hazards

Physical and Chemical Hazards

Physical and Chemical Properties


Alkaline Materials

Chemical Identification

Health Hazards

Physical and Chemical Hazards

Physical and Chemical Properties


Amines, Aliphatic

Chemical Identification

Health Hazards

Physical and Chemical Hazards

Physical and Chemical Properties


Azides

Chemical Identification

Health Hazards

Physical and Chemical Hazards

Physical and Chemical Properties


Carbon Monoxide


Epoxy Compounds

Chemical Identification

Health Hazards

Physical and Chemical Hazards

Physical and Chemical Properties


Esters, Acrylates

Chemical Identification

Health Hazards

Physical and Chemical Hazards

Physical and Chemical Properties


Ethers

Ethers Tables:

Chemical Identification

Health Hazards

Physical and Chemical Hazards

Physical and Chemical Properties

Halogen and Ethers Tables:

Chemical Identification

Health Hazards

Physical and Chemical Hazards

Physical and Chemical Properties


Fluorocarbons

Chemical Identification

Health Hazards

Physical and Chemical Hazards

Physical and Chemical Properties


Glycerols and Glycols

Chemical Identification

Health Hazards

Physical and Chemical Hazards

Physical and Chemical Properties


Heterocyclic Compounds

Chemical Identification

Health Hazards

Physical and Chemical Hazards

Physical and Chemical Properties


Hydrocarbons, Aliphatic and Halogenated

Halogenated Saturated Hydrocarbons Tables:

Chemical Identification

Health Hazards

Physical and Chemical Hazards

Physical and Chemical Properties

Halogenated Unsaturated Hydrocarbons Tables:

Chemical Identification

Health Hazards

Physical and Chemical Hazards

Physical and Chemical Properties


Hydrocarbons, Aliphatic Unsaturated

Chemical Identification

Health Hazards

Physical and Chemical Hazards

Physical and Chemical Properties


Hydrocarbons, Halogenated Aromatic

Chemical Identification

Health Hazards

Physical and Chemical Hazards

Physical and Chemical Properties


Isocyanates

Chemical Identification

Health Hazards

Physical and Chemical Hazards

Physical and Chemical Properties


Nitrocompounds, Aliphatic

Chemical Identification

Health Hazards

Physical and Chemical Hazards

Physical and Chemical Properties


Peroxides, Organic and Inorganic

Chemical Identification

Health Hazards

Physical and Chemical Hazards

Physical and Chemical Properties


Phosphates, Inorganic and Organic

Chemical Identification

Health Hazards

Physical and Chemical Hazards

Physical and Chemical Properties

 


 


Acids and Anhydrides, Organic

Chemical Identification

Health Hazards

Physical and Chemical Hazards

Physical and Chemical Properties


Aldehydes and Ketals

Chemical Identification

Health Hazards

Physical and Chemical Hazards

Physical and Chemical Properties


Amides

Chemical Identification

Health Hazards

Physical and Chemical Hazards

Physical and Chemical Properties


Aromatic Amino Compounds

Chemical Identification

Health Hazards

Physical and Chemical Hazards

Physical and Chemical Properties


Boranes

Chemical Identification

Health Hazards

Physical and Chemical Hazards

Physical and Chemical Properties


Cyano Compounds

Chemical Identification

Health Hazards

Physical and Chemical Hazards

Physical and Chemical Properties


Esters, Acetates

Chemical Identification

Health Hazards

Physical and Chemical Hazards

Physical and Chemical Properties


Esters, Alkanoates (except Acetates)

Chemical Identification

Health Hazards

Physical and Chemical Hazards

Physical and Chemical Properties


Glycol Ethers

Chemical Identification

Health Hazards

Physical and Chemical Hazards

Physical and Chemical Properties


Halogens and Their Compounds

Chemical Identification

Health Hazards

Physical and Chemical Hazards

Physical and Chemical Properties


Hydrocarbons, Saturated and Alicyclic

Chemical Identification

Health Hazards

Physical and Chemical Hazards

Physical and Chemical Properties


 

Hydrocarbons, Aromatic

Chemical Identification

Health Hazards

Physical and Chemical Hazards

Physical and Chemical Properties


Hydrocarbons, Polyaromatic

Chemical Identification

Health Hazards

Physical and Chemical Hazards

Physical and Chemical Properties


Ketones

Chemical Identification

Health Hazards

Physical and Chemical Hazards

Physical and Chemical Properties


Nitrocompounds, Aromatic

Chemical Identification

Health Hazards

Physical and Chemical Hazards

Physical and Chemical Properties


Phenols and Phenolic Compounds

Chemical Identification

Health Hazards

Physical and Chemical Hazards

Physical and Chemical Properties


Phthalates

Chemical Identification

Health Hazards

Physical and Chemical Hazards

Physical and Chemical Properties


Silicon and Organosilicon Compounds

Chemical Identification

Health Hazards

Physical and Chemical Hazards

Physical and Chemical Properties


Sulphur Compounds, Inorganic

Chemical Identification

Health Hazards

Physical and Chemical Hazards

Physical and Chemical Properties


Sulphur Compounds, Organic

Chemical Identification

Health Hazards

Physical and Chemical Hazards

Physical and Chemical Properties


 

Chemical Name
CAS-Number

Physical

Chemical

UN Class or Division /  Subsidiary Risks

ANTHRACENE
120-12-7

Dust explosion possible if in powder or granular form, mixed with air

The substance decomposes on heating, on contact with sunlight, under influence of strong oxidants producing acrid, toxic fumes, causing fire and explosion hazards

3

BENZO(b)FLUORANTHENE
205-99-2

Upon heating, toxic fumes are formed

BENZO(ghi)FLUORANTHENE
203-12-3

Upon heating, toxic fumes are formed

BENZO(k)FLUORANTHENE
207-08-9

Upon heating, toxic fumes are formed • Reacts with strong oxidants

BENZO(ghi)PERYLENE
191-24-2

Upon heating, toxic fumes are formed • Reacts with NO and NO2 to form nitro derivatives

DIBENZO(a,h)ANTHRACENE
53-70-3

Reacts with strong oxidants

4.1

For UN Class: 1.5 = very insensitive substances which have a mass explosion hazard; 2.1 = flammable gas; 2.3 = toxic gas; 3 = flammable liquid; 4.1 = flammable solid; 4.2 = substance liable to spontaneous combustion; 4.3 = substance which in contact with water emits flammable gases; 5.1 = oxidizing substance; 6.1 = toxic; 7 = radioactive; 8 = corrosive substance

 

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Chemical Name
CAS-Number

Colour/Form

Boiling Point (°C)

Melting Point (°C)

Molecular Weight

Solubility in Water

Relative Density (water=1)

Relative Vapour Density (air=1)

Vapour Pressure/ (Kpa)

Inflam.
Limits

Flash Point (°C)

Auto Ignition Point (°C)

ANTHRACENE
120-12-7

monoclinic plates from alcohol recrystallization; when pure, colourless with violet fluorescence; when crystallized from benzene, colourless, lustrous plates are formed which exhibit a blue fluorescence; yellow crystals with blue fluorescence

342

218

178.22

insol

@ 25 °C

6.15

@ 145 °C

0.6 ll
? ul

121 cc

540

BENZ(a)ANTHRACENE
56-55-3

colourless/ plates recrystallized from glacial acetic acid or alcohol

400

162

228.3

@ 25 °C

5x10- 9 torr

BENZO(g,h,i)FLUOR­ANTHENE
203-12-3

crystals

149

insol

<10 Pa

BENZO(g,h,i)PERYLENE
191-24-2

large, pale yellow-green plates (recrystallized from xylene)

550

277

276.3

insol

@ 25 °C

BENZO(k)FLUORAN­THENE
207-08-9

pale yellow needles from benzene

480

217

252.3

insol

9.59x10- 11 torr

BENZO(a)PYRENE
50-32-8

pale yellow monoclinic needles from benzene & methanol; crystals may be monoclinic or orthorhombic; yellowish plates (from benzene and ligroin)

>360

179-179.3

252.30

insol

1.351

8.7

>1 mm Hg

BENZO(b)FLUORANTHENE
205-99-2

needles (recrystallized from benzene), colourless needles (recrystallized from toluene or glacial acetic acid)

168

252.3

insol

<10 Pa

CHRYSENE
218-01-9

red blue fluorescent rhombic plates from benzene, acetic acid; orthorhombic bipyramidal plates from benzene; colourless platelets with blue fluorescence

448

255-256

228.28

insol

1.274

6.3x
10- 7 mm Hg

DIBENZ(a,h)ACRIDINE
226-36-8

yellow crystals

228

279.35

DIBENZ(a,h)ANTHRA­CENE
53-70-3

colourless plates or leaflets recrystallized from acetic acid; solution in concentrated sulfuric acid is red; crystals may be monoclinic or orthorhombic

524

266

278.33

insol

1.282

1x
10- 10 mm Hg

DIBENZ(a,j)ACRIDINE
224-42-0

yellow needles or prisms

216

279.35

DIBENZO(a,e)PYRENE
192-65-4

pale yellow needles in xylene; yellow-red in concn sulfuric acid solution

234

302.4

DIBENZO(a,h)PYRENE
189-64-0

golden yellow plates from xylene or trichlorobenzene; in
H2SO4 solution has red colour, changing later into violet or blue

308

302.38

DIBENZO(ai)PYRENE
189-55-9

greenish-yellow needles, prisms or lamellae

@ 0.05 mm Hg

281

302.4

2.39x
10- 14 mm ­Hg

DIBENZOFURAN
132-64-9

leaf or needles from alcohol; white crystals; crystalline solid

287

168.19

@ 25 °C

@ 99 °C/4 °C

5.8

@ 25 °C

FLUORANTHENE
206-44-0

coloured needles; pale yellow needles or plates from alcohol

375

111

202.2

insol

@ 0 °C/4 °C

0.01 mm Hg

NAPHTHACENE
83-32-9

white needles; orthorhombic bipyramidal needles from alcohol

279

95

154.21

insol

1.0242 at 90 °C/4 °C

5.32

10 mm Hg at 131.2 °C

PHENANTHRENE
85-01-8

monoclinic plates from alcohol; colourless shining crystals; leaflets

340

101

178.22

insol

@ 4 °C

6.15

@ 118.2 °C

171 oc

PYRENE
129-00-0

monoclinic prismatic tablets from alcohol or by sublimation; pure pyrene is colourless; pale yellow plates (when recrystallized from toluene); colourless solid (tetracene impuritites give yellow colour)

393

156

202.2

insol

@ 23 º C

@ 20 º C

 

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Tuesday, 09 August 2011 01:21

Isocyanates: Chemical Identification

Written by

Chemical Formula

Chemical

Synonyms
UN Code

CAS-Number

3173533

CYCLOHEXYL ISOCYANATE

Isocyanic acid, cyclohexyl ester;
Cyclohexane, isocyanato-;
Isocyanatocyclohexane
UN2488

3173-53-3

91930

DIANISIDINE DIISOCYANATE

1,1'-Biphenyl, 4,4'-diisocyanato-3,3'-dimethoxy-;
4,4'-Diisocyanato-3,3'-dimethoxy-­1,1'-biphenyl;
3,3'-Dimethoxybenzidine-4,4'-diisocyanate;
Isocyanic acid, 3,3'-dimethoxy-4,4'-biphenylene ester

91-93-0

109900

ETHYL ISOCYANATE

Isocyanic acid, ethyl ester;
Isocyanatoethane
UN2481

109-90-0

822060

HEXAMETHYLENE DIISOCYANATE

Desmodur H;
Desmodur N;
Hexamethylene diisocyanate ;
Hexamethylene-1,6-diisocyanate;
1,6-Hexamethylene diisocyanate;
1,6-Hexanediol diisocyanate;
HMDI;
Tl 78
UN2281

822-06-0

7046619

ISOCYANIC ACID, NITROIMINODIETHYLENEDI-

3-Nitro-3-azapentane-1,5-diisocyanate;
Nitroiminodiethylenediisocyanic acid

7046-61-9

4098719

ISOPHORONE DIISOCYANATE

Cyclohexane, 5-isocyanato-1-(isocyanatom­ethyl)-1,3,3-trimethyl-;
IPDI;
3-Isocyanatomethyl-3,5,5-Trimethylcyclohexylisocyanate;
Isocyanic acid, methylene(3,5,5-trimethyl-3,1-­cyclohexylene) ester;
Isophorone diamine diisocyanate
UN2906
UN2290

4098-71-9

101688

METHYLENE BISPHENYL ISOCYANATE

Isocyanic acid, methylenedi-p-phenylene ester;
Bis(p-isocyanatophenyl)methane;
Caradate 30;
Desmodur 44;
Diphenylmethane 4,4'-diisocyanate;
Diphenylmethane diisocyanate;
Hylene M 50;
Isonate;
Isonate 125M;
4,4'-Methylenebis(phenyl isocyanate)
UN2489

101-68-8

624839

METHYL ISOCYANATE

Isocyanic acid, methyl ester;
Iso-cyanatomethane;
MIC
UN2480

624-83-9

3173726

1,5-NAPHTHALENE DIISOCYANATE

1,5-Diisocyanatonaphthalene;
Isocyanic acid, 1,5-naphthylene ester ;
1,5-Naphthalene diisocyanate;
Naphthalene, 1,5-diisocyanato-

3173-72-6

103719

PHENYL ISOCYANATE

Benzene, isocyanato-;
Mondur P;
Phenylcarbimide;
Phenyl carbonimide
UN2487

103-71-9

26471625

TOLUENE DIISOCYANATE

Benzene-, 1,3-diisocyanatomethyl-;
Desmodur t100;
Diisocyanatomethylbenzene;
Diisocyanatotoluene;
Hylene-T;
Isocyanic acid, methylphenylene ester;
Mondur-TD;
Nacconate-100;
Niax isocyanate TDI
UN2078

26471-62-5

584849

TOLUENE-2,4-DIISOCYANATE

Cresorcinol diisocyanate;
Desmodur T80;
Di-iso-cyanatoluene;
2,4-Diisocyanato-1-methylbenzene (9 CI);
2,4-Diisocyanatotoluene;
Hylene T;
Mondur TD;
Rubinate TDI 80;
20 TDI;
2,4-TDI;
TDI-80;
TDI

584-84-9

91087

TOLUENE-2,6-DIISOCYANATE

2,6-Diisocyanato-1-methylbenzene;
2,6-Diisocyanatotoluene;
Hylene TCPA;
Isocyanic acid, 2-Methyl-m-phenylene ester;
2-Methyl-m-phenylene diisocyanate;
2-Methyl-m-phenylene isocyanate;
Niax TDI;
Niax TDI-p;
2,6-TDI

91-08-7

 

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Tuesday, 09 August 2011 01:25

Isocyanates: Health Hazards

Written by

Chemical Name         CAS-Number

ICSC Short-Term Exposure

ICSC Long-Term Exposure

ICSC Routes of Exposure and Symptoms

US NIOSH Target Organs & Routes of Entry

US NIOSH Symptoms

CYCLOHEXYL ISOCYANATE     3173-53-3

eyes; skin; resp tract

skin

Inhalation: burning sensation, cough, laboured breathing, shortness of breath see ingestion

Skin: redness

Eyes: watering of eyes, redness, pain, blurred vision, severe deep burns

Ingestion: abdominal cramps, diarrhoea, vomiting

HEXAMETHYLENE DIISOCYANATE  822-06-0

eyes; skin; resp tract

skin

Inhalation: burning sensation, cough, laboured breathing, shortness of breath, sore throat

Skin: may be absorbed, redness, skin burns, blisters

Eyes: redness, pain, swelling of eyelids

Eyes; skin; resp sys Inh; ing; con

Irrit eyes, skin, resp sys; cough, dysp, bron, wheez, pulm edema, asthma; corn damage, skin blisters

ISOPHORONE DIISOCYANATE  4098-71-9

eyes; skin; resp tract

skin; lungs

Inhalation: cough, sore throat, symptoms may be delayed

Skin: redness

Eyes: redness

Eyes; skin; resp sys Inh; abs; ing; con

Irrit eyes, skin, resp sys; chest tight, dysp, cough, sore throat; bron, wheez, pulm edema; possible resp sens; asthma

METHYL ISOCYANATE     624-83-9

eyes; skin; resp tract; lungs

skin; lungs

Inhalation: cough, dizziness, laboured breathing, shortness of breath, sore throat, unconsciousness, vomiting

Skin: may be absorbed, skin burns, pain

Eyes: pain, loss of vision, severe deep burns

Ingestion: abdominal cramps, sore throat, vomiting

Resp sys; eyes; skin Inh; abs; ing; con

Irrit eyes, skin, nose, throat; resp sens, cough, pulm secretions, chest pain, dysp; asthma; eye, skin damage; in animals: pulm edema

METHYLENE BISPHENYL ISOCYANATE     101-68-8

eyes; skin; resp tract; lungs

skin

Inhalation: headache, nausea, shortness of breath, sore throat

Skin: redness

Eyes: pain, may cause corneal damage

Resp sys; eyes Inh; ing; con

Irrit eyes, nose, throat; resp sens, cough, pulm secretions, chest pain, dysp; asthma

1,5-NAPHTHYLENE DIISOCYANATE  3173-72-6

eyes; skin; resp tract

skin; lungs

Inhalation: cough, laboured breathing, sore throat

Skin: redness, pain

Eyes: redness, pain

Eyes, resp sys Inh; ing; con

Irrit eyes, nose, throat; resp sens, cough, pulm secretions, chest pain, dysp; asthma

TOLUENE-2,4-DIISOCYANATE  584-84-9

eyes; skin; resp tract; nose

skin; lungs

Eyes; resp sys; skin Inh; ing; con

Irrit eyes, skin, nose, throat; choke, paroxysmal cough; chest pain, retster soreness; nau, vomit, abdom pain; bron. Bronchospasm, pulm edema; dysp, asthma; conj, lac; derm, skin sens; (carc)

 

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Tuesday, 09 August 2011 01:26

Isocyanates: Physical & Chemical Hazards

Written by

Chemical Name
CAS-Number

Physical

Chemical

UN Class or Division / Subsidiary Risks

1,5-NAPHTYLENE DIISOCYANATE
3173-72-6

The substance decomposes on heating producing toxic fumes (nitrogen oxides)

METHYLENE BISPHENYL ISOCYANATE
101-68-8

The substance may polymerize due to heating above 204 °C or under the influence of temperatures above 204 °C. •On combustion, forms toxic and corrosive fumes including nitrogen oxides and hydrogen cyanide. •Reacts readily with water to form insoluble polyureas. •Reacts violently with acids, alcohols, amines, bases and oxidants causing fire and explosion hazard

6.1

CYCLOHEXYL ISOCYANATE
3173-53-3

The vapour is heavier than air and may travel along the ground; distant ignition possible

The substance may polymerize due to heating and under the influence of incompatible materials. •The substance decomposes on burning producing toxic fumes (nitrogen oxides). •Reacts with oxidants and strong bases, water, alcohol, acids and amines

6.1

ETHYL ISOCYANATE
109-90-0

3/ 6.1

HEXAMETHYLENE DIISOCYANATE
822-06-0

The substance will polymerize under the influence of temperatures above 93 °C. •On combustion, forms toxic and corrosive fumes including nitrogen oxides and hydrogen cyanide. •The substance decomposes on contact with water to form amine and polyureas. •Reacts violently with acids, alcohols, amines, bases and oxidants causing fire and explosion hazard. •Attacks copper

6.1

ISOPHORONE DIISOCYANATE
4098-71-9

The substance decomposes on heating producing toxic fumes (nitrogen oxides). •Reacts with oxidants, acids, alcohols, amines, amides, mercaptanes. •Attacks many metals, plastics, and rubber

6.1

METHYL ISOCYANATE
624-83-9

The vapour is heavier than air and may travel along the ground; distant ignition possible. •The vapour mixes well with air, explosive mixtures are easily formed

The substance may polymerize due to heating or under the influence of water and catalysts. •The substance decomposes on heating producing toxic gases (hydrogen cyanide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide). •Reacts with strong oxidants. •Reacts violently with water, acids, alcohols, amines, iron, steel, zinc, tin, copper (or alloys of these metals) causing fire and explosion hazard. •Attacks some forms of plastic, rubber and coatings

6.1/ 3

PHENYL ISOCYANATE
103-71-9

6.1

TOLUENE DIISOCYANATE
26471-62-5

6.1

TOLUENE-2,4-DIISOCYANATE
584-84-9

6.1

TOLUENE-2,6-DIISOCYANATE
91-08-7

6.1

For UN Class: 1.5 = very insensitive substances which have a mass explosion hazard; 2.1 = flammable gas; 2.3 = toxic gas; 3 = flammable liquid; 4.1 = flammable solid; 4.2 = substance liable to spontaneous combustion; 4.3 = substance which in contact with water emits flammable gases; 5.1 = oxidizing substance; 6.1 = toxic; 7 = radioactive; 8 = corrosive substance

 

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Chemical Name
CAS-Number

Colour/Form

Boiling Point (°C)

Melting Point (°C)

Molecular Weight

Solubility in Water

Relative Density (water=1)

Relative Vapour Density (air=1)

Vapour Pressure/ (Kpa)

Inflam.
Limits

Flash Point (°C)

Auto Ignition Point ( °C)

CYCLOHEXYL ISOCYANATE
3173-53-3

liquid

168

125.16

reacts

0.98

4.3

48 cc

DIANISIDINE DIISOCYANATE
91-93-0

grey to brown powder

112

296.30

ETHYL ISOCYANATE
109-90-0

60

71.1

insol

0.9031

HEXAMETHYLENE DIISOCYANATE
822-06-0

liquid

255

-67

168.2

reacts

1.0528

5.81

@ 25 °C

0.9 ll
9.5 ul

140 oc

454

ISOPHORONE DIISOCYANATE
4098-71-9

colourless to slightly yellow liquid

@ 10 torr

-60

222.32

reacts

1.062 g/ml

0.04 Pa

155-161

430

METHYLENE BISPHENYL ISOCYANATE
101-68-8

light-yellow, fused solid; crystals

@ 5 mm Hg

37

250.27

0.2 g/100 ml

@ 70 °C

8.6

196 cc

240

METHYL ISOCYANATE
624-83-9

colourless liquid

39.5

-45

57.1

v sol

0.9599

1.42

46.4

5.3 ll
26 ul

-7 cc

534

1,5-NAPHTYLENE DIISOCYANATE
3173-72-6

crystals

130

210.19

PHENYL ISOCYANATE
103-71-9

liquid

158-168

-30

119.12

@ 19.6 °C/4 °C

TOLUENE DIISOCYANATE
26471-62-5

clear colourless to pale yellow liquid

251

11-14

@ 25 °C

0.01 torr

TOLUENE-2,4-DIISO­CYANATE
584-84-9

a water-white liquid which turns straw-coloured on standing; clear to light yellow liquid or crystals; colourless to pale yellow, solid or liquid

251

20.5

174.15

reacts

1.2244

6.0

1.3 Pa

0.9 ll
9.5 ul

132 cc

620

TOLUENE-2,6-DIISO­CYANATE
91-08-7

@ 18 mm Hg

 

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Tuesday, 09 August 2011 01:51

Ketones: Chemical Identification

Written by

Chemical Formula

Chemical

Synonyms
UN Code

CAS-Number

67641

ACETONE

Dimethylformaldehyde;
Dimethylketal;
Dimethyl ketone;
Ketone propane;
Methyl ketone;
Propanone;
2-Propanone
UN1090
UN1091

67-64-1

98862

ACETOPHENONE

Acetylbenzene;
Benzoyl methide;
Dymex;
Ethanone, hypnon;
Hypnone;
Methyl phenyl ketone;
1-Phenylethanone;
Phenyl methyl ketone

98-86-2

506967

ACETYL BROMIDE

Acetic acid, bromide;
Ethanoyl bromide
UN1716

506-96-7

75365

ACETYL CHLORIDE

Acetic acid, chloride;
Acetic chloride;
Ethanoyl chloride
UN1717

75-36-5

119619

BENZOPHENONE

Benzoylbenzene;
Diphenyl ketone;
Diphenylmethanone;
Ketone, diphenyl;
a-Oxodiphenylmethane;
a-Oxoditane;
Phenyl ketone

119-61-9

106514

p-BENZOQUINONE

1,4-Benzoquine;
Benzoquinone;
Cyclohexadienedione;
1,4-Cyclohexadienedione;
2,5-Cyclohexadiene-1,4-dione;
1,4-Cyclohexadiene dioxide;
1,4-Dioxybenzene
UN2587

106-51-4

598312

1-BROMO-2-PROPANONE

Acetonyl Bromide;
Acetyl methyl bromide;
Bromomethyl methyl ketone;
Bromo-2-propanone;
Bromoacetone
UN1569

598-31-2

532274

2-CHLOROACETOPHENONE

a-Chloroacetophenone;
1-Chloroacetophenone;
Chloromethyl phenyl ketone
UN1679

532-27-4

79049

CHLORACETYL CHLORIDE

Chloroacetic acid chloride;
Monochloroacetyl chloride
UN1752

79-04-9

78955

1-CHLORO-2-PROPANONE

Acetonyl chloride;
Chloroacetone;
1-Chloro-2-ketopropane;
1-Chloro-2-oxopropane;
Chloropropanone;
Monochloroacetone
UN1695

78-95-5

108941

CYCLOHEXANONE

Cyclohexyl ketone;
Hytrol O;
Ketohexamethylene;
Nadone
UN1915

108-94-1

120923

CYCLOPENTANONE

Adipic ketone;
Dumasin;
Ketocyclopentane;
Ketopentamethylene
UN2245

120-92-3

123422

DIACETONE

Diacetone alcohol;
Diketone alcohol;
4-Hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone
UN1148

123-42-2

79367

DICHLORACETYL CHLORIDE

a, a-Dichloroacetyl chloride;
2,2-Dichloroacetyl chloride;
Dichloroethanoyl chloride
UN1765

79-36-7

96220

DIETHYL KETONE

DEK;
3-Pentanone;
Dimethylacetone;
Metacetone;
Methacetone;
Propione
UN1156

96-22-0

674828

DIKETENE

3-Buteno-beta-lactone;
Diketene, dimer;
4-Methylene-2-oxetanone;
2-oxetanone, 4-Methylene;
4-Methoxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone
UN2521

674-82-8

108838

2,6-DIMETHYL-4-HEPTANONE

Diisobutyl ketone;
sym-Diisopropylacetone;
Isobutyl ketone;
Isovalerone;
Valerone
UN1157

108-83-8

123193

DIPROPYL KETONE

Butyrone;
GBL;
4-Heptanone;
Heptan-4-one;
Propyl ketone
UN2710

123-19-3

106683

ETHYL AMYL KETONE

3-Octanone;
Amyl ethyl ketone;
EAK
UN2271

106-68-3

106354

ETHYL BUTYL KETONE

n-Ethyl butyl ketone, 3-heptanone

106-35-4

110134

2,5-HEXANEDIONE

Acetone, acetonyl-;
Acetonyl acetone;
Diacetonyl;
a, b-Diacetylethane;
1,2-Diacetylethane;
2,5-Diketohexane

110-13-4

78591

ISOPHORONE

Isoacetophorone;
Isoforon;
Isophoron;
1,1,3-Trimethyl-3-cyclohexene-5-one;
3,5,5-Trimethyl-2-cyclohexene-1-one;
3,3,5-Trimethyl-5-cyclohexen-1-one

78-59-1

463514

KETENE

Carbomethene;
Ethenone;
Keto-ethylene

463-51-4

141797

MESITYL OXIDE

Acetone, isopropylidene;
Isobutenyl methyl ketone;
Isopropylidene acetone;
4-Methyl-3-pentene-2-one
UN1229

141-79-7

107700

4-METHOXY-4-METHYL-2-PENTANONE

UN2293

107-70-0

110430

METHYL AMYL  KETONE

Amyl methyl ketone;
2-Heptanone;
n-Amyl methyl ketone;
Methyl pentyl ketone
UN1110

110-43-0

591786

METHYL BUTYL KETONE

2-Hexanone;
Butyl-methyl ketone, 2-Oxohexane;
MBK

591-78-6

583608

2-METHYLCYCLOHEXANONE

o-Methylcyclohexanone

583-60-8

78933

METHYL ETHYL KETONE

2-Butanone ;
Butanone;
3-Butanone;
MEK;
Methyl acetone;
Ethyl methyl ketone
UN1193

78-93-3

541855

5-METHYL-3-HEPTANONE

Ethyl-sec-amyl ketone;
Ethyl amyl ketone ;
3-Methyl-5-heptanone

541-85-5

110123

5-METHYL-2-HEXANONE

Isoamyl methyl ketone;
Isopentyl methyl ketone;
2-Methyl-5-hexanone;
Methyl isoamyl ketone;
MIAK
UN2302

110-12-3

108101

METHYL ISOBUTYL KETONE

Hexone;
Isopropylacetone;
2-Pentanone, 4-methyl-;
2-Methyl-4-pentanone;
4-Methyl-2-pentanone;
MIBK;
MIK
UN1245

108-10-1

563804

METHYL ISOPROPYL KETONE

2-Acetyl propane;
3-Methyl-2-butanone;
Methyl isopropyl ketone;
MIPK
UN2397

563-80-4

107879

METHYL PROPYL KETONE

Ethyl acetone;
Methyl-N-propyl ketone;
2-Pentanone;
Metylopropyloketon

107-87-9

78944

METHYLVINYL KETONE

Acetone, methylene;
Acetyl ethylene;
3-Butene-2-one;
Butenone;
Ketone, methyl vinyl
UN1251

78-94-4

100641

OXIME CYCLOHEXANONE

(Hydroxyimino)cyclohexane

100-64-1

123546

2,4-PENTANEDIONE

Acetoacetone;
Acetylacetone;
Acetyl 2-propanone;
Diacetylmethane;
Pentanedione
UN2310

123-54-6

 

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Tuesday, 09 August 2011 01:52

Ketones: Health Hazards

Written by

Chemical Name         

 CAS-Number

ICSC Short-Term Exposure

ICSC Long-Term Exposure

ICSC Routes of Exposure and Symptoms

US NIOSH Target Organs & Routes of Entry

US NIOSH Symptoms

ACETONE          67-64-1

eyes; resp tract; CNS; liver; kidneys; stomach

skin; CNS; blood cells

Inhalation: salivation, confusion, cough, dizziness, drowsiness, headache, red head, sore throat, unconsciousness

Skin: redness

Eyes: redness, pain, blurred vision, possible corneal damage

Ingestion: nausea, vomiting.

Resp sys; skin; eyes; CNS Inh; ing; con

Irrit eyes, nose, throat; head, dizz, CNS depres; derm

ACETYL BROMIDE     506-96-7

resp tract; skin

Inhalation: cough, sore throat, shortness of breath, laboured breathing, symptoms of delayed effects

Skin: redness, pain, skin burns

Eyes: pain, redness, blurred vision, severe deep burns

Ingestion: burning sensation, abdominal cramps, vomiting.

BENZOPHENONE     119-61-9

eyes; skin; resp tract; CNS

Inhalation: sore throat

Skin: redness

Eyes: redness

p-BENZOQUINONE     106-51-4

eyes; skin; resp tract; CNS; liver; kidneys

skin; resp tract; liver; kidneys

Inhalation: burning sensation, cough, nose bleeds, laboured breathing, shortness of breath, sore throat

Skin: may be absorbed; redness, pain, brown staining, blister

Eyes: redness, pain, loss of vision, brown staining

Ingestion: abdominal pain, burning sensation, diarrhoea, vomiting, death.

Eyes; skin Inh; ing; con

Eye irrit; conj; kera; skin irrit

1-CHLORO-2-PROPANONE     78-95-5

eyes; skin; resp tract; lungs

skin

Inhalation: cough, burning sensation, laboured breathing, sore throat

Skin: may be absorbed, redness, skin burns, burning sensation, pain, delayed effects: blisters

Eyes: redness, pain, blurred vision.

2-CHLOROACETOPHENONE     532-27-4

eyes; skin; resp tract; CNS

skin

Inhalation: burning sensation of chest, cough, headache, laboured breathing, shortness of breath, vomiting, wheezing

Skin: redness, pain

Eyes: redness, pain, blurred vision, permanent partial loss of vision

Ingestion: unconsciousness, loss of reflexes.

Resp sys; skin; eyes Inh; ing; con

Irrit eyes, skin, resp sys; pulm edema

CYCLOHEXANONE     108-94-1

eyes; resp tract; skin

Inhalation: cough, dizziness, drowsiness, dullness, sore throat, unconsciousness

Skin: may be absorbed, dry skin, redness

Eyes: Lacrimation, redness, pain, opacity of the cornea

Ingestion: abdominal pain, burning sensation, drowsiness, dullness, unconsciousness.

Eyes; skin; resp sys; CNS; liver; kidneys

Irrit eyes; skin; muc memb; head; narco; coma; derm; in animals: liver, kidney damage

CYCLOPENTANONE     120-92-3

eyes; skin; resp tract

skin

Inhalation: cough, sore throat

Skin: redness

Eyes: redness, pain.

DIACETONE       123-42-2

Eyes; skin; resp sys; CNS; liver Inh; ing; con

Irrit eyes, skin, nose, throat; corn damage; in animals: narco, liver damage

DICHLORACETYL CHLORIDE     79-36-7

eyes; skin; upper resp tract

Inhalation: burning sensation , cough, laboured breathing

Skin: redness, pain, blisters

Eyes: redness, pain, severe deep burns

Ingestion: abdominal cramps, burning sensation, weakness.

DIETHYL KETONE           96-22-0

eyes; skin; resp tract; lungs

lungs

Inhalation: cough , shortness of breath

Skin: redness

Eyes: redness.

Resp sys; eyes; skin Inh; ing; con

Irrit eyes, skin, muc memb, resp sys; cough, sneez

DIKETENE         674-82-8

Inhalation: cough, headache, shortness of breath, dizziness, dullness

Skin: dry skin, redness, pain

Eyes: redness, pain

Ingestion: abdominal cramps, dizziness, dullness, headache.

2,6-DIMETHYL-4-HEPTANONE      108-83-8

eyes; resp tract; lungs

skin; liver; kidneys

Inhalation: headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, sore throat

Skin: redness, numbness

Eyes: redness

Eyes; skin; resp sys; CNS; liver; kidneys Inh; ing; con

Irrit eyes, skin, nose, throat; head, dizz; derm; liver, kidney damage

ETHYL BUTYL KETONE     106-35-4

eyes; skin; resp tract

skin; liver; kidneys

Inhalation: headache, dizziness, sore throat, unconsciousness

Skin: redness

Eyes: redness, pain.

Resp sys; eyes; skin; CNS Inh; ing; con

Irrit eyes, skin, muc memb; head, narco, coma; derm

ISOPHORONE    78-59-1

eyes; skin

skin

Eyes; skin; resp sys; CNS; liver; kidneys Inh; ing; con

Irrit eyes, nose, throat; head, nau, dizz, ftg, mal, narco; derm; in animals: kidney, liver damage

KETENE            463-51-4

Inhalation: cough, shortness of breath

Skin: redness

Eyes: redness.

Eyes, skin, resp sys Inh; con

Irrit eyes, skin, nose, throat, resp sys; pulm edema

METHYL AMYL KETONE     110-43-0

Eyes: Inhalation: headache, dizziness, blurred vision, unconsciousnessredness.

Eyes; skin; resp sys; CNS; PNS Inh; ing; con

Irrit eyes, skin, muc memb; head, narco, coma; derm

METHYL BUTYL KETONE     591-78-6

eyes; skin; resp tract

Inhalation: cough, drowsiness, headache, unconsciousness

Skin: may be absorbed, dry skin, redness

Eyes: redness, pain, blurred vision

Ingestion: abdominal pain, diarrhoea, nausea, sore throat.

2-METHYLCYCLOHEXANONE     583-60-8

eyes; skin; resp tract; CNS

skin; CNS

CNS; skin; resp sys; liver; kidneys Inh; abs; ing; con

In animals: irrit eyes, muc memb; narco; derm

METHYL ETHYL KETONE 78-93-3

Eyes; skin; resp sys; CNS Inh; ing; con

Irrit eyes, skin, nose; head, dizz; vomit; derm

5-METHYL-3-HEPTANONE     541-85-5

eyes; skin; resp tract; lungs

skin

Eyes; skin; resp sys; CNS

Irrit eyes, skin, muc memb; head, narco, coma; derm

5-METHYL-2-HEXANONE     110-12-3

eyes; skin; resp tract

skin; eyes

Inhalation: headache, dizziness, drowsiness

Skin: redness

Eyes: redness

Ingestion: nausea, vomiting.

Eyes; skin; resp sys; CNS; liver; kidneys Inh; ing; con

Irrit eyes, skin, muc memb; head, narco, coma; derm; in animals: liver, kidney damage

METHYL ISOBUTYL KETONE     108-10-1

eyes; skin; resp tract; CNS

skin; thymus; lungs; brain; nasal passage

Inhalation: burning sensation, diarrhoea, headache, nausea, sore throat, unconsciousness, vomiting, weakness

Skin: dry skin, burning sensation

Eyes: redness, pain.

Eyes; skin; resp sys; CNS; PNS Inh; abs; ing; con

Irrit eyes, nose; peri neur; weak, pares; derm; head, drow

METHYL ISOPROPYL KETONE            563-80-4

Inhalation: cough, headache, sore throat, weakness

Skin: may be absorbed

Eyes: redness

Ingestion: nausea, vomiting .

Eyes; skin; resp sys Inh; ing; con

Irrit eyes, skin, muc memb, resp sys; cough

METHYL PROPYL KETONE     107-87-9

eyes; skin; resp tract; CNS

skin; liver; kidneys; blood

Inhalation: dullness, drowsiness

Skin: dry skin, redness

Eyes: redness, pain

Ingestion: nausea, vomiting.

Eyes; skin; resp sys; CNS Inh; ing; con

Irrit eyes, skin, muc memb; head; derm; narco, coma

2,4-PENTANEDIONE     123-54-6

eyes; skin; resp tract

skin

Inhalation: dizziness, drowsiness, headache, laboured breathing, nausea, vomiting, ataxia and tremors

Skin: may be absorbed, redness

Eyes: Redness, pain

Ingestion: diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting, weakness, ataxia.

Resp sys eyes; skin; CNS

 

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Tuesday, 09 August 2011 01:54

Ketones: Physical & Chemical Hazards

Written by

Chemical Name
CAS-Number

Physical

Chemical

Subsidiary Risks

ACETONE
67-64-1

The vapour is heavier than air and may travel along the ground; distant ignition possible

The substance can form explosive peroxides on contact with strong oxidants • Attacks many plastics

3

ACETYL BROMIDE
506-96-7

The substance decomposes on heating producing toxic and corrosive fumes • Reacts violently with water and alcohols, causing fire and explosion hazard

ACETYL-CHLORIDE
75-36-5

3

BENZOPHENONE
119-61-9

Reacts with strong oxidants

p-BENZOQUINONE
106-51-4

Dust explosion possible if in powder or granular form, mixed with air • If dry, it can be charged elecrostatically by swirling, pneumatic transport, pouring, etc

Reacts with strong oxidants causing fire and explosion hazard • Reacts violently with strong bases • Above 60 ºC when moist, is self-heating and decomposes giving off toxic gases (carbon monoxide)

6.1

2-CHLOROACETOPHENONE
532-27-4

On combustion, forms toxic and corrosive vapours • The substance decomposes on heating producing corrosive gas (hydrogen chloride)

1-CHLORO-2-PROPANONE
78-95-5

The substance polymerizes slowly under the influence of light • On combustion, forms toxic and corrosive gases (carbon oxides, hydrogen chloride, phosgene) • Reacts with strong oxidants

CYCLOHEXANONE
108-94-1

The vapour is heavier than air and may travel along the ground; distant ignition possible

On combustion, forms carbon monoxide • Reacts with oxidants and nitric acid causing fire and explosion hazard

3

CYCLOPENTANONE
120-92-3

The vapour is heavier than air

The substance easily polymerizes under the influence of acids • On combustion, forms toxic gases (carbon oxides) • Reacts with acids

3

DIACETONE
123-42-2

3

DICHLORACETYL CHLORIDE
79-36-7

The substance decomposes on heating, on contact with moisture, alkali metal, earth alkali metal, metal powder, producing hydrogen chloride, phosgene, causing fire and explosion hazard • Reacts with strong oxidants, alcohols, water • Attacks many metals forming combustible gas

DIETHYL KETONE
96-22-0

The vapour is heavier than air and may travel along the ground; distant ignition possible • The vapour mixes well with air; explosive mixtures are easily formed

Reacts violently with oxidants causing fire and explosion hazard • Attacks many plastics

3

DIKETENE
674-82-8

3

2,6-DIMETHYL-4-HEPTANONE
108-83-8

Reacts with oxidants • Attacks some forms of plastics

3

DIPROPYL KETONE
123-19-3

3

ETHYL AMYL KETONE
106-68-3

3

KETENE
463-51-4

The gas is heavier than air and may travel along the ground; distant ignition possible

The substance may readily polymerize • Reacts violently with many organic compounds • Reacts with water to form acetic acid • Decomposes in alcohol and ammonia

MESITYL OXIDE
141-79-7

The substance can presumably form explosive peroxides • Reacts violently with strong oxidants • Attacks many plastics

3

4-METHOXY-4-METHYL-2-PENTANONE
107-70-0

3

METHYL AMYL KETONE
110-43-0

Reacts with oxidizing materials • Attacks some forms of plastics

3

METHYL BUTYL KETONE
591-78-6

Reacts violently with oxidants and may form unstable peroxides • Attacks plastics

METHYL ETHYL KETONE
78-93-3

3

5-METHYL-2-HEXANONE
110-12-3

3

METHYL ISOBUTYL KETONE
108-10-1

The vapour is heavier than air and may travel along the ground; distant ignition possible

The substance can presumably form explosive peroxides • On combustion, forms carbon monoxide

3

METHYL ISOPROPYL KETONE
563-80-4

The vapour is heavier than air and may travel along the ground; distant ignition possible

The substance decomposes on heating producing acrid smoke and toxic fumes • Reacts violently with strong oxidants

3

METHYL PROPYL KETONE
107-87-9

The vapour mixes well with air; explosive mixtures are easily formed

Can react vigorously with oxidizing agents

3

2,4-PENTANEDIONE
123-54-6

The vapour is heavier than air

The substance may polymerize under the influence of the light • On combustion, forms toxic carbon oxides • Reacts with strong oxidants, bases and reducing agents

For UN Class: 1.5 = very insensitive substances which have a mass explosion hazard; 2.1 = flammable gas; 2.3 = toxic gas; 3 = flammable liquid; 4.1 = flammable solid; 4.2 = substance liable to spontaneous combustion; 4.3 = substance which in contact with water emits flammable gases; 5.1 = oxidizing substance; 6.1 = toxic; 7 = radioactive; 8 = corrosive substance

 

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Tuesday, 09 August 2011 02:03

Ketones: Physical & Chemical Properties

Written by

Chemical Name
CAS-Number

Colour/Form

Boiling Point (°C)

Melting Point (°C)

Molecular Weight

Solubility in Water

Relative Density (water=1)

Relative Vapour Density (air=1)

Vapour Pressure/ (Kpa)

Inflam.
Limits

Flash Point (°C)

Auto Ignition Point ( °C)

ACETONE
67-64-1

colourless liquid

56.2

-95.35

58.08

misc

0.7899

2.0

2.15 ll
13.0 ul

-20

465

ACETOPHENONE
98-86-2

monoclinic prisms or plates; slightly oily liquid; colourless liquid; liquid forms laminar crystals at low temperature

202

20.5

120.16

insol

@ 15(°C)/15 °C

4.14

@ 25 °C

82 oc

570

ACETYL BROMIDE
506-96-7

colourless liquid

76

-96

122.96

sol

@ 9 °C

@ 21

BENZOPHENONE
119-61-9

white crystals

305

49

182.2

insol

1.1

p-BENZOQUINONE
106-51-4

yellow monoclinic prisms from water or petroleum ether; greenish-yellowish solid

115.7

108.09

sl sol

@ 20 °C/4 °C

3.7

@ 25 °C

38-93 cc

560

1-BROMO-2-PRO­PANONE
598-31-2

colourless liquid; rapidly becomes violet even in absence of air

137

-36.5

136.99

sl sol

@ 23 °C

4.75

1.20

1-CHLORO-2-PRO­PANONE
78-95-5

colourless liquid

119.7

-44.5

92.53

sol

@ 25 °C

40 oc

CHLORACETYL CHLORIDE
75-36-5

colourless to slightly yellow liquid

106

21.77

112.95

1.4202

2.35

2-CHLOROACETO­PHENONE
532-27-4

colourless to grey crystals

247

56.5

154.6

insol

@ 15 °C

5.3

< 10 Pa

118

CYCLOHEXANONE
108-94-1

oily liquid; water-white to pale yellow liquid

155.6

16.4

98.14

sol

@ 25 °C; 0.9478

3.4

@ 26.4 °C

1.1 ll
9.4 ul

63 cc

420

CYCLOHEXANONE OXIME
100-64-1

hexagonal prisms from petroleum ether

206-210

89-90

113.18

sol

CYCLOPENTANONE
120-92-3

water-white, mobile liquid

130.6

-51.3

84.12

insol

0.948

2.3

@ 25 °C

31cc

DIACETONE
123-42-2

colourless liquid

167.9

-44

116.16

misc

@ 25 °C

4.0

0.13

1.8 ll
6.9 ul

66 oc

acetone-free 603 com­mercial 643

DICHLORACETYL CHLORIDE
79-36-7

colourless to yellow fuming liquid

107 - 108

147.4

decomposes

1.53

5.09

3.06

11.9 ll
? ul

66

585

DIETHYL KETONE
96-22-0

colourless, mobile liquid

101.7

-39.8

86.13

v sol

0.814

3.0

@ 25 °C

1.6.

13 oc

452

DIKETENE
674-82-8

clear, colourless liquid when pure

127.4

-6.5

84.08

sol

1.0897

2.9

34 oc

2,6-DIMETHYL-4-HEP­TANONE
108-83-8

colourless liquid

168

- 42

142.2

insol

0.805

4.9

0.23

@ 93 °C ul

49 cc

396

DIPROPYL KETONE
123-19-3

144

-33

114.18

insol

1.407

ETHYL AMYL KETONE
106-68-3

167.5

128.21

insol

@

ETHYL BUTYL KETONE
106-35-4

clear liquid

@ 765 mm Hg

-39

114.21

insol

0.8183

@ 25 °C

46 oc

2,5-HEXANEDIONE
110-13-4

194

-5.5

114.4

v sol

0.737

ISOPHORONE
78-59-1

water-clear liquid

@ 754 mm Hg

-8.1

138.2

sl sol

0.9229

4.77

@ 25 °C

0.8 ll
3.8 ul

84 cc

460

KETENE
463-51-4

colourless gas

- 56

-150

42.0

reacts

1.4

Flammable gas

MESITYL OXIDE
141-79-7

The substance can presumably form explosive peroxides • Reacts violently with strong oxidants • Attacks many plastics

3

4-METHOXY-4-ME­THYL-2-PENTANONE
107-70-0

water-white liquid

147-163

130.21

v sol

@ 25 °C

METHYL AMYL KETONE
110-43-0

water-white liquid

151.5

-35.5

114.18

v sol

@ 15 °C; 0.8068

3.9

@ 25 °C

@ 66 °C ll

39 cc

393

METHYL BUTYL KETONE
591-78-6

colourless liquid

128

-57

100.16

sl sol

0.8113

3.5

@ 25 °C

1.3 ll
8.0 ul

25 cc

423

2-METHYLCYCLO HEXANONE
583-60-8

112.19

METHYL ETHYL KETONE
78-93-3

colourless liquid

79.6

-86.3

72.10

v sol

0.805

2.41

10.33

@ 93 °C ul

-9 cc

404

5-METHYL-3-HEP­TANONE
541-85-5

colourless liquid

157-162

128.24

insol in water

0.820-0.824 /20 °C

@ 0.27

59

5-METHYL-2-HEXANONE
110-12-3

colourless liquid

144

73.9

114.21

sl sol

0.888 /20 °C

3.9

0.60

@ 93 °C ul

36 cc

191

METHYL ISOBUTYL KETONE
108-10-1

colourless liquid

116.8

-84.7

100.16

sl sol

0.7978

3.5

2.09

@ 93 °C ul

24 oc

460

METHYL ISOPROPYL KETONE
563-80-4

colourless liquid

94

- 92

86.1

sl sol

0.8

3.46

@ 29.6 °C

1.2 ll
8.2 ul

3

456

METHYL PROPYL KETONE
107-87-9

colourless liquid

101.7

-77.8

86.13

sl sol

0.805

3.0

@ 25 °C

1.5 ll
8.2 ul

70 cc

505

METHYLVINYL KETONE
78-94-4

colourless liquid

81.4

-7

70.09

sol

@ 25 °C

2.41

@ 25 °C

2.1 ll
15.6 ul

-7 cc

491

2,4-PENTANEDIONE
123-54-6

colourless or slightly yellow liquid

@ 746 mm Hg

-23

100.12

v sol

@ 25 °C

3.5

0.39

2.4 ll
11.6 ul

34 cc

335

 

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